lampkin 2006 SCOF EISfOM Recommendations

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Project review and recommendations for SCOF: 

Project review and recommendations for SCOF Nicolas Lampkin University of Wales, Aberystwyth (Project co-ordinator) Archived at

An EU-FP5 (2003-2006) project which: 

An EU-FP5 (2003-2006) project which Covered farm, trade and consumer level data Reviewed state of organic data in 32 countries Identified development needs/harmonisation opportunities Evaluated innovative national level pilot projects Proposed recommendations to Brussels seminar Nov-05 Prepared final recommendations in consultation with EU Commission (DG Agri, Eurostat)

Need for organic production/market data: 

Need for organic production/market data For producers to assess costs of conversion For the market to achieve transparent price setting with knowledge of costs and levels of production For control bodies/authorities to estimate output levels for traceability and fraud prevention For policy-makers to set support levels and allocate resources for policy support (action plan targets) For researchers to evaluate policy, economic and other issues and project future trends

The need is recognised …: 

The need is recognised … Increasing Eurostat, DG Agri, EEA and MS activity The EU organic action plan and several national action plans include the need to develop organic statistics/market information systems Article 30 of the draft revision of CR 2092/91 includes requirement for member states to deliver data But …

... still some way to go: 

... still some way to go EISfOM project review (D2, Wolfert et al., 2004) and Berlin seminar proceedings (Recke et al., 2004) found: Statistics poorly developed or non-existent in many countries Some good practice examples in a few countries Limited international collaboration and harmonisation Level of investment in statistics and market information does not reflect size of sector

Significance of organic farming in EU/CH: 

Significance of organic farming in EU/CH > 6 million ha (av. 4% UAA, range 1-15%) > 160,000 holdings (2%) and 20-30,000 other businesses are engaged with the organic sector > 500,000 people earning a living from organic food and farming. Consumers spending up to €15 billion annually Demand growing up to 10% annually, 50% in some cases Policy-makers investing up to €1 billion annually Action plans typically targeting 10-20% UAA organic by 2010.

Sources of organic production data: 

Sources of organic production data Holdings, land use, crops areas, livestock nos. National statistics Member state reporting to EU Commission under EU Reg 2092/91 (usually subset of national data) Farm structure survey Agri-environment scheme monitoring Potentially IACS, livestock movements etc. No coherent system for estimating production quantities

Problems with Farm Structure Survey: 

Problems with Farm Structure Survey Full census 2000, 2010; sample surveys in 2003, 2005, 2007 Organic holdings identified, but Imprecise definition of organic Mixed status holdings Organic samples in intermediate years not representative Small holdings excluded in some countries But – important source of supplementary information not available from control bodies

Problems with administrative (2092/91) data: 

Problems with administrative (2092/91) data Non-standardised land use classification system Inconsistent definitions of holdings Variable quality of recording systems Gaps in data Reliant on ‘voluntary’ collaboration of control bodies

Recommendations for production data: 

Recommendations for production data Integrate FSS and administrative data classification and holding identification systems Impose legal requirement (at MS level?) on control bodies to deliver data to required standard, possibly with financial support Develop system for combining data sources Find solution to FSS problem of product identification on mixed status holdings

Sources of organic farm financial data: 

Sources of organic farm financial data Consultants working with producers (e.g. benchmark data, Farm Management Handbooks) Research projects (EU or national funded) (e.g. Offermann and Nieberg OFCAP/EU-CEE-OFP) National farm accounts surveys (e.g. LEI, Agrarbericht) EU-FADN since 2000 (holdings with organic identifier, but not full sample of available data)

Problems with organic farm financial data: 

Problems with organic farm financial data Recruitment Comparability of definitions Identification, especially mixed status holdings Small sample size, non-representative Classification based on conventional SGMs Comparisons with conventional farms Limited availability of time series data Significance of farming-related activities, e.g. agro-tourism, processing

Recommendations for financial data: 

Recommendations for financial data Improve access to data/advice (treat farmer as main beneficiary of surveys) Modify definition to certified in accordance with EU Reg. 2092/91 Introduce coding system to identify management status of individual products Over-sampling within organic stratum in national FADN Submission of full organic samples to EU-FADN Appropriate (national) weightings Prioritisation of key farm types Standardised approach to comparisons

Problems with price data: 

Problems with price data No EU-wide or national systems in most countries Commercially collected data not public Data too historical Immediate data needed for price transparency and efficient market functioning Historical data, e.g. from FADN, may be useful for research and policy evaluation Need to cover inputs, farm-gate, wholesale and consumer prices

Recommendations for price data: 

Recommendations for price data Build up network of national systems based on good practice examples like ZMP (DE) Needs motivated participants (quick return of useful data) Needs sufficiently differentiated classification system of products by type, use, pack size, marketing channels etc. Product classification issues also need to be addressed internationally (Eurostat/FAO) Prioritise key products where resources are limited

Sources of consumption data: 

Sources of consumption data Statistical data Household budget or Food expenditure surveys Some Eurostat initiatives with MS in 2004/5 Commercial market-research data E.g. TNS, GfK, AC Nielsen Consumer and retailer panel data Barcode/check-out data Focus on consumer motives/characteristics as well as purchasing behaviour and market size

Problems with consumption data: 

Problems with consumption data No standardised classification system for organic products (e.g. in COICOP) Long lead in times for inclusion in regular statistics Statistical data too historical for use by market actors Lack of comparability between, incomplete coverage and uncertain data quality of current commercial market research

Recommendations for consumption data: 

Recommendations for consumption data Establish an expert network including commercial market researchers (e.g. Europanel) Work with Europanel to define harmonised output data standards (consistent with CR 2092/91 and future developments by Eurostat and national authorities) Develop a pilot project to test the data harmonisation concept selecting countries with existing household panel data integrating main stakeholders utilising commercial market researchers for data collection

Sources of trade data: 

Sources of trade data Should be available as part of control system (within supply chains as well as imports/exports) Market research, for example OMIARD project (Hamm and Groneveld) International/National organic sector data reports Organic Monitor, Datamonitor etc. Some limited national statistics (e.g. Denmark, UK)

Problems with trade data: 

Problems with trade data Most problematic area as few good models exist In practice, control bodies do not collect and/or release data Intermediate use (e.g. animal feed) not captured Import approvals not always associated with quantities Organic not separately identified in trade statistics Businesses highly sensitive to commercial confidentiality issues Market research data quality is poor

Recommendations for trade data: 

Recommendations for trade data Legal requirement (at MS level?) on control bodies to collect/deliver data Support development of IT systems Use import authorisation process for import data collection Possibly initiate surveys of organic actors Long term develop separate identification for organic in trade statistics

Institutional structures: 

Institutional structures Central role for Eurostat and DG Agri as well as other parts of European Commission Model needs to integrate needs and contributions of stakeholders, as well as external expertise Develop an expert advisory group working with EU Commission and national official agencies Alternative option of EU Observatory or Organic Market Data Network building on national examples

Resourcing organic statistics: 

Resourcing organic statistics Reduce costs by adapting existing systems where possible Focus on priority products initially Potential for private sector contributions (sale of reports, subscriptions, levy funds, sponsorship from key retailers) National statistical and research funds, including CORE organic ERANET EU FW7, Eurostat

Conclusions – common themes: 

Conclusions – common themes Accurate identification of holdings and products Appropriate samples of organic holdings (size and representativity/weighting issues) Harmonisation of classification systems Prioritisation of key commodities and farm types Integration of experiences from stakeholders and researchers to support new initiatives by statistical agencies Evolution of existing systems (e.g. FSS, FADN) to provide organic data where possible Pilot projects where new systems required


Acknowledgement Financial support from the European Commission gratefully acknowledged. The views expressed are our own and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Commission, nor do they anticipate future policy in this area.

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