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Brown, M.D. Professor, Clinical Pediatrics & OB/Gyn The Ohio State College of Medicine & Pubic Health Chief, Adolescent Medicine Chidren’s Hospital Columbus, OH, USADOPING: DOPING Definition: the use and abuse of performance enhancing substances in elite sport. Derivation: from the Dutch word “dop”, a beverage that Zulu warriors used prior to battle. Term became current ~ start of 20th century in reference to illegal drugging of racehorsesDOPING - History: DOPING - History Egyptian slaves fed elixirs (likely from khat leaves) thought to relieve stress Greek athletes ate supposedly energy boosting substances prior to activity Slaves of the Incas worked better after chewing coca leaves A century ago, marathoners & cyclists used strychnine, and cyclists used caffeine, cocaine, and even alcohol for an advantage. DOPING - History: DOPING - History 1928 – IAAF bans doping (use of stimulants) 1935 - Isolation of testerone with subsequent creation of artificial anabolic steroids WW II - concentration camp survivors given testosterone and nandrolone to enhance recovery from starvation 1966 – FIFA (football) & UCI (cycling) introduce drug testing at championships DOPING - History: DOPING - History 1968 – drug testing first used in Olympic Games 1974 – reliable test for anabolic steroids introduced 1976 – IOC bans anabolic steroids 1979 – testing for illegal drugs by IOC begins DOPING - history: DOPING - history 1986 – IOC bans blood doping 1999 – World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) founded 2000 - first Olympics testing for EPO 2004 – BALCO indicted in the USA Motivations for Use of DOPING: Motivations for Use of DOPING To enhance performance Increased strength, endurance, alertness, aggression Decreased reaction time, fatigue, anxiety, muscle tremor Drive to win Financial incentives Belief that others are using PES (performance enhancing substances Coping with pain and injury rehabilitation Weight control Motivations for Use of Doping: Motivations for Use of Doping To alleviate stress & anxiety To relieve boredom To avoid dealing with personal problems To alleviate low self-confidence Lack of acknowledgment (DENIAL) of any harmful effects of PES PerfectionismMotivations for Use of Doping: Motivations for Use of Doping Peer pressure and acceptance Role models Social support Pressure from coaches/parents/advisors/national sports organizationsMotivations for DOPING: Elite vs. Adolescent Athletes: Motivations for DOPING: Elite vs. Adolescent Athletes World class athletes already are “genetic freaks”; they function at an elite level without PES, but to win against others at this level, they may resort to use of PES. Elite athletes use doping because it is the edge they feel they need to win at top levels of their sports. Adolescent athletes may use doping more due to peer/coach/parental pressure; ignorance of facts about PES; self-doubt; to avoid the hard work needed to succeed.Taking Doping to “The Next Level”: Taking Doping to “The Next Level” Low-oxygen living quarters Gene therapy for increased levels of IGF-1 Prenatal chromosome replacement/gene insertion Prevention of DOPING: Prevention of DOPING Acknowledge that athletes use PES Education about PES at all levels Education of athletes, coaches, parents, public Marketing to sell the concept of “clean” sports” and condemnation of PES use Penalties – financial and no-compete Appeal to Ethics Attention to athlete’s non-sports issues Barriers to Prevention of Doping: Barriers to Prevention of Doping Nationalistic sports organizations Financial payoffs Fuzzy line between performance enhancement through legal means and doping Cultural drive for human enhancement in all facets of life Blurring of line between foods and drugs Scientific knowledge advancement Can Doping Be Stopped?: Can Doping Be Stopped? The Modern Olympic Movement started with the concept of the Olympic CreedThe Olympic Creed: The Olympic Creed "The most important thing in the Olympic Games is not to win but to take part, just as the most important thing in life is not the triumph but the struggle. The essential thing is not to have conquered but to have fought well." The words of the Olympic creed are attributed to Baron Pierre de Coubertin, the founder of the modern Olympic GamesCan Doping Be Stopped?: Can Doping Be Stopped? The Modern Olympic Movement started with the concept of the Olympic Creed Over the past 35 years, the amateur athlete has been replaced, for the most part, by the professional athlete Society seems not to care about this issue any longer, if it ever did Will the same scenario be followed for Doping? Should doping be legalized for all professional athletes?Will there be 2 competitions: clean and enhanced? Will we be able to tell the difference?Will the Dopers win?: Should doping be legalized for all professional athletes? Will there be 2 competitions: clean and enhanced? Will we be able to tell the difference? Will the Dopers win? “There will come a day when they (the anti-doping activists) just have to give up. It’s maybe 20 years away, but it’s coming.”H. Lee SweeneyChairman, Department of PhysiologyUniversity of Pennsylvania, USAResearcher with IGF-1 gene insertion: “There will come a day when they (the anti-doping activists) just have to give up. It’s maybe 20 years away, but it’s coming.” H. Lee Sweeney Chairman, Department of Physiology University of Pennsylvania, USA Researcher with IGF-1 gene insertion OLYMPIC CREED "The most important thing inThe Effect of the Suspicion and/or Use of Doping: The Effect of the Suspicion and/or Use of Doping That's what cheating does to a sport, which is why baseball was wrong not to stand up to its players' union earlier and demand testing. There is a corrosive effect, and it will linger throughout this season and likely for years to come. Phil Sheridan, Philadelphia Inquirer, 2/25/’04“In doping, the war is never won”Juan Antonio Samaranchformer IOC president: “In doping, the war is never won” Juan Antonio Samaranch former IOC president You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.