01 Intro

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An Introduction to Human Spaceflight (Ch. 1): 

An Introduction to Human Spaceflight (Ch. 1) Objectives List names and dates (year) of major human space flight ‘firsts’ Identify key design implications for human missions vs. robotic spacecraft Outline the mission design process

Firsts in Human Spaceflight: 

Firsts in Human Spaceflight Know the years and people/spacecraft of the major first human space events Yuri Gagarin – April 12, 1961 Alan Shepherd – May 5, 1961 John Glenn – 1962 Alexei Leonov – 1965 Neil Armstrong – 1969 Salyut – 1971 Skylab – 1973 ASTP – 1975 Crippen and Young – April 12, 1981 Mir – 1986 ISS – 1998 Yang Liwei – 2003

Apollo/Saturn Uncrewed Suborbital Flights: 

Apollo/Saturn Uncrewed Suborbital Flights SA-1 Launched 27 Oct 1961 First flight of Saturn 1 SA-2 Launched 25 April 1962 Project High Water I SA-3 Launched 16 Nov 1962 Project High Water II SA-4 Launched 28 Mar 1963 Engine-out capability test AS-201 Launched 26 Feb 1966 First flight of Saturn 1B AS-202 Launched 25 Aug 1966 Apollo development flight

Apollo/Saturn Uncrewed Earth Orbiting Missions : 

Apollo/Saturn Uncrewed Earth Orbiting Missions SA-5 Launched 29 January 1964 First Block II Saturn launch SA-6 Launched 28 May 1964 First Apollo boilerplate model SA-7 Launched 18 September 1964 Apollo boilerplate model SA-9/Pegasus 1 Launched 16 February 1965 Apollo boilerplate model and micrometeoroid satellite SA-8/Pegasus 2 Launched 25 May 1965 Apollo boilerplate model and micrometeoroid satellite SA-10/Pegasus 3 Launched 30 July 1965 Apollo boilerplate model and micrometeoroid satellite AS-203 Launched 5 July 1966 First S-IVB stage orbital mission Apollo 4 Launched 9 November 1967 First all-up launch of Saturn V Apollo 5 Launched 22 January 1968 First test of Lunar Module in space Apollo 6 Launched 4 April 1968 Final uncrewed Apollo test flight

Apollo Crewed Earth Orbiting Missions : 

Apollo Crewed Earth Orbiting Missions Apollo 7 Launched 11 October 1968 First crewed Apollo flight Splashdown 22 October 1968 Apollo 9 Launched 03 March 1969 First crewed Lunar Module test Splashdown 13 March 1969

Apollo Lunar Missions: 

Apollo Lunar Missions Apollo 8 Launched 21 December 1968 Lunar Orbit and Return Returned to Earth 27 December 1968 Apollo 10 Launched 18 May 1969 Lunar Orbit and Return Returned to Earth 26 May 1969 Apollo 11 Launched 16 July 1969 Landed on Moon 20 July 1969 Returned to Earth 24 July 1969 Apollo 12 Launched 14 November 1969 Landed on Moon 19 November 1969 Returned to Earth 24 November 1969 Apollo 13 Launched 11 April 1970 Lunar Flyby and Return Malfunction cancelled lunar landing Returned to Earth 17 April 1970 Apollo 14 Launched 31 January 1971 Landed on Moon 5 February 1971 Returned to Earth 9 February 1971 Apollo 15 Launched 26 July 1971 Landed on Moon 30 July 1971 Returned to Earth 7 August 1971 Apollo 16 Launched 16 April 1972 Landed on Moon 20 April 1972 Returned to Earth 27 April 1972 Apollo 17 Launched 07 December 1972 Landed on Moon 11 December 1972 Returned to Earth 19 December 1972

Spaceflight Tragedies: 

Spaceflight Tragedies Apollo 1 (Jan 1967) Launch pad fire Loss of 3 astronauts: Grissom, White, Chaffee Soyuz 1 (April 1967) Parachute did not deploy properly Loss of 1 cosmonaut: Komorov Soyuz 11 (June 1971) First Space Station Flight (Salyut 1) Small fire led to early return (30 days before planned) No spacesuits Entry depress due to pressure equalization valve malfunction Loss of 3 cosmonauts: Dobrovolsky, Patsayev, Volkov STS-51L Challenger (Jan 1986) Ascent - solid rocket booster joint failure Loss of 7 astronauts STS-107 Columbia (Feb 2003) Entry - thermal protection failure Loss of 7 astronauts

Starting Point: 

Starting Point The ‘human subsystem’ in a spacecraft Analysis and Design of human space missions begin with a broad objective and corresponding constraints, progresses to conceptual design and all elements necessary to efficiently meet the objective Iteration is key

Human vs. Robotic Missions: 

Human vs. Robotic Missions 2 basic design driver differences Astronauts are more flexible and adaptable than robots Astronauts need life support and additional safety precautions

Design Implications: 

Design Implications Safety and Reliability – redundancy and fail-safe design Pressurized structures ECLSS and associated subsystems Human Factors along with sociology, physiology, psychology, comfort and productivity assists Logistics – ‘consumables’

Table 1-2 The Design Process: 

Table 1-2 The Design Process Define broad mission objectives Define mission requirements and constraints Develop alternate concepts and architectures Identify critical system drivers Select baseline mission Define systems requirements Document choices and rationale Iterate and Integrate the design - Reassess Mission Statement, objectives and requirements

Mission Objectives of Project Mercury: 

Mission Objectives of Project Mercury Place a manned spacecraft in orbital flight around the earth. Investigate man's performance capabilities and his ability to function in the environment of space. Recover the man and the spacecraft safely.

1. Broad Mission Objectives: 

1. Broad Mission Objectives Apollo Shuttle ISS ‘Vision for Space Exploration’

2. Mission Requirements and Constraints: 

2. Mission Requirements and Constraints Quantifies how to meet broad objectives Engineering requirements Available technology (COTS) Cost and schedule constraints Crew size and makeup Destination Date and duration

Project Mercury Design Guidelines: 

Project Mercury Design Guidelines Existing technology and off-the-shelf equipment should be used wherever practical. The simplest and most reliable approach to system design would be followed. An existing launch vehicle would be employed to place the spacecraft into orbit. A progressive and logical test program would be conducted.

3. Alternative Concepts and Architectures: 

3. Alternative Concepts and Architectures Con Ops – how things will work Crew / automation mix Mission control (support?) Timeline Location Architecture Mission concept + definition of elements Budgets – M, P, V, delta-v, etc.

4. System Drivers: 

4. System Drivers Parameters that significantly influence overall cost, performance and complexity ECLSS and pressurized volume Identifies critical requirements Faster, better, cheaper… pick any two What are mission launch mass drivers?

Key Design Drivers: 

Key Design Drivers Human I/O Environments Encountered Mission Element Durations EVA TRL / Design Schedule Relationships Propulsion System

5. Baseline Concept and Architecture: 

5. Baseline Concept and Architecture Ensure crew size and mission duration ~ size and launch mass of vehicle Forms an initial milestone for comparison Parametric analysis Equivalent System Mass (ESM)

6. System Requirements : 

6. System Requirements Derive mission-level (engineering) requirements from mission statement goals Keep in terms of ‘what’ not ‘how’ Probably the most important part in the design process – connects the mission objectives with the final design outcome

Project Mercury Detailed Engineering Requirements: 

Project Mercury Detailed Engineering Requirements The spacecraft must be fitted with a reliable launch-escape system to separate the spacecraft and its crew from the launch vehicle in case of impending failure. The pilot must be given the capability of manually controlling spacecraft attitude. The spacecraft must carry a retrorocket system capable of reliably providing the necessary impulse to bring the spacecraft out of orbit. A zero-lift body utilizing drag braking would be used for reentry. The spacecraft design must satisfy the requirements for a water landing.

7. Document Choices and Rationale: 

7. Document Choices and Rationale Includes literature search to learn what was done in the past Don’t reinvent the wheel Understand why choices were made (reasons may no longer be valid) Much easier to do this as you go!

8. Integrate and Iterate: 

8. Integrate and Iterate Put it all together and keep assessing optimal configurations Identify system (in)compatibilities

Life Cycle Analysis: 

Life Cycle Analysis Various terminologies, same basic flow… Advanced studies / mission analysis Definition, design, develop, test, operate Phase A, B, C/D and E Life cycle cost estimates R&D, DDT&E, manufacture, operate MTBF, FMEA

Mission Concept and Architecture: 

Mission Concept and Architecture Crew – ECLSS, Biomedical CM’s, Radiation Protection Orbits – transit time, delta v, park vs. direct Elements Space – ascent, orbit, entry, descent, landing (repeat!) Surface – habitat, ISRU Transportation - Launch, propulsion, GSE Mission operations flight and ground roles logistics C3

Mission Concept and Architecture: 

Mission Concept and Architecture Same vehicle up and back Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Shuttle Multiple elements Apollo (with LM), Skylab, ISS Costs / Budgets Development (COTS options?) Launch mass Politics…

Challenges: 

Challenges Safety – always number 1 Operational autonomy (live off the land) Multi-functional vs. dissimilar redundancy One item, many functions vs. same function, different items Human needs Life support Health support Human Factors Optimization Robustness vs. Performance Pareto curve

Semester Design Project: 

Semester Design Project Systems Analysis: Minimal Mass Lunar Lander Ascent Stage Earth Launch CEV Rendezvous TLI Lunar Descent Lunar Outpost impacts

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