Classical India:The Maurya and Gupta Empires

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Classical Kingdoms of India: Maurya and Gupta Page 1

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Founded the Maurya Empire when he unified the small kingdoms of northern India. Defeated the small kingdoms through ruthless harassment , the use of a massive army, war chariots and elephants. Divided his empire into provinces, then districts for tax assessments and law enforcement. He feared assassination by his enemies so he had food tasters and slept in different locations every night. Page 2 Chandragupta Maurya: 321 BCE-298 BCE

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321 BCE – 185 BCE Page 3 Describe the extent of the Maurya Empire under Chandragupta by referring to the physical features . HINT – Chandragupta’s Kingdom is in green. Think about your maps of India!!! Capital of the Maurya Kingdom The Maurya Empire

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Kautilya was Chandragupta’s political and military advisor. He was from the Brahmin caste. He wrote The Treatise on Material Gain or the Arthashastra . A guide book for the king and his ministers: Supported absolute royal power. Believed the great evil in society is anarchy or a lack of strong authority. Therefore, a king may need to use force against the people when necessary! Page 4 Kautilya

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301 BCE Chandragupta Maurya gave up his throne and became a monk out of fear and torment from his subjects and rivals. His grandson Asoka assumed the throne and continued the policies of Chandragupta. Asoka waged violent wars to expand the kingdom and exercised absolute authority over his people. Page 5 Asoka 304-232BCE

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Asoka became very remorseful about the deaths his wars caused and after the gruesome battle to control the region of Kalinga in 262 BCE he condemned the use of violence. Asoka vowed to rule his people through righteousness. Asoka’s Conflict  how to balance Kautilya’s methods of keeping power and Buddha’s demands to become a selfless person? Page 6 Asoka’s wars of expansion

Asoka’s conversion to Buddhism:

Asoka’s conversion to Buddhism Asoka converted to Buddhism and dedicated his life to non-violence and the welfare of his people. He built extensive roads, rest stops and hospitals throughout his empire to care for his people. Page 7

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Page 8 Describe the extent of the Maurya Empire under Asoka by referring to the physical features. Think about your maps of India!!! Asoka’s Empire Capital of the Maurya Kingdom

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Buddhist principles dominated Asoka’s laws. Asoka had his laws or edicts placed on rocks and pillars in more than 30 locations within his kingdom. Pillars have been found in India, Nepal and Afghanistan. The laws were written mostly in Sanskrit, but one was in Greek and one in Aramaic. There were 10 rock edicts and many pillars . Each pillar is 40’-50’ high. Page 9 Asoka’s law code

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Page 10 Some of Asoka’s Pillars

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Page 11 Asoka saw his dharma as showing the utmost respect for all living things. Many adopted a vegetarian lifestyles. Asoka’s idea of dharma brought harmony to India in the form of compassion and tolerance towards all he ruled. Serving as an example he lead his people to be respectful, responsible human beings. Women Under an Asoka tree

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Tamils The Maurya Empire is divided into many kingdoms. Page 12 Turmoil & A Power Vacuum: 220 BCE – 320 CE Fall Of The Maurya Empire after Asoka's death in 232 B.C., the Maurya Empire began to disintegrate. Five hundred years of disorder followed. Northern India was overrun by a series of invaders, and the south broke free from northern control. Some historians have felt that the fall of the Maurya can be traced to a hostile Brahmin castes reaction against Asoka's conversion to Buddhism. Others believe that Asoka's doctrine of nonviolence damaged the military and left them vulnerable to invaders. More likely the fall of the Maurya Kingdom is due to the communication problems facing an empire than included most of the Indian subcontinent, the difficulty of financing a vast army and bureaucracy, and the difficulty of ruling so many diverse groups of people within the empire.

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The people of modern India have taken Asoka’s image of "the wheel of dharma" from the sacred pillars and forever embedded it in the center of their national flag. Asoka, the Buddhist King, and his method of rule has inspired many cultures, religions, and nation states ,including our own: " One nation under god, with liberty and justice for all". Page 13 Asoka’s Legacy

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Page 14 The Rise of Gupta Empire: 320 CE – 647 CE Describe the extent of the Gupta Empire by referring to the physical features. Think about your maps of India!!!

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Chandra Gupta I ruled 320 – 335 CE Called the “Great King of Kings” Established Gupta greatness through military and economic strength. Chandra Gupta II ruled 375 - 415 CE expanded the economy and set up profitable trade with the Mediterranean world! Promoted a revival in Hinduism !!! Page 15 Gupta Rule

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Fa-Hsien was a C hinese Buddhist monk who traveled along the Silk Road and visited India in the 5 th century. He reported the people of the Gupta Kingdom to be happy, relatively free of government oppression, and inclined towards courtesy and charity. Other references in his journal, however, indicate that the caste system was quickly returning, including the features of "untouchability," the social isolation of a lowest class that is doomed to menial labor. Page 16 Fa-Hsien Describes life in Gupta India

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Page 17 International Trade Routes during the Gupta Rule

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spices spices gold & ivory gold & ivory rice & wheat horses cotton goods cotton goods silks Page 18 Trade goods and Partners

Gupta Golden Age:

Gupta Golden Age Profitable trade and a stable government led to the “Golden Age of India” under the rule of the Gupta. Math: Gupta mathematicians developed the concept of zero, and the decimal system based on the number 10 . They created a number system known as Arabic Numerals. This is the number system used throughout the world today. Medicine: Gupta physicians developed herbal remedies to treat various illnesses. They also developed a form of plastic surgery for the treatment of facial injuries.  Physicians vaccinated against smallpox, a practice later used in China and Europe. Science: Gupta scientists developed the mathematical principle of pi ,a solar calendar and determined that the Earth is round. Page 19

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Medicine Art & Literature Mathematics Astronomy Printed medicinal guides 1000 diseases classified Plastic Surgery C-sections performed Inoculations 500 healing plants identified Decimal System Concept of Zero PI = 3.1416 Poetry Solar Calendar The earth is round Gupta India Gupta Achievements Page 20 Art

Gupta Golden Age:

Gupta Golden Age Gupta architecture was dedicated to building stone temples to the various Hindu gods.  Also, Buddhists built shrines to house the remains of select holy people. These structures were called Stupas. Gupta literature consists of fables and folktales written in Sanskrit.  These stories spread west to Persia, Egypt, and Greece, and became the basis for many Islamic literary works such as, Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves and Aladdin and his Magic Lamp. Page 21

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Reflect religious themes and influenced Southeast Asian art & architecture. Page 22 Artistic Achievements under Gupta Rule

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Invasion of the Huns in the 4 th century signaled the end of the Gupta Golden Age. After the decline of the Gupta empire, north India broke into a number of separate Hindu kingdoms and was not unified again until the coming of the Muslims in the 7 th century. Page 23 The Decline of the Gupta

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Page 24 Fall of the Gupta Kingdom Huns invade – 450 CE Check out the invasion routes of the Huns!!!

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Bhartrhari a 5 th century India court poet and philosopher wrote : “Knowledge is man's crowning mark, A treasure secretly buried, The source of luxury, fame, and bliss, A guru most venerable, A friend on foreign journeys, The pinnacle of divinity. Knowledge is valued by kings beyond wealth--- When he lacks it, a man is a brute. “ Page 25 Legacy of the Gupta Kingdom

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