logging in or signing up "Life in the Soil" Carbon Economy Series April 2012 Santa Fe, NM CarbonEconomy Download Post to : URL : Related Presentations : Let's Connect Share Add to Flag Embed Email Send to Blogs and Networks Add to Channel Copy embed code: Embed: Flash iPad Dynamic Copy Does not support media & animations Automatically changes to Flash or non-Flash embed WordPress Embed Customize Embed URL: Copy Thumbnail: Copy The presentation is successfully added In Your Favorites. Views: 1202 Category: Education License: All Rights Reserved Like it (0) Dislike it (0) Added: April 25, 2012 This Presentation is Public Favorites: 1 Presentation Description Dr. Elaine Ingham, Chief Scientist at the Rodale Institute, presents a two hour talk in Santa Fe, NM on living soil. http://www.carboneconomyseries.com Comments Posting comment... Premium member Presentation Transcript PowerPoint Presentation: Life in the Soil Elaine Ingham, Ph.D. Chief Scientist, Rodale Institute PowerPoint Presentation: Soil Microbiologist St. Olaf College, Double Major in Biology and Chemistry Master’s, Texas A&M, Marine Microbiology Ph.D., Colorado State University, Soil Microbiology Research Fellow, University of Georgia Assistant, Associate Professor, Oregon State University (1986 – 2001) President, Soil Foodweb Inc., 1996 – present New York, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Canada East and West, England, Rodale Institute, Pennsylvania, Chief Scientist 2011 - present Elaine Ingham, B.A., M.S., Ph.D. .llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll: . llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll A Healthy Food Web Will: : A Healthy Food Web Will: Suppress Disease (competition, inhibition, consumption; no more pesticides!) Retain Nutrients (stop run-off, leaching) Nutrients Available at rates plants require (eliminate fertilizer) leading to flavor and nutrition for animals and humans Decompose Toxins Build Soil Structure –(reduce water use, increase water holding capacity, increase rooting depth) PowerPoint Presentation: Life in the Soil Japan video PowerPoint Presentation: I eat aerobic bacteria and don’t like bad-tasting anaerobic bacteria at all. My job is to turn nutrients in bacteria into plant-available forms. The job pays well. I have 200 children, and 40,000 grandchildren. Who is in the soil? Hi! I’m Alaimus ! I’m from the town of Vegetable Roots! PowerPoint Presentation: 400X Total Mag PowerPoint Presentation: Bacteria, fungi, humus, aggregates: microscope view Josh Webber: Portmore Golf Course North Devon, UK: Josh Webber: Portmore Golf Course North Devon, UK PowerPoint Presentation: Swiss Chard Front area sprayed with one tea application Back area, normal organic practices From Daniel McLeod, Petaluma, CA PowerPoint Presentation: Three compost teas applied. 2 x prior to seeding and 1 x post seeding. Compost tea greatly reduced weed pressure on paddock 12, when compared with conventional paddock 7 I am very excited about the progress to date and very impressed with the dedication that the SFI crew show towards their client. Ian Smith, Mooreville, Tasmania PowerPoint Presentation: Paddock 7 Onions with Conventional fertiliser and herbicide applications, planted same date as paddock 12 Paddock 7 Onions with Conventional fertiliser and herbicide applications, planted same date as paddock PowerPoint Presentation: Close-up showing clean seedbed. Paddock 12 PowerPoint Presentation: Overall view of paddock 12 low weed pressure PowerPoint Presentation: Overall view of paddock 12 low weed pressure PowerPoint Presentation: Paddock 7 Onion root system on coventional program. Poorer than Paddock 12. Paddock 7 Onion root system on coventional program. Poorer than Paddock 12. PowerPoint Presentation: Well established root system on onion plant. Paddock 12. PowerPoint Presentation: Paddock 12 one spray run not treated with compost tea.(Can you spot the difference?) PowerPoint Presentation: Bacteria …A few Fungi……Balanced ……..More Fungi…… Fungi Bacteria: 10 µg 100 µg 500 600 µg 500 µg 700 µg Fungi: 0 µg 10 µg 250 600 µg 800 µg 7000 µg Soil biological succession causes plant succession PowerPoint Presentation: ……….…..NO 3 …………...balanced………………..NH 4 NO 3 and NH 4 Protozoa.....B-f………..F-f………Predatory….. Microarthropods Forms of nutrients: Critical to understand PowerPoint Presentation: Bare Parent Material 100% bacterial Cyanobacteria True Bacteria Protozoa Fungi Nematodes Microarths F:B = 0.01 “Weeds” - high NO3 - lack of oxygen F:B = 0.1 Early Grasses Bromus , Bermuda F:B = 0.3 Mid-grasses, vegetables F:B = 0.75 Late successional grasses, row crops F:B = 1:1 Shrubs, vines, Bushes F:B = 2:1 to 5:1 Deciduous Trees F:B = 5:1 to 100:1 Conifer, old- growth forests F:B = 100:1 to 1000:1 Soil Foodweb Structure Through Succession, Increasing Productivity What does your plant need? PowerPoint Presentation: Bare Parent Material 100% bacterial Foodweb Development F:B = 0.01 “Weeds” F:B 0.1 Early Annuals F:B = 0.3 Mid-grass, vegies F:B = 0.75 Pasture, row crops F:B = 1:1 Bushes F:B = 2:1 to 5:1 Deciduous Trees F:B = 5:1 to 100:1 Old- growth F:B = 100:1 to 1000:1 Disturbance Pushes Systems “Backwards”, But How Far? Depends on Intensity, Frequency FIRE!!! Flood Insects Volcano! Humans? Cattle PowerPoint Presentation: Lawns , trees, gardens or crops, the story is the same. Soil biology is being destroyed by human management. Roots are not going as deep as they should, and water, fertility and disease protection are lost. PowerPoint Presentation: 24 Peter M. Wild, Boston Tree Preservation Just because we see this all the time, does it mean this is how plants grow ? PowerPoint Presentation: Without compaction roots can go deep Hendrikus Schraven holding ryegrass planted July 15, 2002 Harvested Nov 6, 2002 Mowed through the summer 70% Essential Soil, 30% Compost/organic fertilizer Compost tea once No weeds, no disease www.soildynamics.com PowerPoint Presentation: Source: Conservation Research Institute Oxygen? Disease? Microbes? PowerPoint Presentation: James Sotillo Elmsave.com Sod with 1 inch root systems put on sand, April 2010 Apply compost tea (make sure all the right organisms are in the tea!) PowerPoint Presentation: Three weeks later, look how much the roots have grown This is what healthy soil life should do for you – no disease, no weeds, organic fertilizers Examples of results of getting the biology “right”: Boston Tree Preservation; SafeLawns: Examples of results of getting the biology “right”: Boston Tree P reservation; SafeLawns PowerPoint Presentation: Lotusland, Santa Barbara, CA PowerPoint Presentation: Compost Tea Test Trial Summer 2003 by Abron New Zealand Russell Snodgrass, SFI Advisor Biological V’s Conventional Approach to Soil Management Background: Background Trial area consists of two plots fenced off from stock and the pasture harvested every 20-30 days using a mower Trial was carried out on a conventional dairy farm in the Bay of Plenty, New Zealand All testing is done by Hill Laboratories and the Soil Foodweb Institute NZ Trial overseen by Mark Macintosh of Agfirst Consultants Trial started 1 October 2003 Trial finished 24 February 2004 Treatment: Treatment Compost Tea Plot Three applications of compost tea and foods at 150L/ha applied every 4 weeks starting in October 2003 No fertiliser had been applied to the compost tea trial plot for the 12 months prior or throughout the trial Control Plot Conventionally fertilised with urea at an application rate of 75kg/ha every 6-8 weeks (450kg/ha per year) Phosphate Sulphur Magnesium applied at industry maintenance levels Total Dry Matter Grown: Total Dry Matter Grown Average Clover % in Pasture Sward: Average Clover % in Pasture Sward Herbage Mineral Levels: Herbage Mineral Levels Biological Soil Test Results: Biological Soil Test Results Biomass Data Control Compost Tea Active Bacteria (ug/g) Total Bacteria (ug/g) 64.2 348 30.4 257 Active Fungi (ug/g) Total Fungi (ug/g) 0.5 113 144 227 Fungi to Bacteria Ratio 0.32 0.88 Fungi Hyphal Diameter (um) 2.5 3 Protozoa (per gram) Flagellates Amoebae Ciliates 8395 8395 4046 58730 5873 1767 Mycorrhizal fungi root colonisation (%) 0 4 Soil Foodweb test done 4 weeks after 3rd application - Dec 2003 Nematode: Nematode Type Control Compost Tea Variance Bacteria feeders 1.98 4.52 128% Fungal feeders 0.99 1.58 60% Fungal / Root feeders 1.09 0.24 78% Root feeders 0.99 0.12 - 87% Predatory Nematodes 0 0 0 Numbers per gram fresh soil Key Results: Key Results 11.78% increase in total dry matter grown over the control $307/ha increased milk income from the extra dry matter grown Big increases in herbage mineral levels, resulting in reduced animal health costs 780% increase in clover content giving the soil access to more free nitrogen Huge reductions in root feeding nematodes, providing a better environment for increased clover growth Summary: Summary The results from the trial show a significant increase in total yield More high quality pasture grown through the summer means more milk at a lower cost The huge increase in clover will mean substantial reductions in fertiliser nitrogen - this is possible because of the increased nitrogen fixing ability of the clover You do not have the permission to view this presentation. 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