A FRAMEWORK FOR UNDERSTANDING POVERTY: A FRAMEWORK FOR UNDERSTANDING POVERTY RUBY PAYNE, Ph.D. KEY POINTS TO REMEMBER: KEY POINTS TO REMEMBER Poverty is relative
Poverty occurs in all races and countries
Economic class is on a continuum
Generational and situational poverty are different
Students bring the hidden rules of class in which he/she was raised
Schools operate from middle-class norms and rules
For our students to be successful, we must understand their hidden rules and teach them the rules that will make them successful at school and at work. Current Statistics: Current Statistics In the U.S. , in 2001, the poverty rate for children under 18 was 16.3%. For children under 6, the rate was 18.2%
There were 6.8 million poor families in 2001.
The foreign born population in the U.S. has increased 57% since 1990. In 2000 one out of every 5 children under 18 was estimated to have at least one foreign-born parent.
The U.S.’ child poverty rate is often 2 or 3 times higher than that of most other industrialized Western nations.
Slide4: Comparison of Poverty Among Ethnicity 2000 U.S. Census Slide5: Family Unit Size 48 Contiguous States and D.C. 1 $ 8,980
For each additional person, add 3,140
2003 HHS Poverty Guidelines
SOURCE: Federal Register, Vol. 68, No. 26, February 7, 2003, pp. 6456-6458.
Bringing It Home Free Reduced Enrollment % F & R: Bringing It Home Free Reduced Enrollment % F & R Bringing it Home % Free and Reduced: Bringing it Home % Free and Reduced Slide8: Name Enrollment % F & R * Denotes highest in the district **Denotes lowest in the district Poor Children:: Poor Children: Are much more likely to suffer developmental delay and damage, to drop out of school and to give birth during the teen years;
More likely to be in single-parent families…median female wages in the US at all levels of educational attainment are 30-50% lower than male at the same level of educational attainment.
Poor children: : Poor children: Are 7 times more likely to be the victims of child abuse or neglect
While the number of white children in poverty is the largest group, the percentage of children in poverty in minority groups is higher. Definition of Poverty : Definition of Poverty The extent to which an individual does without resources! Poverty is more about resources than about money.
RESOURCES : RESOURCES Financial
Knowledge of hidden rules Definitions:: Definitions: Financial – having the money to buy goods and services
Emotional- being able to choose and control emotional responses to negative situations (stamina, perseverance, choices)
Mental- having the mental abilities and acquired skills to deal with daily life (reading, writing, computing)
Spiritual- believing in divine purpose and guidance
Physical- health and mobility
Support systems- friends, family, resources available in times of need
Relationship-role models- access to adults ho are appropriate, nurturing and who do not engage in self-destructive ehavior
Knowledge of hidden rules- Knowing the unspoken cues and habits of a group Scenarios: Scenarios Answers to Scenarios: Answers to Scenarios Scenario #1 John and Adel: Scenario #1 John and Adel Situational poverty because of divorce.
Adele doesn’t know the rules of poverty.
Emotional resources most important to keeping some kind of ordered life – alcoholism and emotional weakness feed off of each other for Adel.
Loss of emotional resources make poverty imminent.
Generational Poverty Rule: “you may need to use your body for survival. After all, that is all that is truly yours…values don’t put food on the table.”
Therefore, Adele will go out with the mechanic to get her car fixed and to get a night out. Scenario #2 Otis and Vangie: Scenario #2 Otis and Vangie Mother is the most powerful figure, keeper of the soul, dispensor of penance and forgiveness
Discipline pattern: chastise or beat then forgive and feed. Food = love.
GENERATIONAL POVERTY RULE: Poverty promotes strong beliefs in fate therefore discipline is NOT ABOUT CHANGE, it is about “penance and forgiveness.” Do not expect change due to discipline.
Scenario #3 Opie and Oprah: Scenario #3 Opie and Oprah Middle class values self-sufficiency but poverty portends that you will never get ahead so it is important to share and immediately spend any money.
If money is not shared, you will be isolated and people are all you have when you are poor.
POVERTY RULE: Any extra money is shared, if not, the next time she is in need, she will be abandoned. People are possessions and people can rely on each other. Scenario #4 Maria and Noemi : Scenario #4 Maria and Noemi Classic Hispanic pattern of poverty.
More resources than other scenarios – strong family and spiritual resources.
POVERTY RULE: Poverty is more about other resources than it is about money.
Scenario #5 Juan and Ramon: Scenario #5 Juan and Ramon Gangs are a type of support system. They provide virtually all the resources needed for survival.
Expect to die young therefore dangerous actions and rules are easier to rationalize.
Often means living outside of the law so dealing with the police for protection is avoided.
POVERTY RULE: Middle class uses space to get away from conflict (land, neighborhoods) but in poverty separation is not an option therefore need to defend turf physically. Scenario # 6 Sally and SueAnn: Scenario # 6 Sally and SueAnn Jail is a part of life as line between legal and illegal is thin – rules don’t apply when it means survival.
Middle class has the resources to avoid jail.
Jail = food, shelter, not as violent as the streets or state prisons.
POVERTY RULE: Relationships are more important that money therefore SueAnn will get her husband out of jail. Scenario #7 Eileen and Wisteria: Scenario #7 Eileen and Wisteria Emotional resources come from observing how role models deal with adverse situations and social interactions.
Eileen doesn’t want to be like her grandmother or her mother, therefore only role models are what she sees at school and church.
POVERTY RULE: Poverty perpetuates itself by supplying role models who only know its rules of behavior. Assessment of a Case: Assessment of a Case Background noise
Importance of personality
Significance of entertainment
Importance of relationships
Oral language tradition
Discipline Assessment of a Case: Assessment of a Case Identity tied to lover/fighter role for men
Identity tied to rescuer/martyr for women
Importance of non-verbal/kinesthetic communication
Ownership of people
Assessment of a Case: Assessment of a Case Belief in Fate
Sense of humor
Lack of order/organization
Lives in the moment/does not consider future ramifications Implications for School Personnel: Implications for School Personnel Other resources are more important than money in poverty and these resources are the ones that teachers can impact as role models, support systems, and educators of middle class rules.
Analyze the resources of your students before dispensing advice. Realize that time, money, transportation, supervision, telephone, computer access, food, clothing and shelter may not be available.
Kids have difficulty being concerned about homework if they are worried about their basic needs not being met, or don’t expect to be here long.
Hidden rules of poverty: Hidden rules of poverty The noise level is high (TV is always on and everyone may talk at once – loudly)
The most important information is non-verbal
One of the main values of an individual to the group is to entertain. Hidden Rules of Poverty: Hidden Rules of Poverty You may need to use your body for survival. After all, that is all that is truly yours…values don’t put food on the table
HIDDEN RULES OF POVERTY: HIDDEN RULES OF POVERTY Poverty promotes strong beliefs in fate therefore discipline is NOT ABOUT CHANGE, it is about “penance and forgiveness.” Do not expect change due to discipline.
Slide30: Any extra money is shared. People are possessions and people can rely on each other.
Relationships are more important that money
HIDDEN RULES OF POVERTY: HIDDEN RULES OF POVERTY In poverty separation is not an option to avoid conflict, therefore you need to be able to physically defend your turf.
Poverty perpetuates itself by supplying role models who only know its rules of behavior.
Poverty is more about other resources than it is about money.
Hidden Rules: Hidden Rules THE COST: THE COST To move from poverty to middle class or middle class to wealth, an individual must give up relationships for achievememt (at least for some period of time). Therefore developing RELATIONSHIPS WITH STUDENTS IS IMPERATIVE. Developing Relationships: Developing Relationships The teacher:
Calls on everyone in the room equitably
Provides individual help
Gives “wait” time
Asks questions in such a way that clues are given within question
Asks questions that require more thought Developing Relationships (continued): Developing Relationships (continued) The teacher:
Tells students whether their answers are wrong or right
Gives specific praise
Gives reasons for praise
Accepts feelings of the student
Gets within arms reach of each student every day Taken from TESA (Teacher Expectations and Student Achievement) Implications for Educators: Implications for Educators Educators have tremendous opportunities to influence some of the non-financial resources that make such a difference in students’ lives. It costs nothing to be an appropriate role model. Implications for Educators: Implications for Educators Very disorganized, frequently lose papers, don’t have signatures
Bring many reasons why something is missing, or the paper is gone
Don’t do homework
Are physically aggressive
Like to entertain
Implications for Educators: Implications for Educators Only see part of what is on the page
Only do part of the assignment
Can’t seem to get started (no self-talk)
Cannot monitor their own behavior
Laugh when they are disciplined
Implications for Educators: Implications for Educators Decide whether or not they will work in your class based on whether or not they like you
Tell stories in casual register
Don’t know or use middle class courtesies
Talk back and are extremely participatory For our students to be successful, we must understand their hidden rules and teach them the rules that will make them successful at school and at work.: For our students to be successful, we must understand their hidden rules and teach them the rules that will make them successful at school and at work. We can neither excuse students nor scold them for not knowing; as educators we must teach them and provide support, insistence, and expectations. Registers of Language : Registers of Language Every language in the world has 5 registers or levels. The three educators need to be concerned about are: formal, consultative, and casual. Registers of Language: Registers of Language Formal language---word choice of work and school---complete sentences and specific word choice
Consultative language---formal register used in conversation, but not as direct as formal register
Casual---used between friends, syntax incomplete Implications for Educators: Implications for Educators Have students write in casual register (for example write the way they talk, you know, yeah, huh, etc.) Then translate to formal register.
Use graphic organizers to show patterns of discourse.
Tell stories in formal and casual register. Have students explain the difference. Implications for Educators: Implications for Educators Formal register needs to be directly taught.
Casual register needs to be recognized as the primary discourse for many students.
Discourse patterns need to be taught directly. Implications for Educators: Implications for Educators Both story structures need to be used as a part of classroom instruction.
Discipline that occurs when a student uses the inappropriate register should be a time for instruction in the appropriate register.
Students need to be told how much formal register affects their ability to get a well-paying job! SET HIGH EXPECTATIONS: SET HIGH EXPECTATIONS High expectations should be set for academics as well as behavior, no excuses, no using different standards.
If a student is acting out to defer looking “stupid” in class, alternative education situations must be provided (demand attendance at math and English lab, AST, parent contact) The Story of JD: The Story of JD Procedures
Emotional Support Implications for Educators: Implications for Educators Resources of students and adults should be analyzed before dispensing advice or seeking solutions. What may seem to be very workable suggestions from a middle class point of view may be virtually impossible given the resources available to those in poverty.
Sources: Sources A Framework for Understanding Poverty, Payne, Ruby K., Ph.D., 1996.
Indiana Department of Education Website: http://www.doe.state.in.us/