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Accreditation and Quality Assurance in Humanities and Social Sciences Swiss Academy of Humanities and Social Sciences Berne, 29th April, 2004: 

Accreditation and Quality Assurance in Humanities and Social Sciences Swiss Academy of Humanities and Social Sciences Berne, 29th April, 2004 General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and Higher Education Dr. Raymond Saner CSEND, www.csend.org

Objectives of presentation:: 

Objectives of presentation: 1. GATS/ES: what it is and what it is not 2. How GATS/ES is being negotiated 3. Solutions for GATS/ES within/without GATS context 4. Threats & Opportunities for Swiss higher education

CSEND/Saner : 

CSEND/Saner CSEND/NGRDO, founded 1993, Geneva 5 staff (Research & Development) Lecturer, WWZ-Uni Basle, since 1988 Member Peer Review I & II: HES/CH Swiss member WG4: ISO 10015 Training Member Swiss delegation: OECD Fora on GATS/ES 2002, 2003 Publications on GATS/ES, WTO, PRSP, QA Member of SNV since 1994

GATS & Globalisation (Source: W. Goode, 1998) : 

GATS & Globalisation (Source: W. Goode, 1998) Globalisation: growing tertiary sector (services) of world economy: Example: Australia A) 80% of total jobs B) 75% of GDP C) 13% Exports of ES of total Trade in Services D) ES Exporters are mostly public universities!

GATS/ES: Historical Perspective: 

GATS/ES: Historical Perspective 1947: GATT 18 members 1966: Swiss membership 1986-1994 UR 1995: WTO (110 members a) GATT (goods) b) GATS(services) c) TRIPS (Ips) 5. GATS (12 sectors and 160 subsectors 6. GATS/ES a) 5 subsectors b) 30 Bio US$ 7. 2001- ? Doha Round (148 members)

GATS: purpose and objectives: 

GATS: purpose and objectives (GATS) is a multilaterally agreed framework agreement for the trade in services which applies to all 148 WTO Members. Three main objectives: ·           1. To progressively liberalise trade in services through successive rounds of negotiations which should aim at promoting the interests of all members of the WTO and achieving an overall balance of rights and obligations. ·       2. To encourage economic growth and development thought liberalisation of trade in services, as the GATT does through the liberalisation of trade in goods; ·           3. to increase the participations of developing countries in world trade in services and expand their services exports by developing their export capacity and securing export opportunities in sectors of export interest to them.

WTO/GATS Rules: 

WTO/GATS Rules Most Favoured Nation Clause (MFN) No discrimination (Market Access/National Treatment) Binding commitments Transparency (Notifications)

Typology of Existing Barriers to Trade in ES (identified by USA, New Zealand, Australia and Japan): 

Typology of Existing Barriers to Trade in ES (identified by USA, New Zealand, Australia and Japan) Source: Saner & Fasel, 2003, „Negotiating Trade in Educational Services within the WTOGATS Context“

Typology of Existing Barriers to Trade in ES (identified by USA, New Zealand, Australia and Japan) - 2: 

Typology of Existing Barriers to Trade in ES (identified by USA, New Zealand, Australia and Japan) - 2 Barriers to Trade Examples Source: Saner & Fasel, 2003, „Negotiating Trade in Educational Services within the WTOGATS Context“

Modes of Supply in GATS/ES: 

Modes of Supply in GATS/ES Source: OECD/CERI, 2002

Slide11: 

  Table 3. Design of GATS Schedules   Modes of supply: (1) Cross-border supply (2) Consumption supply (3) Commercial presence (4) Presence of natural persons    

Schedule Pre-Doha: USA: 

Schedule Pre-Doha: USA

Schedule pre-Doha: Australia: 

Schedule pre-Doha: Australia

Schedule pre-Doha: Norway: 

Schedule pre-Doha: Norway

Schedule pre Doha: Switzerland: 

Schedule pre Doha: Switzerland

National Treatment Commitments in H.E. By Mode, No. Of Country Commitments: 

National Treatment Commitments in H.E. By Mode, No. Of Country Commitments Source: OECD/CERI, 2002

Market Access Commitments in H.E. By Mode, No. Of Country Commitments: 

Market Access Commitments in H.E. By Mode, No. Of Country Commitments

35 Initial ES Requests by November 2003: 

35 Initial ES Requests by November 2003 Not public, only offers will be (MFN) Made public so far: Canada: no Rs on health, education, social service, culture Switzerland, no Rs on education EU on USA only: HE to make commitments in modes 1, 2 and 3 for privately funded educational services and in mode 4 to commit for privately funded educational services as referred to in the section “horizontal commitments”. New Zealand and Norway: made initial RQs on ES

ES & Globalisatin: Two realities: 

ES & Globalisatin: Two realities Within GATS/ES context A) souvereign right of each country to make or not make commitments B) souvereing right to difine what „public service“ should be C) souvereign right to engage in Request/Offer in ES or not Outside GATS/ES context A) Internationalisation of higher education happens independent of GATS/ES B) Danger of „Degree mills“ C) Students (Parents) vote with their feet

Solutin sets to trade in education: 

Solutin sets to trade in education Structural Solutions 1. Within GATS/ES Example: by profession (GATS/Accountants) Plurilateral Agreeement (like Public Procurement) 2. Outside GATS/ES Example: UNESCO/OECD WG on quality assurance, recognition of degress, professional standards Functional Solutions (within GATS) 1. Social knowledge (like TK/TRIPS) 2. Multi-developmental ES (like multifunctional agriculture)

Alternatives for ES: 

Alternatives for ES GATS/ES is not of the devil! (e.g. does not require privatisation of ES). GATS/ES is one but important option to develop, open and participate in global education market GATS/ES is as good as the strategy of WTO member countries allow, if there is one at all? IF „Niet“ to GATS/ES: WHAT IS THE ALETRNATIVE FOR THE FUTURE?

5 Major Exporters of ES, US$ million and as a % of total exports in Services: 

5 Major Exporters of ES, US$ million and as a % of total exports in Services

Ratio of Foreign Students per Domestic Students Abroad in Tertiary Education: 

Ratio of Foreign Students per Domestic Students Abroad in Tertiary Education Source: OECD/CERI, 2002

Example of China’s Education Strategy and Use of GATS/ES: 

Example of China’s Education Strategy and Use of GATS/ES Shanghai 15 million people public schools competitive exams

Example of China’s Education Strategy and Use of GATS/ES: 

Example of China’s Education Strategy and Use of GATS/ES Tuition fee (maximum) Qualification criteria of teachers Regulatory requirements Top grade allowance Required entry points (minimum & maximum specifications) Tuition fee (minimum) Location of school Shanghai 15 million people public schools competitive exams AUSTRALIA e.g. Sydney University graduate degrees (MBA, Ph.D.) immigration/ work permit/ possible citizenship opportunities for wealth creation remittence/ FDI to China return to China

Example: USA 2004 (post 9/11) (Source: Robert Gates, IHT, 3th April 2004): 

Example: USA 2004 (post 9/11) (Source: Robert Gates, IHT, 3th April 2004) Impact of 9/11 related security measures: Application for HE fall 2004/USA: Chinese: 76% reduction Indians: 58 % reduction 2. Application to Research Universities 38% drop compared to 2003 Negative Impact: Lower income for US universities Lower rate of innovation for US universities & R&D Institutes Insufficient US students for key fields: engineering, IT Reduction of PR Image impact on rest of world (US way of life)

ES: Strategic considerations: 

ES: Strategic considerations How to ensure innovation of teaching methods & research capabilities of Swiss universities and HES? How to ensure exchange with „rest of the world“ in matters pertaining to ES & R&D? How to ensure participation of Swiss academics in knowledge creation at global levels? How to ensure recognition of Swiss degress, professional qualifications, quality standards How to ensure adequate supply of highly educated persons for all vital sectors of Swiss economy and society now and in future? How to ensure equality of access to ES for all Swiss potential students? How to ensure cost efficient & learning effective higher education in Switzerland?

Données statistiques disponibles sur "l'internationalisation de la formation supérieure en Suisse Rapport final, OCDE GATS/ES forum, Trondheim 2003: 

Données statistiques disponibles sur "l'internationalisation de la formation supérieure en Suisse Rapport final, OCDE GATS/ES forum, Trondheim 2003

What approach- What Philosophy? : 

What approach- What Philosophy? Rational-Deductive-Normative Model

What approach- What Philosophy? Cont. : 

What approach- What Philosophy? Cont. 3. Pragmatic-Emerging Model No overarching mandatory accreditation system at national level. Schools & Universities free to select national or foreign accreditation systems- or none at all Selection of QA system left to schools and universities But Recognition of Qualifications regulated by governments exerting upward pressure to ensure minimum QA-standards Plus  ensures minimum performance levels (Rec. - Qualifications)  leaves open space for innovation Minus tension between Rec.-Qualification at national level vs at international level Possible “take over” by foreign Accreditation & QA schemes

What approach- What Philosophy? Cont. : 

What approach- What Philosophy? Cont. 2. Decentralised-Deregulated- “Market” Model

Thank you for your attention: 

Thank you for your attention

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