logging in or signing up 5 0 Life in and before God Candelora Download Post to : URL : Related Presentations : Share Add to Flag Embed Email Send to Blogs and Networks Add to Channel Uploaded from authorPOINTLite Insert YouTube videos in PowerPont slides with aS Desktop Copy embed code: Embed: Flash iPad Dynamic Copy Does not support media & animations Automatically changes to Flash or non-Flash embed WordPress Embed Customize Embed URL: Copy Thumbnail: Copy The presentation is successfully added In Your Favorites. Views: 431 Category: Education License: All Rights Reserved Like it (1) Dislike it (0) Added: March 11, 2008 This Presentation is Public Favorites: 0 Presentation Description No description available. Comments Posting comment... Premium member Presentation Transcript 5. Life in and before God: 5. Life in and before God BIB566/THE566 Old Testament Theology5. LIFE IN AND BEFORE GOD : 5. LIFE IN AND BEFORE GOD 5.1 The Law and Obedience 5.2 Cult (Worship) 5.3 Ethics 5.1 The Law and Obedience : 5.1 The Law and Obedience 5.1.1 Decalogue 5.1.2 The Book of the Covenant 5.1.3 Purity and Holiness Code 5.1.4 Deuteronomic Code 5.1.0 Revelation at Sinai: 5.1.0 Revelation at Sinai 1. The Context of the Law: 1.1 “To know God is to know his will. In the OT to know God is not a mystical experience or merely an inter-personal relationship. Nor is it a feeling of spirituality. Rather, the knowledge of God is defined throughout as obedience to his will which has a content.” [Childs, OT Theology in a Canonical Context, 51] 1.2 "God’s command before the Law at Sinai.... Gen 2.16; 12.1; 32.9; Ex 3.10. “In sum, God appears throughout the OT as a person with a will which he freely communicates.” [Childs, OT Theology in a Canonical Context, 52] 5.1.0 Revelation at Sinai: 5.1.0 Revelation at Sinai 1.3 “Law has as its object the maintenance of life in community. Two aspects of law will inevitably be found in a community in which a legal tradition of complex character has developed (a) the policies or general statements which provide the legal understandings of how life in community is to be maintained; and (b) the procedures by which these policies are to be put into effect and applied in specific instances. The OT does not have different terms for these two aspects of law, but they are nonetheless easily recognized in the legal materials. The policies are closely related to the self-understanding of Israel as a covenant community under God. The procedural legislation also reveals at a number of points the extent to which the covenant relationship between God and Israel is intimately involved in actual judicial proceedings.” [Harrelson, “Law in the OT,” IDB, Vol 3, 77] 5.1.0 Revelation at Sinai: 5.1.0 Revelation at Sinai 2. The Canonical Shape of the Sinai Witness: 2.1 “The revelation of Sinai (Ex 19) is integrally connected with the deliverance from Egypt. The giving of the Law (Ex 20ff.) and the sealing of the covenant (Ex 24) form the climax of the formation of the people of God (19.4-6).” [Childs] 2.2 “The Decalogue is distinguished from the most other legal corpora by having little or no reference to a specific historical period of Israel’s history, or to a particular institution such as a central sanctuary. In its canonical role the Decalogue forms a theological summary of the entire Sinai tradition. All the detailed legislation which follows is therefore subordinated to and interpreted by the heart of the Law found in the Ten Commandments.” [Childs] 5.1.0 Revelation at Sinai: 5.1.0 Revelation at Sinai 2.3 Book of Lev and Sinai: 26.46; 27.34. “The canonical effect of structuring the book of Lev in such a way as to connect all the material directly to the revelation at Sinai is of crucial importance in understanding its role as authoritative scripture for Israel.... If a law functions authoritatively for Israel, it must be from Sinai. Conversely, if it is from Sinai, it must be authoritative.” [Childs] 2.4 “...Deuteronomy... Moses applies the divine law to the new situation in which the people would shortly enter. It is, therefore, built into the canonical function of Deuteronomy that a new application of old tradition is being offered. The new interpretation seeks to actualize the traditions of the past for the new generation in such a way as to evoke a response to the divine will in a fresh commitment to the covenant.” [Childs]Casuistic Law: Casuistic Law A “casuistic” law, Alt pointed out, is one that is built on the sequence of a protasis and an apodosis of a conditional sentence. The main case is introduced by the Hebrew conjunction k|= (“granted” or “supposing that”) and subsidiary cases by the weaker Heb )im “if.” In its pure form, Alt added, all parties in the law are referred to in the third person. As an example, he quoted Exod 21:18-19, “Supposing men quarrel and one strikes the other with a stone or with his... and the man [who was struck] does not die but keeps his bed... if then the man rises again and supported on his staff can walk in the street, he that struck him shall be clear, only he shall pay for the loss of his time, and shall have him thoroughly healed” (Alt 1967: 114). Apodictic: Apodictic Laws formulated in the “apodictic style,” Alt stated, are generally rhythmic and terse; metrical in form; fundamental, categorical, and inclusive in character; they usually appear in series. He identified four groups: (1) laws introduced by an active participle and followed by the Heb formula mo=t yu=mat (e.g., Exod 21:12, 15-17); (2) a list of curses which begin with the Heb predicate )aru=r, “cursed” (e.g., Dent 27:15-26); (3) three short series consisting of prohibitions in the second person singular (i.e., Lev 18:7-17; Exod 22:17, 20, 21, 27a-b [with interpolations], and Exod 23:1-3, 6-9 [with interpolations]; and (4) the Decalogue, where, as he put it, “the categorical negative is the strongest unifying element in the whole list” (Alt 1967: 153). Problems in the Two Type System: Problems in the Two Type System "First, Alt did not recognize “mixed forms.” Rather, he maintained that any deviation from the basic casuistic form was “a secondary variation in which stylistic elements of other forms have crept in” (Alt 1967: 114). This, however, led many scholars to contradictory conclusions." "Second, the participial forms presented a special problem. Alt had placed them among the apodictic laws, and in fact argued that they best exemplified the category itself; but other scholars, including M. Noth, J. J. Stamm, and M. E. Andrew, pointed to the description of the legal consequence as being reminiscent of the casuistic laws."Problems in the Two Type System: Problems in the Two Type System "Third, some scholars who have accepted Alt’s two major divisions took a further step and provided subcategories based on content."5.1.1 Decalogue: 5.1.1 Decalogue 1. Why in Stone? 1.1 . “There are traditions in the Bible about laws first being inscribed upon stones; one finds this in connection with the Ten Commandments (Ex 31.18; 32.15-19; 34.1-4, 28-29; Deut 5.22; 10.1-5) and in connection with unspecified larger corpora (Deut 27.4-8; Josh 8.32).... The purpose of these monumental records was not for the dissemination of the laws via written medial but rather to preserve a fixed text, at least in one place, should dispute ever arise as to their wording and intent.” [Greengus, “Law in the OT,” IDBSupp, 535] 5.1.1 Decalogue: 5.1.1 Decalogue Exod 20.1-17; Deut 5.6-21 Unlike the other laws which stress Moses mediatorial role, the Decalogue stress Yahweh's sole authorship. (1st person singular) 5.1.2 The Book of the Covenant: 5.1.2 The Book of the Covenant Exod 21.1-23.33 "A complex of laws, civil and criminal, moral and ritual; the judicial laws (21:2–22:17) are overwhelmingly formulated in casuistic style, the moral and ritual (22:18–23:33) are mostly expressed apodictically." "The following are the legal topics: 21:2–11, slavery; vv 12–17, capital offenses; vv 18–27, bodily injuries; vv 28–32, homicidal beasts; vv 33–36, damage to property; 21:37 (—Eng 22:1) to 22:3 (—Eng 22:4), theft of livestock; 22:4–5 (—Eng 22:5–6), damage to crops; vv 6–14 (—Eng 7–15), laws of bailment; vv 15–16 (—Eng 16–17), law of seduction; 22:17 (—5.1.2 The Book of the Covenant: 5.1.2 The Book of the Covenant Eng 22:18), prohibition of sorcery; v 18 (—Eng 19), bestiality; v 19 (—Eng 20), apostasy; 22:20–26 (—Eng 22:21–27), concern for the disadvantaged of society; 22:27–30 (—Eng 22:28–31), duties to God; 23:1–3, judicial procedure; vv 4–5 restoration of lost property; vv 6–9, impartial justice; vv 10–11, seventh year fallow; v 12, sabbath law; v 13, obedience to God; denial of other gods; vv 14–19, sacred seasons; vv 20–33, hortatory epilogue."5.1.3 Purity and Holiness Code: 5.1.3 Purity and Holiness Code Purity Code: Lev 11-16 Dietary Code: Lev 11 Other Purity: Lev 11-15 Sanctuary Purity: Lev 16 Holiness Code: Lev 17-27 Prologue & Epilogue: Lev 17; 26.3-46 Family Law: Lev 18, 20 Holy unto the Lord: Lev 19 Priestly regulations: Lev 21-22; 24 Calendar of Festivals: Lev 235.1.3 Purity and Holiness Code: 5.1.3 Purity and Holiness Code Priestly administrations: Lev 25, 27 5.1.4 Deuteronomic Code: 5.1.4 Deuteronomic Code 12.1-26.15 “Research has shown that the Deuteronomic code (or block of torah), Deut 12-26, is closely related to the so-called Book of the Covenant, Ex 20.23-23.19. In fact, a careful comparison of the two reveals that (apart from one long section, Ex 21.18-22.15, which has its own separate history) only four short sentences in the Book of the Covenant (Ex 20.26; 22.28 29b, 31) are not reflected or expanded in the Deuteronomic code. So in practical terms the Deuteronomic code may be said to be an expanded edition of the Book of the Covenant.” [Cairns, ITC:Deut, 4] 5.1.4 Deuteronomic Code: 5.1.4 Deuteronomic Code Not found in the Book of the Covenant, but parallel in the Law code of the Ancient Near East: Deut 21.18-21 [Stubborn and Rebellious Son] Deut 22.13-27 [Laws for wives and those engaged] Laws found neither in the Book of Covenant nor ANE Exhortations to Israel to “cleave to the LORD” and love him with all the heart: Primacy of loving God with all ones heart: Deut 6.4; 7.6-16; 8.5-6; 13.1-4, 10; 14.1-2; 26.1-11 Regulations designed to preserve the status and welfare of the Levites: Deut 12.18b-19; 14.27-29a; 18.1-8 5.1.4 Deuteronomic Code: 5.1.4 Deuteronomic Code Rules regulating the role of prophecy in Israel: Deut 13.1-5; 18.9-22 Emphasis on social justice Regulations concerning the “holy war” or “Yahweh’s war.” Regulations defining the office of kingship: Deut 17.14-20 [1 Sam 8; 12; Jud 9.7-15; Hos 5.1; 8.4; 10.15; 13.10-11]. Insistence that there is only one legitimate shrine where Israel may worship Yahweh: Deut 12.1-28; 14.22-29; 15.19-23; 16.1-17; 17.8-13; 18.1-8; 19.1-13. Theological Implications of the Law: Theological Implications of the Law 1. “In spite of the variety and diversity of the various OT laws, there is a theological coherence to the material as expressing the one will of God to his covenant people.” [Childs, OT Theology in a Canonical Context, 56] 2. “The Law contains both promise and threat. It calls forth decisions which result in either life or death. Commandments which serve the faithful as guides to life similarly work death to the disobedient. The dual side of the Law is highlighted throughout the Pentateuch, both in the ceremony which sealed the covenant (Ex 24) and in the ritual blessing and cursing.” [Childs, OT Theology in a Canonical Context, 56] Theological Implications of the Law: Theological Implications of the Law 3. “The Law of God was a gift of God which was instituted for the joy and edification of the covenant people. It was not given as a burden, but as a highest treasure and a clear sign of divine favor.” [Childs, OT Theology in a Canonical Context, 57] 4. “The clearest sign of the brokenness of the covenant and of the alienation of Israel from God emerged when his Law became a burden and a means of destroying the nation. “ [Childs, OT Theology in a Canonical Context, 57] 5. N.B. the classic discussion of the three uses of the law in Luther & Calvin: Moral, Ceremonial, and Civil5.2 Cult (Worship): 5.2 Cult (Worship) 5.2.1 Ark and Tabernacle 5.2.2 Temples 5.2.3 Sacrifices (also atonement) 5.2.4 Festivals 5.2.5 Praise 5.2.6 Spirituality 5.2.0 The Nature of Cult: 5.2.0 The Nature of Cult "In the Old Testament we are almost always dealing with the religion and faith of a people described as such, very rarely with the phenomenon called "personal religion." Cult is by definition the religious expression of a group and not a feature of personal religion. Cult is explicitly or implicitly a profession of faith." [John L. McKenzie, A Theology of the Old Testament, 32-33]5.2.0 The Nature of Cult: 5.2.0 The Nature of Cult "Cult means social worship through ritual performance; anything less than this is not cult. It is not private worship and it is not improvised. Some form of cult appears in every religion; and ritual symbolism exhibits certain common features which are found in many religions. These features do not arise from borrowing. Some ritual symbols are almost natural; sacrifice, for example, is a nearly universal ritual symbol. Cult is not the most peculiar feature of ancient Israelite religion; there are many rites and symbols which can be found elsewhere in the ancient Near East, and some borrowing is altogether probable." [McKenzie, 37]5.2.0 The Nature of Cult: 5.2.0 The Nature of Cult The OT depicts the presence of God in relation to three factors: sacred places, sacred times, sacred acts. The sacred or holiness is the crux of much of the book of Leviticus and in many of the passages in Numbers. Places are understood not necessarily geographically, located in the Temple and Tabernacle (Shiloh as being the location of the Tabernacle is argued by Haran and seems the best analysis for the post-conquest/pre-monarchical period. Sacred times are seen in the 3 major feasts of the Ancient Israel and along with the Day of Atonement which is not a feast. The latter feast such as Purim (Esther) and Hanukah or the Feast of Lights were much latter. 5.2.0 The Nature of Cult: 5.2.0 The Nature of Cult The sacred acts involving: sacrificing, eating, worshipping in music, song, dance, etc. were participatory. These sacred times, places, and acts necessitated the work of the cultic functionary, i.e., the priest and Levites. But the fact remains is that the most important thing is that God would arrive. 5.2.1 Ark and Tabernacle: 5.2.1 Ark and Tabernacle 188.8.131.52 The Ark 184.108.40.206 The Tent of Meeting 220.127.116.11 The Tabernacle18.104.22.168 The Ark: 22.214.171.124 The Ark Introduction 1. What could make a King lose all his royal inhibitions, and dance in only a linen ephod (2 Sam 6.14)? 2. What would cause the warrior of Israel to raise a proleptic shout of victory when it appeared on the battle field (1 Sam 4.5)? 3. What would cause an idol to collapse on the threshold of its own temple (1 Sam 5.3-5)? 4. What would you expect in the Most Holy place of King Solomon's Temple? With poles so long that its ends could be seen in the prior room (1 Kgs 8.8)? 5. What will be seen in God's heavenly temple, with accompanying flashes of lightning, rumblings, peals of thunder, an earthquake, and heavy hail (Rev. 11.19)? 126.96.36.199 The Ark: 188.8.131.52 The Ark 1. Terms: 1.1 !Ara' 1. In Gen 50.26 it was the term for Joseph's coffin. 2. In 2 Kgs 12.10-11; 2 Chr 24.8-11 it was Jehoiada's money receptacle. 3. In the remaining 195X !Ara' refers to the cultic object, the ark. 4. Names range from: Ark=X58; Ark of God=X37; Ark of the God of Israel=X7; Ark of Yahweh=X38; Ark of the Covenant=X40; Ark of the Testimony=X12; The Holy Ark=X1; The Ark your strength=X2. 184.108.40.206 The Ark: 220.127.116.11 The Ark 1.2 kibwto,j 1. Heb 9.4; Rev 11.19 2. It is also used to the translate Noah's ark in Gen 6.14ff, however the MT uses the specialized term hb'Te. 18.104.22.168 The Ark: 22.214.171.124 The Ark 2. The Ark as a Box 2.1 Deut 10.1-5: Holder for the Ten Commandment tablets. 1. 10.1 #[e !Ara]; 10.2 !Ara'B'; 10.5 !Ara'B' 2. 10.3 ~yJivi yce !Ara] f[;a;w" [acacia wood] 3. Accent on the Tablets. 2.2 Deut 31.24-26: 1. N.B. that the hZ<h; hr'ATh; rp,se was to be placed beside [dC;mi; 1 Sam 6.8?] the ~kyhla hwhy-tyrb !wra. 2. The Levites are to carry it (v25) like: Num 3.31; 4.5-6; 1 Chr 15.2-10, 14-15, 26; Judg 3-126.96.36.199 The Ark: 188.8.131.52 The Ark 2.3 Ex 25.10-22; 37.1-9: Covenant; God's presence; God's direction. 1. Ex 25.10; 37.1: 1.1. Made of Acacia wood. 1.2. Size: 2.5 cubits long; 1.5 cubits wide; 1.5 cubits deep. 2. Ex 25.11; 37.2: 2.1 Gold inside and out. [WNP,c;T. #WxW tyB;Mi] 2.2 Molding of gold. [bybis' bh'z" rzE] 184.108.40.206 The Ark: 220.127.116.11 The Ark 3. Ex 25.12-15; 37.3-7: 3.1 Rings, poles, place in to carry the Ark. 3.2 Ex 25.15: "The poles shall remain in the rings of the ark; they shall not be taken from it." [WNM,mi Wrsuy" aOl] 3.3 1 Kgs 8.8: "The poles where so long that the ends of the poles were seen from the holy place in front of the inner sanctuary; but they could not be seen from outside; they are there to this day." 18.104.22.168 The Ark: 22.214.171.124 The Ark 4. Ex 25.16: "You shall put into the ark of the covenant that I shall give you." 5. Exod 25.20: Question: How were the Cherubim placed? And what form did they take? 126.96.36.199 The Ark: 188.8.131.52 The Ark Exod 25.10-184.108.40.206 The Ark: 220.127.116.11 The Ark 3. The Ark as a War Palladium 3.1 Warring in the Wilderness: 3.1.1 Num 10.35-36 "Arise, O Lord, let your enemies be scattered, and your foes flee before you" "Return, O Lord of the ten thousands of Israel." a. Considered problematic by the Masoretes because it is bracketed by the inverted n. b. F.M.Cross considered it "holy war ideology." c. S. Terrien argues that it was a quote from the Scroll of the Wars of Yahweh. Note that ~wq is often associated with war settings: Judg 7.9, 15; 18.9; Ps 7.7; 44.25. d. Divine Warrior Motif: i. Ps 68.1, 7-8, 11-12, 17-18 [n.b. the processional in vv24ff] ii. Judg 5.4-5; Deut 32.2-3 (Ps 68.18); Hab 3.3-6. 18.104.22.168 The Ark: 22.214.171.124 The Ark 3.1.2 Num 14.40-45 a. Note the context is God's judgment for not trusting. Here they now want to go, but without God's leading. b. This is symbolized by the fact that both the Ark and Moses did not go (14.44). c. Important is the fact that the Ark becomes paralleled to the presence of God in battle. This makes this cult object the same as the phrase, "The battle is the LORD's"! 126.96.36.199 The Ark: 188.8.131.52 The Ark 3.2 The Conquest Narratives: 3.2.1 Jos 3-4 Crossing the Jordan: a. !wra used X15 in these two chapters. [Jordan=X24] b. 3.3 "When you see...you shall set out from your place." c. God's presence in guiding and leading. d. The form seems to almost a processional. 184.108.40.206 The Ark: 220.127.116.11 The Ark 3.2.2 Jos 6 The Collapse of Jericho: a. !wra is used X9, along with trumpet as key. b. Ritual marching with a strong "Holy War Ideology." c. Note that the Ark is not mentioned in the Ai first attempt (7.1-5). It is only after words that Joshua falls down before it (7.6)! 3.2.3 Jos 8.30-35 An Oath: a. The writing and reading of the Law establish a covenant people. Note Israel, women, little ones and aliens who resided with them (8.35b). b. The Ark is stationed in the middle and represents God's presence. 18.104.22.168 The Ark: 22.214.171.124 The Ark 3.3 Pre-monarchical War Palladium 3.3.1 1 Sam 4.1-7.2 Not a magical toy! a. !wra mentioned X31. b. Miller and Roberts argue that the text is paralleled by the ancient Near Eastern idea concerning the capture and return of a god(s) in a battle context. Therefore, the theological center is the "burning issue" of a Philistine victory and Yahweh's role in this historical setting. The victory over Dagon in 1 Sam 5.2-4 and the subsequent return of the Ark establishes a theodicy. 126.96.36.199 The Ark: 188.8.131.52 The Ark c. 4.21 = Crucial in terms of the role of the Ark is the name Ichabod. McCarter explains the name as Where is (the) glory? or Alas (for the) glory? d. Note the connection of dbk with Akkadian melammu and puluhtu as Cross puts it, "the refulgent and radiant aureole which surround the deity in his manifestation or theophanies." 184.108.40.206 The Ark: 220.127.116.11 The Ark 4. Kapporeth [tr,PoK;]: Ex 25.17-22; 37.6-9 4.1 The Meaning of Kapporeth 4.1.1 The meaning of the kapporeth is debated. Zobel indicates that Herrrmann, von Rad, and Weiser have adopted the rendering, cover plate. This seems to be derived from the Arabic kafara, to cover, i.e., lid, cover. G.J. Wenham comments concerning this etymology, "the plausibility of this etymology depends on kipper meaning to cover sin. If this is rejected, it seems unlikely that kapporet means merely lid. It functioned as a lid for the Ark, but it was much more. It was the place where God's glory appeared and where atonement was made once a year. Note the communication indicated in Ex 25.22. 18.104.22.168 The Ark: 22.214.171.124 The Ark 4.1.2 The Greek rendering, hilasterion (propitiation) may possibly reflect the root kipper to make atonement, yet one wonders if this is not too strongly influenced by Lev 16. 4.1.3 Recently Gorg has argued that kapporeth goes back to the Egyptian kp (n) rdwj, meaning sole of the foot or footplate 4.2 Size & Material 4.2.1 Ex 25.17; 37.6 = 2.5 cubits by 1.5; made of pure gold. 4.2.2 rwhj hbz = emphasizes it importance. 126.96.36.199 The Ark: 188.8.131.52 The Ark 4.2.3 Cherubim: 25.18-20; 37.7-9 a. Guardian angels of God's presence...note 25.22: Also Gen 3.24; Ezek 41.17-20. b. The priestly cherubim are described as having their wings spread upward, covering the kapporeth, while at the same time having their faces directed at each other. 4.2.4 Leviticus 16 and the Day of Atonement: 184.108.40.206 The Ark: 220.127.116.11 The Ark 5. A Throne & Footstool A. The Ark of the Covenant of the LORD of hosts, who is enthroned on the cherubim: 1. Shiloh and twabc hwhy: 1 Sam 4.4 2. 2 Sam 6.2, 18; 7.8, 26, 27 3. Ps 24.7-10 B. A Cherubim Throne and a Ark as footstool: 1. 1 Kgs 8.1-13 a. Cherubim = 1 Kgs 6.23-28 b. 1 Kgs 8.6-8: Ark under Cherubim; poles seen in adjoining room. 18.104.22.168 The Ark: 22.214.171.124 The Ark 2. Isaiah 6.1-3 3. 1 Chr 28.2 "for the ark of the covenant of the Lord, for the footstool of God"; Ps 132.7"Let us go to his dwelling place; let us worship at his footstool." 4. But note: Isa 66.1 "Heaven is my throne and the earth is my footstool; what is the house that you would build for me, and what is my resting place?" 5. Enthronement Psalms: 47; 93; 95-99 126.96.36.199 The Ark: 188.8.131.52 The Ark 6. What Happened to the Ark? 6.1 ""Shishak may have removed it (1 Kgs 14.26), Manasseh may have replaced it with his image of Astarte (2 Chr 33.7), and then Josiah restored it (35.3), though it is most likely that it was destroyed or stolen during Nebuchadnezzar's invasion. Jer 3.16-17 may imply the existence of the ark, and the legend of 2 Macc 2.4 is related this passage in Jeremiah." [Davies, "Ark of the Covenant," IDB, p 224]184.108.40.206 The Ark: 220.127.116.11 The Ark 6.2 "2 Macc 2.4: "It was also contained in the same writing, that the prophet, being warned of God, commanded the tabernacle and the ark to go with him, as he went forth into the Mountain, where Moses climbed up, and saw the heritage of God. And when Jeremy came thither, he found a hollow cave, wherein he laid the tabernacle, and the ark, and the altar of incense, and so stopped the door. And some of those that followed him came to mark the way, but they could not find it. Which when Jeremy perceived, he blamed the, saying, As for that place, it shall be unknown until the time that God gather his people again together, and receive them unto mercy." 5.2.1 Ark and Tabernacle: 5.2.1 Ark and Tabernacle 18.104.22.168 The Tent of Meeting 22.214.171.124 The TabernacleIntroduction: Introduction Two Problems: 1. Many different terms to describe the Tabernacle: 1.1 vdqm = Sanctuary 1.2 d[m lha = Tent of Meeting 1.3 lhah = The Tent; hwhy lhah = The Tent of YHWH 1.4 !kvm = Tabernacle 1.5 twd[h ~kvm = Tabernacle of the TestimonyIntroduction: Introduction 2. Two different locations in relationship to the camp with implied differences of function and theology. 2.1 “in the midst of the camp of Israel” (Exod 25.8; 29.42-46) 2.2 “outside of the camp” 126.96.36.199 The Tent of Meeting: 188.8.131.52 The Tent of Meeting 184.108.40.206 The Tent of Meeting: 220.127.116.11 The Tent of Meeting 1 The Tent of Meeting = d[m lha 1.1 The name: 1.1.1 The “tent of meeting” or “reunion” 1.1.2 d[m = means “the date of an appointed meeting.” 2. Basic Texts: 2.1 Exodus 33.7-11 2.2 Num 11.24-30 2.3 Num 12 2.4 Deut 31.14-23 18.104.22.168 The Tent of Meeting: 22.214.171.124 The Tent of Meeting 3. The Theology of the Tent of Meeting 3.1 A Prophetic Institution 3.2 Oracular Institution 3.3 Political Institution126.96.36.199 The Tabernacle: 188.8.131.52 The Tabernacle 184.108.40.206 The Tabernacle: 220.127.116.11 The Tabernacle 1. Introduction: 1.1 Tent type object which was not meant to last. 1.2 Ex 25-31 and parallel is very complex syntactically. 1.3 The use of technical language which is difficult to understand. Note especially Haran's many discussion in Temples and Temple Service in Ancient Israel. 1.4 One is never meant to forget the portability of the Tabernacle. 18.104.22.168 The Tabernacle: 22.214.171.124 The Tabernacle 2. Tabernacle and Archaeological Parallels 2.1 (Utfah = tribal palladia, used by present nomadic tribes. It is basically a camel saddle in modern times with wooden frameworks. There seems to be a sacrificial system with it. 2.2 Mahmal = A tent like structure used in processions to Mecca. It is box like and decorated with silk and a domed-top. 2.3 Qubbah = Ancestor of the Mahmal and Utfah. It was a miniature read leather tent with domed top, mounted on a camel's back. It was used by a priest who would utilize it to give oracles. Possible sacrificial system attach to it. The Num 25 Baal Peor story, especially verse 8 cites a hB'Quh; in this incident. 126.96.36.199 The Tabernacle: 188.8.131.52 The Tabernacle 2.4 “These parallels lend striking corroboration to the Priestly (sic) tradition that the Tabernacle had a covering of ram's skin, dyed red; and no doubt we must conclude that the qubbah institution among the Semites sheds light on the origin of the Tabernacle. We must suppose that the portable red leather tent was one of the oldest motifs in Semitic religion. Thus it goes without saying that the Tabernacle and the Ark have historical connections with their Semitic past.” [Cross, “The Tabernacle,” BA, 61] 3. Construction : 3. Construction 3.1 Tent: 3.1.1 General size: 30 cu. by 10 cu. by 10 by. This brakes down into two segments, with the Holy of Holies being a perfect cube of 10 cu. 3.1.2 Cherubim Curtains: Ex 26.1-6 = Violet, purple, scarlet with cherubim: 28X4 cu. with two series of 5 panels joined by 50 loops by gold clasps (note that the text does not say the usual “pure gold” used for those things that are in the tabernacle). 3.1.3 Goat's Hair Curtain: Ex 26.7-13 = 30X4 cu. with a total of 11 panels rather than the 10 of the Cherubim. However the same 50 loops but it uses bronze clasps.3. Construction: 3. Construction 3.1.4 Ram's Skin and Dugong (~yvix'T.): Ex 26.14 = “Each one of them serves a different purpose. Ezekiel mentions both the vve and vx;T; as examples of expensive products in relation to what common people were used to (Eze 16.10). From him we infer that the first was used for wrapping up a head-dress, while with the second sandals were prepared. Similarly the linen is used for hangings in the tabernacle (and the priests use it for clothes), while the skins, being more hard-wearing, are placed on the roof, to act as a covering to the part most exposed to the elements.” [Haran, Temples and Temple Service in Ancient Israel, 163] 3. Construction: 3. Construction 3.1.5 Boards: Ex 26.15-30 (kereshin) 184.108.40.206 10cu. high, 1 1/2cu. wide; 46 frames; 20X20X6; gold plated; 15 bars for each side with the middle going through; the frames where placed in bases two per frame. 220.127.116.11 How were these structured? If solid, could they be carried at all? Note the A.R.S. Kennedy's reconstruction in Cross, p. 55, 57. 3. Construction: 3. Construction 3.1.6 Curtains: Ex 26.31-37 18.104.22.168 Blue, purple, crimson with cherubim to separate Holies of Holies from the Holy place. The description centers on the Ark > Kapporet. 22.214.171.124 Entrance of tabernacle curtain is similar in material but without cherubim and seems to be made differently. The four entrance pillars mentioned at the same time. 3. Construction: 3. Construction 3.1.7 Court of Tabernacle: Ex 27.9-19 126.96.36.199 And enclosure of 100X50 cu. 188.8.131.52 Utilized 5 curtain hangings, 5 cu. high, hook were used to attach it to the 60 pillars with silver clap tops. The front of the curtain hanging was facing the east and was 20 cu. with a multi-colored screen. 3.1 The Tent: 3.1 The Tent General size: 30 cu. by 10 cu. by 10 by. This brakes down into two segments, with the Holy of Holies being a perfect cube of 10 cu.3.1 The Tent: 3.1 The Tent 3.1.2 Cherubim Curtains: Ex 26.1-63.1 The Tent: 3.1 The Tent 3.1 The Tent: 3.1 The Tent 3.1.3 Goat's Hair Curtain: Ex 26.7-13 = 30X4 cu.3.1 The Tent: 3.1 The Tent 3.1.4 Ram's Skin and Dugong: Ex 26.143.1 The Tent: 3.1 The Tent 3.1.5 Boards: Ex 26.15-30 (kereshin)3.1 The Tent: 3.1 The Tent 3.1.6 Curtains: Ex 26.31-373.1 The Tent: 3.1 The Tent 3.1.7 Court of Tabernacle: Ex 27.9-193.2 Inner Furniture : 3.2 Inner Furniture The Ark: Exod 25.10-163.2 Inner Furniture: 3.2 Inner Furniture 3.2.2 Table with the bread of Presence = Ex 25.23-30 Table with the bread of Presence: Table with the bread of PresenceTable with the bread of Presence: Table with the bread of PresenceTable with the bread of Presence: Table with the bread of Presence3.2 Inner Furniture: 3.2 Inner Furniture 3.2.3 Lampstand = Ex 25.31-29 3.2.3 Lampstand: 3.2.3 Lampstand3.2 Inner Furniture: 3.2 Inner Furniture 3.2.4 Altar of Incense = Ex 30.1-10 3.2.4 Altar of Incense: 3.2.4 Altar of Incense3.3. Outer Furnishings: : 3.3. Outer Furnishings: 3.3.1 Altar = Ex 27.1-8 3.3.1 Altar: 3.3.1 Altar3.3. Outer Furnishings: 3.3. Outer Furnishings 3.3.2 Bronze Bowl = Ex 30.17-21 3.3.2 Bronze Bowl: 3.3.2 Bronze BowlThe Theology of the Tabernacle : The Theology of the Tabernacle 1. A portable sanctuary of the Presence of the God of Sinai. 2. It is where God dwells in the midst of Israel, esp. their camp. 3. The fact that it was made from a divine pattern for is important. (Ex 25.9) 4. The tablets of the Decalogue is placed within the Tabernacle: Tent > Most Holy Place > in Ark > under Kapporeth. 5. The constant reminder of the Holiness of God. The fact that the structures are graded by materials used, by local to the Ark and Kapporeth, and function. Note the description of Ezekiel's Temple verses the Solomonic and Second Temple! The Theology of the Tabernacle: The Theology of the Tabernacle 6. The Tabernacle was commanded by God and carried out by a freewill offering (Ex 25.1-9). 7. The detailed recording of the obedience of Moses and the people are crucial. The whole point of the repetition of Ex 25-31 in 35-40 finds it meaning here. 8. The special gifting of Bezael and Oholiab (Ex 31.1-11 / 36.1-7). 9. The apostasy of Ex 32 is significant for understanding that the institution and the people that service in it are different. The failings of humans cause defilement and the presence of God in the midst of the peoples is threaten, however the purity of the institution does not come from the cultThe Theology of the Tabernacle: The Theology of the Tabernacle functionaries. It comes from the God who commanded the institution. 10. The conclusion of Ex 40 with the coming of the ka4bo=d of YHWH caps the whole narrative. And sets the stage for the continued story of Israel in the wilderness. The Priestly Theology of the Tabernacle : The Priestly Theology of the Tabernacle 1. Reconciliation: 1.1 God's existence in the midst of the people is based upon the establishment of a proper relationship with God. 1.2 The role of the Decalogue is important, since it is ultimately the object in the center-stage. (Ark as box) 1.3 Also the Kapporeth as the location of God's meeting with Israel is important as the alternative to a one-sided torah alone view. 1.4 The altar as central in the fore-grounds places the discussion in sacrificial terms. Significant here is not only the descriptive texts of Lev 1-7, Num 19, but also the Feasts of Israel. The Priestly Theology of the Tabernacle: The Priestly Theology of the Tabernacle 2. Holiness: 2.1 The gradation of locations, materials, functions are significant for the priestly idea of holiness. Douglas' idea of abnormal/normal works in parallel here. 2.2 For a Holy God to dwell with people, there is a demand of holiness. The theology of priestly consecration in Lev 8-10 is rewarding for the perspectives of holiness and God's people, but the texts of Lev 11-16 and the Holiness Codes of Lev 17-27 places the onus on the people themselves. The Priestly Theology of the Tabernacle: The Priestly Theology of the Tabernacle 3. The Moveable Presence: 3.1 The contrast with the normal ANE religions at this time point to the Nomadic origins. [Note however Haran's argument of the tabernacle and its origins at Shiloh!] 3.2. The moveable Presence parallels the theme of God's guidance and leadership of his people in the wilderness, and exile. You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.