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All rights reserved.Attitudes as Hypothetical Constructs: Attitudes as Hypothetical Constructs The term hypothetical construct is used to describe a variable that is not directly observable, but is measurable by an indirect means such as verbal expression or overt behavior - attitudes are considered to be such variables.Three Components of an Attitude: Three Components of an Attitude Affective Cognitive BehavioralAffective: Affective The feelings or emotions toward an object Copyright © 2000 Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.Cognitive: Cognitive Knowledge and beliefsBehavioral: Behavioral Predisposition to action Intentions Behavioral expectationsMeasuring Attitudes: Measuring Attitudes Ranking Rating Sorting Choice Copyright © 2000 Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.The Attitude Measuring Process: The Attitude Measuring Process Ranking - Rank order preference Rating - Estimates magnitude of a characteristic Sorting - Arrange or classify concepts Choice - Selection of preferred alternativeSlide10: Ranking tasks require that the respondent rank order a small number of objects in overall performance on the basis of some characteristic or stimulus.Slide11: Rating asks the respondent to estimate the magnitude of a characteristic, or quality, that an object possesses. The respondent’s position on a scale(s) is where he or she would rate an object.Slide12: Sorting might present the respondent with several concepts typed on cards and require that the respondent arrange the cards into a number of piles or otherwise classify the concepts.Slide13: Choice between two or more alternatives is another type of attitude measurement - it is assumed that the chosen object is preferred over the other.Slide14: Physiological measures of attitudes provide a means of measuring attitudes without verbally questioning the respondent. for example, galvanic skin responses, measure blood pressure etc.Simple Attitude Scaling: Simple Attitude Scaling In its most basic form, attitude scaling requires that an individual agree with a statement or respond to a single question. This type of self-rating scale merely classifies respondents into one of two categories;Simplified Scaling Example: Simplified Scaling Example THE PRESIDENT SHOULD RUN FOR RE-ELECTION _______ AGREE ______ DISAGREECategory Scales: Category Scales A category scale is a more sensitive measure than a scale having only two response categories - it provides more information. Questions working is an extremely important factor in the usefulness of these scales.Example of Category Scale: Example of Category Scale How important were the following in your decision to visit San Diego (check one for each item) VERY SOMEWHAT NOT TOO IMPORTANT IMPORTANT IMPORTANT CLIMATE ___________ ___________ ___________ COST OF TRAVEL ___________ ___________ ___________ FAMILY ORIENTED ___________ ___________ ___________ EDUCATIONAL/ HISTORICAL ASPECTS _________ ___________ ___________ FAMILIARITY WITH AREA ___________ ___________ ___________Method of Summated Ratings: The Likert Scale: Method of Summated Ratings: The Likert Scale An extremely popular means for measuring attitudes. Respondents indicate their own attitudes by checking how strongly they agree or disagree with statements. Response alternatives: “strongly agree”, “agree”, “uncertain”, “disagree”, and “strongly disagree”.Likert Scale for Measuring Attitudes Toward Tennis: Likert Scale for Measuring Attitudes Toward Tennis It is more fun to play a tough, competitive tennis match than to play an easy one. ___Strongly Agree ___Agree ___Not Sure ___Disagree ___Strongly Disagree Likert Scale for Measuring Attitudes Toward TennisCont.: Likert Scale for Measuring Attitudes Toward Tennis Cont. There is really no such thing as a tennis stroke that cannot be mastered. ___Strongly Agree ___Agree ___Not Sure ___Disagree ___Strongly DisagreeLikert Scale for Measuring Attitudes Toward TennisCont.: Playing tennis is a great way to exercise. ___Strongly Agree ___Agree ___Not Sure ___Disagree ___Strongly Disagree Likert Scale for Measuring Attitudes Toward Tennis Cont.Semantic Differential: Semantic Differential A series of seven-point bipolar rating scales. Bipolar adjectives, such as “good” and “bad”, anchor both ends (or poles) of the scale.Slide24: A weight is assigned to each position on the rating scale. Traditionally, scores are 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, or +3, +2, +1, 0, -1, -2, -3.Semantic Differential Scales for Measuring Attitudes Toward Tennis: Semantic Differential Scales for Measuring Attitudes Toward Tennis Exciting ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : Calm Interesting ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : Dull Simple ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ Complex Passive ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ ActiveNumerical Scales: Numerical Scales Numerical scales have numbers as response options, rather than “semantic space’ or verbal descriptions, to identify categories (response positions).Stapel Scales: Stapel Scales Modern versions of the Stapel scale place a single adjective as a substitute for the semantic differential when it is difficult to create pairs of bipolar adjectives. The advantage and disadvantages of a Stapel scale, as well as the results, are very similar to those for a semantic differential. However, the Stapel scale tends to be easier to conduct and administer.A Stapel Scale for Measuring a Store’s Image: A Stapel Scale for Measuring a Store’s Image Department Store Name +3 +2 +1 Wide Selection -1 -2 -3Slide29: Select a plus number for words that you think describe the store accurately. the more accurately you think the work describes the store, the larger the plus number you should choose. Select a minus number for words you think do not describe the store accurately. The less accurately you think the word describes the store, the large the minus number you should choose, therefore, you can select any number from +3 for words that you think are very accurate all the way to -3 for words that you think are very inaccurate.Slide30: Behavioral differential: the behavioral differential instrument has been developed for measuring the behavioral intentions of subjects towards any object or category of objects. A description of the object to be judged is placed on the top of a sheet, and the subjects indicate their behavioral intentions toward this object on a series of scales. For example: A 25-year old woman sales representative Would ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : Would Not Ask this person for advice.Paired Comparisons: Paired Comparisons In paired comparisons the respondents are presented with two objects at a time and asked to pick the one they prefer. Ranking objects with respect to one attribute is not difficult if only a few products are compared, but as the number of items increases, the number of comparisons increases geometrically (n*(n -1)/2). If the number of comparisons is too great, respondents may fatigue and no longer carefully discriminate among them.Slide32: Divide 100 points among each of the following brands according to your preference for the brand: Brand A _________ Brand B _________ Brand C _________Graphic Rating Scales: Graphic Rating Scales A graphic rating scale presents respondents with a graphic continuum.Graphic Rating Scale Stressing Pictorial Visual Communications: Graphic Rating Scale Stressing Pictorial Visual Communications 3 2 1 Very Very Good PoorMonadic Rating Scale: Monadic Rating Scale A Monadic Rating Scale asks about a single concept Now that you’ve had your automobile for about 1 year, please tell us how satisfied you are with its engine power and pickup. Completely Very Fairly Well Somewhat Very Satisfied Satisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied Dissatisfied Copyright © 2000 Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.Slide36: A Comparative Rating Scale A Comparative Rating Scale asks respondents to rate a concept by comparing it with a benchmark Please indicate how the amount of authority in your present position compares with the amount of authority that would be ideal for this position. TOO MUCH ABOUT RIGHT TOO LITTLE Copyright © 2000 Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.Slide37: An Unbalanced Scale An Unbalanced Scale has more responses distributed at one end of the scale How satisfied are you with the bookstore in the Student Union? Neither Satisfied Quite Very Satisfied Nor Dissatisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied Copyright © 2000 Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.