CLAS100508 Week 4

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Archaic Greece (800 BCE – 500 BCE): 

Archaic Greece (800 BCE – 500 BCE) September 27th – October 1st, 2007


Summary Out of the Darkness The Polis Political Revolutions Colonization Social, Cultural, Intellectual Revolutions

The Dark Ages – Phase 1 (ca. 1000 – 900 BCE): 

The Dark Ages – Phase 1 (ca. 1000 – 900 BCE) Widespread depopulation (ca. 340 inhabited sites reduced to ca. 40) Migrant populations (emigrating to the coasts of Asia Minor, esp. from Attica) Change in burial practices (shift from burial to cremation) Decrease in agriculture and increase in pastoralism Discovery of iron-working Loss of artistic sophistication (proto-geometric pottery)

Mycenaean Stirrup “Octopus” Jar (ca. 1200-1100BCE): 

Mycenaean Stirrup “Octopus” Jar (ca. 1200-1100BCE)

Proto-Geometric Skyphos (Athens, 10th Century BCE): 

Proto-Geometric Skyphos (Athens, 10th Century BCE)

The Dark Ages – Phase 2 (ca. 900 – 800 BCE): 

The Dark Ages – Phase 2 (ca. 900 – 800 BCE) Increase in population (growth in the number of grave finds*, increase in the number of settlement remains) Growth of agriculture (more fields under cultivation) Recovery of writing (ca. 850 – 800 BCE): adaptation of Phoenician script to Greek language Growth of overseas trade (I.e. Al Mina in Syria) Geometric pottery

Amphora – “Geometric” (900-700BCE) National Archaeological Museum, Athens: 

Amphora – “Geometric” (900-700BCE) National Archaeological Museum, Athens

Amphora – “Dyplon Painter” (Athens, ca. 750 BCE): 

Amphora – “Dyplon Painter” (Athens, ca. 750 BCE)

The Polis: 

The Polis The primary political structure of ancient Greece Fiercely independent and sovereign entities Principal functions = Cult center, government, trade, defense Consequences = fractious politics in Greece; warfare endemic

Parts of the Polis: 

Parts of the Polis Astu = City; Acropolis = Fortified hill site Chora = territory around the astu; comprised of agricultural land, hinterland, and smaller villages Agora = marketplace/town square; contains temple(s), markets, public buildings Kome = village

Formation of the Polis: 

Formation of the Polis Matter of scholarly controversy Single act of foundation (i.e. colonization) The growth of an existing community Synoikismos = a merging together of several smaller communities (i.e. Sparta) Motivated by: 1.Cultic considerations, 2.Military considerations, 3.Economic considerations

Aristotle (384-322 BCE) on the Polis Politics 1.1.2 (D.D. Nagle & S.M. Burstein 2006) : 

Aristotle (384-322 BCE) on the Polis Politics 1.1.2 (D.D. Nagle & S.M. Burstein 2006) Foundation of civilized life: “Hence it is evident that the state is a creation of nature, and that man is by nature a political animal. And he who by nature and not by mere accident is without a state, is either above humanity or below it;” Natural outgrowth of the family – several families come together into a village – several villages into a polis The polis exists to facilitate not merely survival, but “the good life”: “When several villages are united into a single community, perfect and large enough to be nearly or quite self-sufficing, the state comes into existence, originating in the bare needs of life, and continuing in existence for the sake of the good life.”

The Foundation of Athens Thucydides, 2.15: 

The Foundation of Athens Thucydides, 2.15 “For in the time of Kekrops and the first kings down to Theseus the people of Attika always lived in (their own) poleis, each one with its own administrative buildings and officials; unless there was some common danger they would not come together in council with the king, but each individual polis would govern itself in accordance with its own decisions…But then Theseus came to the throne. An an intelligent man as well as a powerful one, it was he who organized the chora on a proper basis, chiefly by doing away with the multiplicity of poleis and their separate councils and governments; on his scheme there was only one polis, the present one, and one seat of decision-making and administration; thus the synoikismos was total: everyone was free, just as before, to look after his own affairs, but there was now only one place – Athens – which Theseus allowed them to treat as a polis; so that with everyone joining in the union it was a great city indeed that Theseus bequeathed to posterity. And he inaugurated a celebration of this unification, a festival in honor of the goddess which the Athenians still keep, at public expense, to this very day.” (Crawford & Whitehead, 1983)

The Foundation of Sparta Strabo, Geography 8.5.4: 

The Foundation of Sparta Strabo, Geography 8.5.4 “According to Ephorus the Herakleidai, Eurysthenes and Prokles, took possession of Lakonia, divided it into six parts and turned the chora into poleis. One of these divisions, Amyklai, they picked our as a gift for the man who had betrayed Lakonia to them and who persuaded its ruler at that time to come to an agreement and emigrate, with the Achaeans to Ionia. Sparta they designated as their own, and the royal seat. To the other places they sent kings, with the authority to take in any strangers (xenoi) who wished to live with them – this because the population was so small. Because of its good harbor they mad use of Las as a naval station, while Aigys became a base for operations against their enemies, since its territory bordered upon those of neighboring peoples. Pharis served as the treasury, since it afforded security against external attack.” (Crawford & Whitehead, 1983)

A World of Revolutions Political Life in the Dark Ages: 

A World of Revolutions Political Life in the Dark Ages Universally Aristocratic – strongmen with power based on the oikos Free persons belonged to a genos (clan), each clan belonged to a phylos (tribe), and each tribe belonged to a phratry (brotherhood) Aristocratic right to rule was arbitrary and not questioned Constrained by nomos (custom) but the aristocrat decided what constituted nomos

Political Developments of the Archaic Age (750 – 500 BCE): 

Political Developments of the Archaic Age (750 – 500 BCE) Oligarchies replace aristocracies Development of Law Codes Rise of Tyrants The Emergence of Democracy NOTE: Oligarchy, Tyranny, Democracy, and Law-Codes did not evolve according to ideological precepts but as pragmatic responses to immediate problems

Principal Reasons for Political Change: 

Principal Reasons for Political Change Aristocratic Competition Oligarchic Competition Increase in General Economic Prosperity Emergence of a Nouveaux Riche Changes in the Nature of Warfare (Hoplite Revolution) Rise in the Importance of the People (Demos)



The Bakchiads of Corinth (750 BCE – 658 BCE): 

The Bakchiads of Corinth (750 BCE – 658 BCE) Corinth was ruled by an aristocratic family (the Bakchiads) from 750 BCE – 658 BCE) Bakchiad period characterized by economic prosperity (i.e. wide distribution of Corinthian Ware; foundation of colonies at Syracuse and Corcyra ca. 734 BCE) Backchiads passed power from hand to hand and from one generation to the next Endogamous marriages until the early 7th century BCE A Bakchiad woman (Labda) was the first to marry a non-Bakchiad (Aetion) Labda was thought to be barren but gave birth to a son (Kypselos) The Bakchiads banished Kypselos to Olympia

The Rise of Kypselids (657BCE – 585 BCE): 

The Rise of Kypselids (657BCE – 585 BCE) 660 BCE - Kypselos, with the support of Pheidon, king of Argos, secured his return to Corinth Achieved the chief military post at Corinth – gained the trust of the hoplites (citizen soldiers) Gained support of the demos (people) by advocating debt relief 657 BCE – Kypselos stages coup; rules Corinth as Tyrant from 657 BCE to 625 BCE 625 BCE – death of Kypselos; succeeded by his son, Periander

The Reign of Periander at Corinth (625 BCE – 585 BCE): 

The Reign of Periander at Corinth (625 BCE – 585 BCE) Periander succeeds his father Kypselos in 625 BCE Periander’s reign is cruel and highly unpopular “To begin with, Periander was less violent than his father, but soon surpassed him in bloody-mindedness and savagery.” (Herodotus, Histories, 5.92f. Trans. A. De Selincourt, 1954) Overthrown by an oligarchic coup in 585 BCE Corinth henceforth ruled by an oligarchy of 80 families



Archaic Sparta: 

Archaic Sparta Ruled by a Monarchy down to ca. 700 BCE Evidence of stasis (civil conflict) in the late 8th century BCE Conquered Messenia (730 BCE – 710 BCE) Messenians reduced to semi-slave status (Helots) Spartans solve stasis through i. conquest of Messenia and ii. Appointing a Law-giver (Lycurgus) to develop a new law code (Rhetra)

The Reforms of Lycurgus Social Divisions: 

The Reforms of Lycurgus Social Divisions Spartan society totally transformed Society composed of three classes (Spartiates, Perioikoi, Helots) Spartiates = Spartan citizens; comprised of 9,000 families; given equal allotments of land; land worked by the Helots; Spartan males trained exclusively for war; Spartan women trained to manage the oikos and produce soldiers Perioikoi = “Those who dwell around”; Free citizens of surrounding villages under direct Spartan control; must supply troops to Spartan army Helots = Semi-slave caste comprised of conquered Messenians; tied to land owned by Spartiates; farmed land and surrendered portion to Spartiate family; No rights

Political Reforms of Lycurgus: 

Political Reforms of Lycurgus Note: Lycurgus credited with the est. of a “mixed constitution” 2 kings (Religious/Military Functions) Gerousia = council of elders (Pro-Boueletic Functions) – 28 + 2 kings Spartiates = 9,000 male citizens Ephors = executive/administrative board of 5 (Policed magistrates/Judicial functions)

Spartan Discipline: 

Spartan Discipline Sole aim of the Spartan state is warfare All Spartans free from providing for themselves (i.e. live off Helot labor) Children inspected at birth – the weak were exposed to die From 7 to 18 years boys sent to agoge to be schooled in hardship and discipline Between 18 and 20 years, boys were assigned to military camps for training Between 20 and 30 young men were assigned to barracks to continue military training and could not return home (even if married) At 30 years one became a man and a citizen (Homoioi) and was assigned to a mess (syssitia) Women were schooled in gymnastics and physical disciplined Women were expected to give birth to and raise good soldiers

Building Soldiers Spartan Eugenics: 

Building Soldiers Spartan Eugenics “A father had not the right of bringing up his offspring but had to carry it to a place called Lesche where the elders of the tribes sat in judgment upon the child. If they thought it well-built and strong, they ordered the father to rear it…but if it was mean-looking or misshapen, they sent it away to the place called Exposure, a glen at the foot of Mount Taygetus, for they considered that a child that did not start out healthy and strong would be handicapped in his own life and of no value to the state….” (Xenophon, Const. Lac. 14. Lim & Bailkey, 2002)

Educating Spartan Boys: 

Educating Spartan Boys “Nor was each man allowed to bring up and educate his son as he chose, but as soon as the boys were seven years old Lycurgus took them from their parents and enrolled them in companies. Here they lived and ate in common and shared their play and work…The older men watched them at their play, and by instituting fights and trials of strength, accurately learned which were the bravest and the strongest…As they grew older their training became more severe…They were taught to steal…if one is caught, he is severely whipped for stealing carelessly and clumsily…The boys steal with such earnestness that there is a story of one who had taken a fox’s cub and hidden it under his cloak, and, though his entrails were being torn out by the claws and teeth of the beast, persevered in concealing it until he died…” (Xenophon, Const. Lac. 16-18. Lim & Bailkey, 2002)

State Education for Girls: 

State Education for Girls “Considering education to be the most important and noblest work of a law-giver, he began at the very beginning by regulating marriages and the birth of children…He strengthened the bodies of the girls by exercise in running, wrestling, and hurling the discus or the javelin, in order that their children might spring from a healthy source and grow up strong, and that they themselves might have strength to easily endure the pains of childbirth. He did away with all seclusion and retirement of women, and ordained that girls, no less than boys, should go naked in processions, and dance and sing at festivals in the presence of young men…This nakedness of the maidens had in it nothing disgraceful. It was done modestly, not licentiously, and it produced habits of simplicity and taught them to desire good health and beauty of body, and to love honor and courage no less than the men.” (Xenophon, Const. Lac. 14. Lim & Bailkey, 2002)



Aristocratic Rule at Athens: 

Aristocratic Rule at Athens Athens ruled by handful of noble families (Eupatrids) Eupatrids formed a ruling council (Areopagus) Eupatrid rule characterized by intense competition Eupatrid (Kylon) seizes acropolis in 630 BCE Kylon defeated and executed by Megacles (Alcmeonids – now under curse for blood-guilt) 620 BCE – Athenian law codified by Drakon

Causes of Stasis (620 BCE – 594 BCE): 

Causes of Stasis (620 BCE – 594 BCE) Rapid increase in Athenian economic development Expansion of trade Switch to cash crops (i.e. Olives and Grapes) Growing separation between rich and poor Aristocracy arranged into factions (The Hill, The Coast, The Plain) Hektemoroi: lease land/purchase seed etc. from wealthy; pay rent of 1/6 of crop; debt secured against personal freedom 600 BCE – Factional conflict, class conflict, and crushing debt create civil strife

Solon’s Solution 594 BCE: 

Solon’s Solution 594 BCE Solon (Eupatrid) runs for archon based on debt relief and political reform Elected archon in 594 BCE Banned hektemorage Divides Athenians into 4 classes based on wealth (1. Pentekosiomedimnoi – 500 bushel men, 2. Hippeis – Cavalry men, 3. Zeugetai – Hoplite class, 4. Thetes – everyone else) All classes could vote for magistrates, vote in the assembly (Ekklesia), sit on law courts/juries Top two classes only can run for Archon (chief magistrate Top class alone can run for strategos (general)

Stasis Again 593 BCE – 546 BCE: 

Stasis Again 593 BCE – 546 BCE Stasis again after Solon leaves 593 BCE – 560 BCE Lycurgus (Plain Faction) locked in power struggle with Megacles (Coast Faction) 560 BCE – Third faction (Hill faction) formed led by Peisistratus Allied himself with the middle and lower classes Made 3 attempts to seize power by force (560 BCE, 556 BCE, 546 BCE) Final attempt was successful Ruled as tyrant at Athens from 546 – 528 BCE

The Rule of Peisistratus: 

The Rule of Peisistratus Immensely popular (except with nobles) Did not change the constitution of Solon Secured loyalty of nobles by appointing them to senior posts Took vote away from Ekklesia Est. circuit judges Est. 5% tax on agricultural produce – funds used to lend to poor farmers Est. major building program d. in 528 BCE – Succeeded by his sons Hippias and Hipparchus

Hippias and Hipparchus: 

Hippias and Hipparchus 528 BCE – 514 BCE, Hippias and Hipparchus ruled Athens jointly Also popular with the majority 514 BCE – Hipparchus assassinated by Harmodius and Aristogeiton 514 BCE – 510 BCE – Hippias sole ruler; degenerated into cruel tyrant 510 BCE – Hippias driven from power Hippias flees to Persian court – agitates Persian king to intervene on his behalf

The Murder of Hipparchus Thucydides 6.54: 

The Murder of Hipparchus Thucydides 6.54 “In fact the bold action taken by Aristogeiton and Harmodius was due to a love affair….Pisistratus was an old man when he died, still holding the dictatorship. After him it was not Hipparchus, as most people think, but Hippias, the eldest, who took over power. Harmodius was then a most beautiful young man in the flower of his youth, and was loved and possessed by Aristogiton, a citizen who belonged to the middle class. Harmodius was approached, though without success, by Hipparchus, the son of Pisistratus, and he told Aristogiton of this, who, being in love as he was, was greatly upset and was afraid that Hipparchus, with all of his power, might take Harmodius by force. He therefore began at once, so far as he could in his position, to plot to overthrow the dictatorship.” (Trans. R. Warner, 1954)

Stasis Again!: 

Stasis Again! 510 BCE – 508 BCE: Factional struggle between Isagoras and Cleisthenes Cleisthenes gained support of the demos (people) by promising political reform aimed at breaking up power of the nobles Elected Archon in 508 BCE to effect constitutional reform

Reforms of Cleisthenes: 

Reforms of Cleisthenes Replaced economic divisions with geographic divisions Divided Attica into regions (Demes) centered on villages, each with its own assembly and magistrates Each Deme was divided into Tryttyes (City, Coast, Inland) Replaced 4 old tribes with 10 new tribes distributed throughout every Deme and Tryttyes New Boule (legislative council) of 500 made up of 50 members (elected by lot) from each tribe Each tribe elected a strategos (general) Designed to fragment the power base of nobles Introduced Ostracism



Greek Colonization: 

Greek Colonization

Reasons for Colonization: 

Reasons for Colonization Demographic Pressure Land Hunger Drought/agricultural failure Political Conflict (stasis) Trade

Reflections of Early Colonization?: 

Reflections of Early Colonization? “The Phaiakians had previously lived in the broad lands of Hypereie near the Kyklopes, aggressive types who ravaged their land and were stronger than they. So godlike Nausithoos took them away from there and settled in Scherie, far from the bustle of men. And he built a wall around the polis and constructed houses and erected temples of the gods and divided up the land.” (Homer, Odyssey 6.4-10)

Founding of Cyrene Drought and Food Shortage: 

Founding of Cyrene Drought and Food Shortage Grinnus the son of Aesanius, who was a descendant of Theras and king of the island of Thera, arrived in Delphi with a hecatomb. He was accompanied by a number of ordinary citizens….King Grinnus was consulting the oracle on other matters when the oracle declared that he would found another community in Libya. “Lord,” he replied, “I am already too old and weighed down to take off like that. Please give the job to one of the younger men here.” As he was saying this he waved in the direction of Battus. This was all that happened then, and later, after their return home, they took no account of the oracle. They did not know where Libya was, and they were not so foolhardy as to send a colonization expedition off to some unknown destination. For the next seven years, however, no rain fell on Thera, and all their trees, with a single exception, had withered. The islanders consulted the oracle, and the Pythia reminded them that they were supposed to colonize Libya (Herodotus, Histories, 4.150-151. Trans. R. Waterfield, 1998)

Epigraphic Evidence for the Foundation of Cyrene (ca. 400 BCE): 

Epigraphic Evidence for the Foundation of Cyrene (ca. 400 BCE) “Resolved by the assembly…Since Apollo spontaneously told Battus and the Theraeans to found a colony in Cyrene, the Theraeans decided to dispatch Battus as the founder of the colony and king. The Theraeans shall sail as his comrades. They shall sail on equal terms; and one shall be enrolled from each family. Those who sail shall be adults, and any free man from the Theraeans who wishes, may sail. If the colonists secure the settlement, any colonist who sails later to Libya shall have a share in the citizenship and honors. He also shall receive a lot from the unassigned land. But of they do not make the settlement secure, and the Theraeans cannot come to their aid and they suffer trouble for five years, the colonists may return without fear to Thera. If anyone is unwilling to sail when sent by the city, let him be subject to the death-penalty and let his property be confiscated. Whoever receives and protects such a person – whether a father his son or a brother his brother – shall suffer the same punishment….They also cursed those who transgressed these conditions.” (D.B. Nagle & S. Burstein, 2006)

Relations With Locals Cyrene: 

Relations With Locals Cyrene “They lived in Aziris for six years, but in the seventh year some Libyans pretended that there was a better place they could take them to and persuaded them to leave. Having got them to leave, the Libyans led them west of Aziris, and carefully arranged the timing of the journey so that it would be night time when they took the Greeks through a particularly beautiful spot – a place called Irasa – and too dark for the Greeks to see it as they passed. They brought them to a place called Apollo’s Spring and said, ‘This is a good place for you Greeks to live, because a hole has been made in the sky here.’….Soon a considerable mass of people gathered in Cyrene and took over plots of the surrounding land. The local Libyans and their king, whose name was Adicran, resented being robbed of their land and pushed around by the settlers….He mobilized a huge army of his men and sent it to assault Cyrene.” (Herodotus, Histories, 4.157-158. Trans. R. Waterfield, 1998)

Colonization and Trade The Founding of Emporiae: 

Colonization and Trade The Founding of Emporiae “Even at that time Emporiae consisted of two towns divided by a wall. One of the towns was inhabited by Greeks from Phocaea (which was the original home of the Massilians), the other by Spaniards. The Greek town was open to the sea, and the whole extent of its wall was less than a hundred yards in length; whereas the Spaniards, who were further removed from the sea, had a wall with a circumference of three miles….the Spaniards, who had no seafaring experience, were glad to do business with the Greeks and wanted to purchase the foreign goods which the Greeks imported in their ships, and to dispose of the produce of their farms.” (Livy, AUC. 34.10)

Colonization and Pan-Hellenism: 

Colonization and Pan-Hellenism “And Ephorus says that these were the first Greek cities to be founded in Sicily, in the tenth generation after the Trojan War. For earlier men feared the pirates from Etruria and the savagery of the natives in the area, so that they did not even sail there by way of trade. But Theokles the Athenian was carried to Sicily by the wind and observed both the weakness of the natives and the richness of the land; when he returned, he failed to persuade any Athenians, but took many of the Chalkidians of Euboia and some of the Ionians and even some of the Dorians, of whom the majority were Megarians, and so sailed.” (Strabo, Geography, 6.2.2)

The Consequences of Colonization: 

The Consequences of Colonization The diffusion of Greek cultural forms The spread of the Polis system The expansion of trade networks Increased contact with non-Greek peoples The growth of a distinctly “Hellenic” identity (esp. Pan-Hellenic Colonies)

Cultural Developments of the Archaic Period: 

Cultural Developments of the Archaic Period Pan-Hellenism (i.e. Oracle of Delphi; Olympic Games) “Orientalizing” Revolution Speculative Philosophy New Directions in Literature

The Olympic Games: 

The Olympic Games

Origins of the Games: 

Origins of the Games First Olympic Games held in 776 BCE (first modern games held in 1896) Greek athletics predate the Olympics (i.e. Iliad 23) Only Greeks could participate (i.e. Pan-Hellenic institution) Religious celebration in honor of Olympian Zeus Opportunity for aristocratic class to display their arete Women were excluded from competition Women competed in separate event – The Heraia – In honor of Olympian Hera

Summary of Events: 

Summary of Events Horse Race Chariot Race Running (Stadion; Diaulos; Dolichos) Wrestling Boxing Pankration Pentathlon (Running, Jumping, Discus, Javelin, Wrestling)

The Prizes: 

The Prizes Pan-Hellenic games were stephanitic (crown) games Prizes only given to victors (No second place etc.) A young boy cut olive branches from sacred olive grove in the Altis Made crowns of olives for victors Victors allowed to erect statues of themselves at Olympia No material value to the prize; conferred Arete and Time on the victor

Arrachion of Phigaleia Victor – Pankration – 564 BCE: 

Arrachion of Phigaleia Victor – Pankration – 564 BCE The Phigalians have on their market-place a statue of the pancratiast Arrhachion; it is archaic, especially in its posture. The feet are close together, and the arms hang down by the side as far as the hips. The statue is made of stone, and it is said that an inscription was written upon it. This has disappeared with time, but Arrhachion won two Olympic victories at Festivals before the fifty-fourth, while at this Festival he won one due partly to the fairness of the Umpires and partly to his own manhood. [2] For when he was contending for the wild olive with the last remaining competitor, whoever he was, the latter got a grip first, and held Arrhachion, hugging him with his legs, and at the same time he squeezed his neck with his hands. Arrhachion dislocated his opponent's toe, but expired owing to suffocation; but he who suffocated Arrhachion was forced to give in at the same time because of the pain in his toe. The Eleans crowned and proclaimed victor the corpse of Arrhachion.(Pausanius, 8.40.1-2. W.H.S. Jones, 1918) -

The Delphic Oracle: 

The Delphic Oracle,%20tb051303076.jpg



The Great Oracle in Homer Odyssey, 8.72-81: 

The Great Oracle in Homer Odyssey, 8.72-81 “But when they had put from them the desire of food and drink, the Muse moved the minstrel to sing of the glorious deeds of warriors, from that lay the fame whereof had then reached broad heaven, [75] even the quarrel of Odysseus and Achilles, son of Peleus, how once they strove with furious words at a rich feast of the gods, and Agamemnon, king of men, was glad at heart that the best of the Achaeans were quarrelling; for thus Phoebus Apollo, in giving his response, had told him that it should be, [80] in sacred Pytho, when he passed over the threshold of stone to enquire of the oracle. For then the beginning of woe was rolling upon Trojans and Danaans through the will of great Zeus.” (A.T. Murray, 1919)

The Cult Center at Delphi: 

The Cult Center at Delphi Cult center for the worship of Apollo Pythios (Apollo who slew Python) Evidence for cult activity starting from c. 1000 BCE Evidence of habitation from ca. 860 BCE Seat of an oracle – Eclipsed the oracle of Zeus at Olympia Pan-Hellenic oracle – particularly important for colonization Pythian Games (ca. 720 BCE) – Athletic competitions added ca. 586 BCE

Orientalizing Period (ca. 700 – 625 BCE): 

Orientalizing Period (ca. 700 – 625 BCE) East-West Culture Drift Geometric art gives way to new designs inspired by Egypt and the Near East Athens and Corinth become major centers of artistic production Corinth develops “Black Figure” ware Athens develops “Red Figure” ware

Menkaure and His Wife - Egyptian: 

Menkaure and His Wife - Egyptian

Kouros of Attica (ca. 590 - 580 BCE): 

Kouros of Attica (ca. 590 - 580 BCE)

Literary Developments: 

Literary Developments New genres of literature emerge (i.e. Lyric Poetry; Philosophy; Political Writing) An emergent individualism An emergent humanism An emergent ethics

The Political Poetry of Solon: 

The Political Poetry of Solon “Such power I gave the people as might do, Abridged not what they had, nor lavished new, Those that were great in wealth and high in place My counsel likewise kept from all disgrace. Before them both I held my shield of might, and let not either touch the other’s right.” (Lim & Bailkey, 2002)

Sappho of Lesbos (ca. 615 – 570 BCE): 

Sappho of Lesbos (ca. 615 – 570 BCE) “When I even see you, my voice stops, my tongue is broken, a thin flame runs beneath all my skin, my eyes are blinded, there is thunder in my ears, the sweat pours from me, I tremble through and through, I am paler than grass, and I seem almost like one dead.” (J.A. Symonds)

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