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Development and Energy in Africa (DEA) Regional Workshop, Arusha Tanzania 16th – 18Tth October 2007 CASE STUDY OF THE IMPACTS OF MODERN ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES PROJECTS FOR SMALL SCALE IRRIGATION SCHEMES By Oscar Lema October 2007

Presentation Structure : 

Presentation Structure Energy and MDG’S Energy Situation in Tanzania TaTEDO Energy Programmes/Projects Intervention Experiences About the Tanzania DEA case study Methodology used to test AF Assessment Framework Test Findings Conclusion & Recommendations

Overview of Energy and Millennium Development Goals (MDGs): 

Overview of Energy and Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) Energy improves the quality of peoples life by providing lighting, clean water and healthier cooking methods ( MDG 3, 4, & 5) Clean energy improves the environment and health by replacing dirty fuels or wood usage (MDG 5 & 7) Cooking on improved Okoa fire wood stove (more than 300,000 stoves in use) Three-stone fire place and kerosene wick lamp

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Energy can be used to improve production resulting in income generation (MDG 1) Finally, and perhaps most important, energy can be used to stimulate economic activity (MDG 1,3 & 8) Energy and MDG’s cont… More than 15,000 improved stoves are produces and sold each month by each enterprise More that 1000 driers have being built year to date

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Energy situation in Tanzania. The estimated total energy consumption is more than 22 million tones of oil equivalent (TOE) or 0.7 TOE per capita. Energy consumption in rural areas accounts for about 85%. Biomass-based fuel accounts for more than 90% of primary energy supply. Fig: Total energy consumption in Tanzania Local beer brewing on three stove fire place

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Human physical energy remains the main source of energy for agriculture and transport activities for mostly women and children. Low quality fuels (biomass) used in inefficient technologies causes in-door air pollution and contributes to land degradation. More than 90% of Tanzanians have no access to grid electricity Only 2% of rural based Tanzanians have access to electricity Energy situation in Tanzania cont…. Rural transportation of firewood ( many hours are wasted) Traditional metal charcoal stove with low efficiency of 12 – 15%

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A sustainable modern energy development NGO with more than fourteen years experience in energy technologies development and related environmental conservation practices. Registered as a sustainable energy development national NGO, a non profit sharing, membership organization comprised of professionals, enterprises, CBOs, artisans, Individuals, farmers and institutions. Charged with the development and promotion of sustainable energy technologies and services. TaTEDO and Energy Intervention Projects Half Orange charcoal production kiln Jatropha-biofuel plant – growing interest from farmers MFP can use Jatropha Oil – new opportunity for rural development

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TaTEDO vision, mission and goals Vision: Self –reliant and poverty free communities with access to sustainable modern energy services Mission: To advance popular use of sustainable modern energy technologies by marginalized communities in Tanzania. TaTEDO does this through technologies adaptation, awareness raising, capacity building and advocacy for increased access to sustainable energy services, poverty reduction, self-reliance and environmental conservation New Solar PV companies are formed Post harvest losses are reduced Productive use of biomass energy technologies

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To improve quality of life of the Tanzanians by contributing to availability of improved and sustainable energy services, Availability of employment and income generating opportunities essential for poverty reduction. To reduce environmental degradation resulting from increased use of wood and fossil fuels. Assist the country to reduce dependence on imported energy. TaTEDO Goals: Solar PV – local micro financing is necessary Self built improved mud stove Solar PV improves quality of life

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TaTEDO undertakes the following activities to achiever vision mission and goals: Promote access to modern energy services for meeting productive and consumptive energy needs in SMEs, social service centres and households, Undertake field implementation of sustainable energy programmes and projects. Provide sustainable modern energy related consultancy services, Promote efficient and effective management of sustainable energy production and use environment, Develop networking and partnership with local, national and international organisations, Manage and disseminate energy information to primary, secondary and other stakeholders, Lobby and advocate in order to influence energy and environment related policies, strategies and legislations, Provide sustainable energy enterprises development services, and Conduct energy related applied researches. TaTEDO and Energy Intervention Projects

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Tanzania Case study for DEA Project Case study title: Solar/wind powered Water Pumping Irrigation Scheme Why this study? To test the Assessment Framework in the real situation To identify and examine the developmental impacts of energy innovations To use the information obtained to improve on-going and future energy interventions Specific Objectives To establish and apply an Assessment Framework for evaluating development and poverty impacts of energy interventions To engage in a dialogue with energy policy makers and other stakeholders on the basis of the framework, with a view to incorporating these issues in energy policy.

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About the case study: UNDP Water Pumping /Irrigation projects Located in Ukerewe Island, a district in Lake Victoria, Mwanza Region Comprise of two irrigation schemes Windmill – Nakatunguru village Solar PV – Namagubo village All focused into water pumping for irrigation using water from Lake Victoria Funded by UNDP GEF SGP Implemented by MAFS and managed by farmers groups Case study project site

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About the case study cont….. The projects aimed at: Increasing crop productivity – food security and income generation Demonstrating use of RET’s thus safeguarding the environment

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Methodology for testing AF Review of project documents Projects site visits Meetings with Farmers Group Leaders & District officials Structured questionnaires Discussions with focus groups Beneficiaries District officials Ministry of Agricuture and Food Security Project Sponsor Analysis of data by MS Access

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Assessment Framework Test Findings Unfortunately none of the projects were operational during AF testing due to: Lake water level drop caused by climate change – less rainfall coupled with long dry periods (evaporation) Increased demand for water by population around the Lake However: Success story revealed by the beneficiaries and other stakeholders during the first 3 months of projects life indicated positive outcomes and impacts

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Outcomes of the projects Increased awareness on the use of modern energy for productive use activities Farmer groups training on: Better farming methods (horticulture, etc.) Managing and maintaining wind /solar irrigation facility Leadership of groups Increase in farm sizes From 3 acres to 50 acres Strengthening community relations Increase in group size From 6 to 36 members From 5 to 60 members Increased crop productivity Increased access to water

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Impacts of the projects Although limited, impacts recorded include: Reduced income poverty (Revealed by beneficiaries during interview after comparing what they used to get before and after the project) Employment creation – many people resort to farming business Environmental conservation Use of clean energy sources Time saving Irrigating once for two days Initially irrigating everyday Only for two hours a day Initially irrigating 8 hours a day Reduced women drudgery

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Impacts/ Outcomes Array Increased Farm sizes Increased social relation Increased productivity

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Assessment framework and findings

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Lessons Learnt by TaTEDO for improving the AF The following lessons are quite critical to take into consideration during the planning and designing of energy intervention projects and programmes: Taking of baseline information for effective M + E undertaking Clear institutional set –up for effective implementation Clear ownership and involvement/participation of the beneficiaries for effective project management Clear impact assessment mechanism for ensuring project sustainability.

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Conclusions Based on these findings AF is an important tool during project planning, designing, implementation and in the M + E, Major setback for the successful implementation of the two projects is the drastic drop of water level in Lake Victoria In relation to the MDGs and Tanzania NSGRP the wind/solar powered technology is appropriate for irrigation projects. If successful, could have strong positive impacts on poverty reduction, gender and environmental sustainability.

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The information obtained through application of AF are useful to our National Energy Policy in: Improving policy implementation strategies Institute appropriate enforcing Laws and Regulations Improving mechanisms for projects monitoring and evaluation Applying impact assessment mechanism for ensuring sustainability Conclusions……

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Recommendations Baseline information is vital during project planning to be able to determine project viability, measure progress and assess impacts There is a need to incorporate monitoring and evaluation component in project planning from local level to national level Need to strengthen capacity for different stakeholders on the issues of development- poverty-energy linkages Create awareness and capacity building to planners in various sectors in order to get energy integrated into planning to implementation

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Need to conduct farmers/ beneficiaries awareness raising on the essential linkages between energy, environment and development. Different stakeholders involvement from very beginning of project planning, implementation and management is crucial for project success and sustainability System re-designing may be required to cope with the existing situation Recommendations ……

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P. O. Box 32794,Dar es Salaam, Tanzania Tel: +255-22-2700771/2700438 Fax: +255-22-2774400 Email: energy@tatedo.org Website: www.tatedo.org

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