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Tourism Development Opportunities and challenges for tourism in the region MS301 Wk 13 Lectures 2 Tuesday 9.00-10.00am 4.10.05 M107 Dawn Gibson Department of Tourism & Hospitality

Small island vulnerabilities: 

Small island vulnerabilities Environment under threat Fragile ecosystems Reduced ecological diversity Dependent economies Varying levels of development throughout the region Population growth Unemployment & increased poverty Lack HRM skills for tourism Expatriate ownership of tourism plant – accommodation, transport, tour operators

Main motivations – UK market: 

Main motivations – UK market Relaxation – sun, sea, sand Spend time with family Have fun with friends See different scenery & landscapes Find out about local cultures Experience adventure & excitement in natural environments See wildlife & enjoy nature in the wild 25% of UK market are Ecotourism oriented

Priorities of tourists: 

Priorities of tourists Hygiene, safety & security Quality accommodation & facilities Good local excursions & guiding Local food produced with local ingredients Small scale accommodation run by local people Self-guided trails with good information Opportunities to buy local handicrafts Local cultural events Organised opportunities to spend time with locals

Trends in the last 10 years: 

Trends in the last 10 years Tourism has grown by 50% bringing more pollution and development pressure Activity / nature tourism has grown faster Tourists are more environmentally and socially aware An equal emphasis on economic and social sustainability, and especially poverty Many projects are seeking to use tourism as a source of income for communities

The new tourist: 

The new tourist Well travelled, discerning Educated Environmentally aware – ‘green’ Use Internet to book & research travel Interested in education as part of travel experience Interpretation vital part of learning Want to learn about indigenous cultures Meet local peoples & eat local foods Nature & adventure Quality & value for money important Want to give back to society Travel on word-of-mouth recommendations

Alternative forms of tourism: 

Alternative forms of tourism Nature tourism Ecotourism Backpacker/Youth tourism – GAP year Adventure tourism Whitewater rafting Dive tourism Food/cuisine tourism Cruise tourism Whale watching Sports fishing Indigenous/ Village/Aboriginal tourism Cultural tourism Heritage tourism Surf tourism Education & scientific tourism Pro-poor tourism

Dive tourism: 

Dive tourism Enormous growth predicted in worldwide demand for tourism (4.8% worldwide WTTC 1998) Delivery of service quality is a major issue for many tourism providers to gain customer satisfaction and positive word-of-mouth Tour operator is the critical link between customer demands and tourism products Evaluation of the service quality of tour operators is thus a crucial issue

Adventure Tourism: 

Adventure Tourism “Consumers increasingly want to travel to high places (mountaineering], underwater (scuba-diving] and to the ends of the earth [Antarctica trips]”(WTO 1998) Rapid growth in “adventure tourism” products and services in Australia & New Zealand Use of “adventure” component in destination marketing e.g. Queenstown, NZ “adventure capital of the World” Pacific Harbour, “Adventure capital of Fiji” Key factor in destination marketing 15% - 30% annual growth

Importance of Service Quality : 

Importance of Service Quality Increasingly discerning customers High service interaction between customers and providers Service role in terms of adventure = additional risk / duty of care

Dive Tourism: 

Dive Tourism Focus on the tourism product attributes reefs, caves, wrecks, marine life, water quality Focus on demographic attributes of divers young, single, well educated, backpacker Focus on service attributes of tour operator (supply and demand interaction) facilities, service interaction, dive boat, tour guides etc. types of dive experience (day trips, liveaboards, SCUBA, tour-guides, snorkel)

Dive tourism: 

Dive tourism Service quality an important issue for dive tourists : higher customer satisfaction and positive WOM Service performance was good overall, but on some aspects it was not necessarily important to divers (waste of resources?) Tangible elements of service quality are important but not being performed as well as expected Visual appearance a big issue : perception of professionalism and safety consciousness Safety a big concern (media reports) and is reflected in many service quality attributes

Humpback whales - Tonga: 

Humpback whales - Tonga US$ 120,000-700,000 p.a. Ecotourism & whales 1978 King prohibited whaling in Tonga Numbers recovered 500-700 now but endangered Vava’au – small scale industry 5.000 visitors to island World class attraction Whale watching Tonga

Potential costs of whale watching: 

Potential costs of whale watching Examples could be: Potential pollution of the Vava'u environment through such things as whale-watch boat fuel spillage Litter from whale tourists, Demand induced inflation in Vava'u as a result of increased tourism or a distortion of patterns of investment in the area.

Benefits of whale watching: 

Benefits of whale watching Level of tourism in Vava'u is not high Isolation of the area means that "economic leakage" is relatively low and additionally Tongan law does not permit foreign ownership of land and it requires the involvement of local Tongans in tourism businesses


Ecotourism Understand ecotourist needs Ensure interpretation & education part of the package Green Authentic Assist with conservation Samoa

Backpacker/youth market: 

Backpacker/youth market

Indigenous/village tourism: 

Indigenous/village tourism Caters for the cultural tourism or backpacker markets Mainly in form of day trips or treks Growth of indigenous owned backpacker resorts Growth of pollution from sewage & waste Seaweed growth Destruction of reefs

Food & Tourism: 

Food & Tourism 760 million international tourists in 2004 500,000 of them travelled to Fiji Every single one of them ate as part of their tourist experience Dining is consistently ranked in the top three favourite tourist activities Approximately 14% - 24% of tourist expenditure is on food

Sustainable tourism: 

Sustainable tourism Not just about the natural environment anymore Emergence of need to consider a broader range of stakeholders & the multi-sectoral nature of tourism Despite this the relationship between food production, food consumption and sustainable tourism, this area is virtually ignored in the literature Personal interest in “slow food”, regional cuisine, Pacific foods & culinary tourism

Food and tourism in Fiji: 

Food and tourism in Fiji 15% of GDP in Fiji is derived from tourism and tourism related activities Most tourism expenditure is concentrated in the West (over 82%) Tourism in Fiji has a low economic retention rate – about 40% Part of that leakage can be accounted for by expenditure on imported foods Estimated FJD$30 million per annum is spent on importing food products for the tourism sector that could be grown in Fiji Studies in Fiji found that up to 47% of hotel purchases were from local providers

Ultimate goals: 

Ultimate goals Increase the use of indigenous products Increase local production of exotics Create a distinctive “Pacific cuisine” Broaden the presentation of traditional foods and cookery methods By forging stronger linkages between agriculture and tourism through the development and promotion of sustainable cuisine, a symbiotic relationship between these sectors can be established

Olooloo Farming Project & Outrigger on the lagoon: 

Olooloo Farming Project & Outrigger on the lagoon

Who are the stakeholders?: 

Who are the stakeholders? Governments Research & educational institutions Local communities Tourism organisations Tourism operators Tourists

The role of government: 

The role of government Legislation & regulation Licensing of SMEs Education of local communities Encourage local ownership & participation

Public and private sector: 

Public and private sector Some national and local ‘Sustainable tourism’ strategies, but weakened by: unclear principles confusion in terminology e.g. Ecotourism being restricted to certain types of tourism inadequate consultation with local stakeholders insufficient resource assessment not being linked to implementation tools Some tourism enterprises have become more environmentally and socially conscious in their operations – follow their examples

Involve resource owners: 

Involve resource owners Provide workshops on how to start & run small businesses Empowerment & capacity building Provide value added benefits e.g. scholarships, schools, medical assistance, develop village/rural infrastructure

Spreading the tourism $$$: 

Spreading the tourism $$$ Links to agriculture & fisheries Handicrafts Transport Creative use of marginalised communities e.g. Pure Fiji’s use of women in villager & squatter settlements to make baskets, masi, paper, pottery, mats etc. for packaging their products

Community involvement & education: 

Community involvement & education Consult resource owners Research indigenous knowledge Develop alternative forms of tourism away from coasts e.g. village stays, whitewater rafting, hiking & trekking, mountain climbing Education workshops on needs of tourist, waste management, business skills, marketing, knowledge of cultural differences of tourists.

Certification & Accreditation: 

Certification & Accreditation Codes of conduct for both tourist & host communities Reef/marine stewards Redesign western certification to suit indigenous products e.g. village stays Make membership free or minimal cost Monitor regularly

Develop handbook for policy makers & local service providers: 

Develop handbook for policy makers & local service providers Integration of sustainability into tourism policies not separate plans/documents Making ALL tourism more sustainable – not ‘sustainable tourism’ or ‘ecotourism’ in a box All aspects of sustainability: Economic, Social, Environmental Influencing all relevant Ministries (for Tourism, Environment and Development) in their policy making

Policy formulation issues: 

Policy formulation issues Equate Sustainability with Quality National and local policies and strategies Multi-stakeholder participation Realistic assessment of resources, markets and capacity Recognise the special role of Protected Areas e.g. ‘tabu’ areas at Shangri-La Fijian

Tools for implementing policies: 

Tools for implementing policies Land use planning / development control Integrated area management Regulations – development and operations Impact assessment requirements Design guidelines Infrastructure and transport development

Tools for implementing policies: 

Tools for implementing policies Economic instruments – admissions, taxes, financial incentives etc. Setting standards and certification Capacity building and learning areas Promoting sustainable consumption - marketing and information Visitor involvement through feedback Destination indicators, monitoring and benchmarking

Integrated Coastal Management: 

Integrated Coastal Management Management of coastal zone as a whole in relation to local, regional, national, and international goals Considers community needs and relevant practices in given locality fisheries, aquaculture, forestry, manufacturing industry, waste disposal, and tourism Balance between competing uses of water and natural resources, hoping for long-term environmental health and productivity

Key Elements of ICM: 

Key Elements of ICM Multiple stakeholders Strong scientific foundation Early public participation Community and local management Networking at regional and national levels Capacity building Strong extension services Reliable data and indicators to measure success e.g. Coral Cay

Questions to think about — How can we…: 

Questions to think about — How can we… Manage coastal issues in an integrated way Address population factors and human needs Educate public and raise awareness Involve communities in protection and management Create social and economic incentives

What do you want for your future?: 

What do you want for your future? What do you want for your children The Onus is on You Take responsibility make responsible choices And then the South Pacific will become a major player in sustainable tourism development in the future – it can be that simple!

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