ARMedia Research Component 2011 Presentation

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Armenia 2011 Media Public Opinion and Preference Survey Alternative Resources in Media Project (implemented by a consortium of Internews, YPC, EPF):

Armenia 2011 Media Public Opinion and Preference Survey Alternative Resources in Media Project (implemented by a consortium of Internews , YPC, EPF ) Caucasus Research Resource Centers - ARMENIA A Program of the Eurasia Partnership Foundation crrc@crrc.am July , 2011

Study Components:

Study Components A nation-wide survey of general population (sample size 1,420, all Marzes ; January-February 2011) Eight focus group discussions among specific segments of the population how are the main media and internet customers (bloggers-1, soap opera viewers-2, Internet user students-1, advertisers-1, entertainment program viewers-2, news viewers-1; March, 2011) 33 in-depth interviews with representatives of media industry (journalists, heads of news agencies, media owners, heads of media NGOs, public servants; April-May, 2011) Comparative analysis of media monitoring survey conducted by Yerevan Press Club ( hereafter YPC ) (7 TV channels, 2 newspapers, 3 online publications; conducted by YPC in February 1-March 15)

Implementing team:

Implementing team Gayane Mamikonyan – Study design and coordination, questionnaire, guide developer, draft analytical report writer; Gayane Ghukasyan – sampling/data archiving expert; Ruben Yeganyan – questionnaire adviser and fieldwork manager CRRC-Armenia all staff including Jenny Paturyan (Program Manager) and Monika Shahmenendyan ( Program Assistant) Arpine Porsughyan – PPT file developer 60 Supervisors, interviewers, moderators CRRC-Armenia team enjoyed advises and monitoring activities performed by Maria Aslamazyan, EPF and YPC staff, as well as CRRC-Regional staff

Outline:

Outline 1. Traditional Media General Overview (TV, Radio, Newspapers) Concerns Opportunities 2. Alternative/online Media General overview (Internet usage, Social networks, Online publications) Concerns A look forward

Traditional Media | General Overview (availability, usage, trust, content):

Traditional Media | General Overview (availability, usage, trust, content)

Monitoring data for print media publications (YPC media monitoring of 2 newspapers(“Aravot”, “Golos Armenii”), February 1- March 15, 2011):

Top five t hematic topics measured by number of units in newspapers (in units) 1. Sport 322 2. Activities of the Armenian government 284 3. Activities of the Armenian political parties 262 4. Resolution of the Karabakh conflict 242 5. World news 212 Monitoring data for print media publications (YPC media monitoring of 2 newspapers(“ Aravot ”, “ Golos Armenii ”), February 1- March 15, 2011)

Slide 24:

What media experts have to say about newspapers: “There are no readers, no money, no reporters, dependency on a certain person and if we add up all of these similar things at the end who are we publishing these newspapers for.” (Head of a news agency, Yerevan) “ … this [print media] is a goner, and that [Internet] is a newcomer. Print media …has also become a bit negligent itself. That is the reason it tries to get a hold of some front-pagers to make itself more attractive.” (Media professional/academic, Yerevan) “People do not have money, one person buys [a newspaper], then everyone else in the building take turns to read it, or tell each other without the others reading. Those who can read well will read and then start retelling to the rest.” (Head of a media NGO, Yerevan)

Major Concerns on Traditional Media:

Major Concerns on Traditional Media

Slide 31:

According to the participants of the focus groups ( FG ): “ …each TV company is implementing someone's viewpoint or has a certain direction. There is no way we can have the free, fair, light discussions you are talking about. Every discussion is someone’s viewpoint and people participating in the discussion are those who have the same view.” (Female, 55, employed, Yerevan) “I have an impression that they have created some kind of a vacuum; citizens watch a stupid comedy program, then watch official news, then again stupidity , then again official news. A third point of view is completely absent.” (Male, 27, employed, Yerevan) “ It is interesting that when I watch our Armenian TV channels, it seems to me that the virtual life is there, and the real life is in the Internet … And the reality which is represented seems to have no connection with our life. ” (Female, 54, self-employed, Yerevan) “I get the impression that whatever Armenian channel I watch is purely a state channel ; no independent channels exist.” (Male, 33, employed, Yerevan)

Slide 32:

According to the media professionals interviewed: “ Freedom requires money .” (Blogger, Yerevan) “You can see for yourself who they [free media] are. You should know that those who are in the most difficult situation today are the free ones .” (Head of a news agency, Yerevan) “ Each media is like its owner .” (Head of an NGO, Regional NGO) “Never will the President of the country call the editor or the head of the news agency, and tell what to do… It is done through using indirect leverages, and certain environment of constrain, fear for the future of the media outlet, the journalist …” (Head of a TV station, Regional NGO)

Opportunities for Traditional Media:

Opportunities for Traditional Media

Slide 34:

Monitoring data for information/news and analysis programs (YPC media monitoring of 7 TV channels, February 1 – March 15, 2011) Top five thematic topics measured by number of units in TV programs (in units) 1. World news 3532 2. Activities of the Armenian government 2072 3. Sport 1986 4. Resolution of the Karabakh conflict 1622 5. Disaster, emergency news 1397 Top five thematic topics measured by number of hits/units in TV programs (in units) 1. Activities of the Armenian government 126 2. Resolution of the Karabakh conflict 105 3. Activities of the Armenian political parties 95 4. Regional developments 64 5. Increase in prices (on goods and services), low salaries, pensions and social benefits in Armenia 63 Monitoring data for social-political, discussion programs (YPC media monitoring of 7 TV channels, February 1 – March 15, 2011)

Slide 35:

Top five topics respondents would like to receive more information about from the media Mean, 1-10 point scale Increase in prices (on goods and services), low salaries, pensions and social benefits in Armenia 8.85 Healthcare issues (quality of medical services, drug and medical service costs), corruption in the healthcare system 8.84 Unemployment in Armenia 8.78 Situation in the Armenian army 8.77 Issue of recognition of the Armenian genocide of 1915 in the world 8.77

Monitoring data for other types of TV programs (YPC media monitoring of 7 TV channels, February 1 – March 15, 2011):

Top five thematic topics measured by number of units in TV programs (in units) 1. Art/cultural programs 1139 2. Soap operas 1055 3. Entertainment programs 990 4. Topics of spiritual values, issues related to the church, religious, ethnic and other minorities, youth trends in Armenia 953 5. Supplemental information (weather forecasts, currency exchange rates, etc.) 677 Monitoring data for other types of TV programs (YPC media monitoring of 7 TV channels, February 1 – March 15, 2011)

Slide 38:

According to the FG participants: “ Entertainment programs for Armenia should be only educational ones that promote knowledge …” (Female, 20, self-employed, Yerevan) “For adults I would have clips from foreign channels on science, animals and humor which are informative.” (Male, 24, employed, Yerevan) “ V illage life is more isolated now, but villagers know many interesting stories.” (unemployed, Yerevan) “Who wouldn’t watch “ Vardanank ” * etc .? Of course they would. They can make it as a soap opera...” (Female, 64, employed, Yerevan) *Historical novel by Derenik Demirchian

Alternative Media | General Overview:

Alternative Media | General Overview

Personal computer adoption in Armenia (%), Caucasus Barometer:

2007 2008 2009 2010 11 15 15 27 Personal computer adoption in Armenia (%), Caucasus Barometer Home internet adoption in Armenia (%), Caucasus Barometer 2007 2008 2009 2010 4 7 6 19

Slide 50:

According to one of the focus group participants: “I can say that the Internet has become an inseparable part of my life, a very important part, like food or clothing.” (Female, 26, student, Yerevan)

Slide 59:

According to the FG participants: “They [blogs] have become an additional source of information . But we are talking about a small number of blogs, because most of the blogs remain personal and their existence is not important for Armenia.” (Male, 37, blogger, Yerevan) “I think there are not many bloggers in Armenia that always update their blogs. Those who do all know each other very well. They are like one family.” (Female, 19, student, Yerevan) “There is no legal framework that regulates the accuracy of information on the blogs. You can’t sue any blogger if he writes something inaccurate.” (Female, 41, blogger, Yerevan) “Personally for me a blog is trustworthy if the blogger is trustworthy. There are some blogs that I don’t know who is standing behind it, and when the blogger uncovers his/her face, he/she becomes more trustworthy for me, or at least I understand why he/she writes.” (Male, 37, blogger, Yerevan)

Slide 61:

According to the FG participants: “Today the HR goes online to see what that person writes on Facebook or in blogs.” (Male, 37, blogger, Yerevan) “… I have started to lock more of my stuff or make them invisible . I used to write very openly about myself, but recently over the last three to four years I have become more careful. I have noticed the same tendency among my friends.” (Female, 27, blogger, Yerevan) “I do not oppose different groups who monitor and understand what society needs are. Does that society need foreign language in schools or not? Should the border with Turkey be open or not? I think it is a bit absurd to control .” ( Female, 22, blogger, Yerevan)

Monitoring data for online publications (YPC media monitoring, 3 online publications - 1in.am, Lragir.am, Panorama.am; February 1 – March 15, 2011):

Top five t hematic topics measured by number of hits/units in online publications (in units) 1. Regional developments (in Iran, in Turkey out of the context of Armenian-Turkish relations, in Azerbaijan out of the Karabach conflict context, in Georgia, and Russia in South Caucasus) 1342 2. World news 1199 3. Activities of the Armenian political parties 1184 4. Activities of the Armenian government 954 5. Resolution of the Karabagh conflict 768 Monitoring data for online publications (YPC media monitoring, 3 online publications - 1 in . am , Lragir . am , Panorama . am; February 1 – March 15, 2011)

Slide 65:

According to the FG participants and media experts: “Go online and there are newspapers. You can find everything there. It is done in a way that a person can decide for himself what s/he needs. This is not like in “Lraber” where they constantly inject, inject, inject news.” (Male, 22, employed, Yerevan) “I think the best part about receiving information on social networks is that you are working and have your Facebook open, and suddenly see that someone has shared some news. Then you hear about that news only in the evening news on TV.” (Female, 26, student, Yerevan) “Compared to television, this sphere [online media] is growing fast, especially it is a lot easier to create websites and work. Besides the polarized ones, there are indeed websites that try to deliver impartial news. There is competition and maybe they are the future . ” (NGO leader, Yerevan)

Slide 66:

THANK YOU! Comments welcome!

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