Pandemic

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Pandemic Influenza “Get Informed - Be Prepared”: 

Pandemic Influenza “Get Informed - Be Prepared” Lynchburg College 2007 Updated 6/07

Objectives: 

Objectives Describe the differences and similarities of the annual seasonal influenza and the pandemic influenza Discuss the past and future impact of a pandemic on our community Describe recommendations for pandemic preparedness planning

Slide3: 

Seasonal Influenza Preparedness Pandemic Influenza Preparedness

Seasonal Influenza: 

Seasonal Influenza Occurs annually Peaks usually in December thru March in North America 36,000 deaths each year Usually worse in frail, elderly, and very young

Pandemic Influenza: 

Pandemic Influenza Rapid Global spread among humans No seasonal preference Comes in waves Total duration is more than a year Millions of deaths Affecting the very young, 15-35 years of age, and the very old

Why Plan Now?: 

Why Plan Now? Over the past 300 year history, the world has gone no longer than 39 years without a pandemic. We are currently in the 39th year since the Hong Kong Influenza. [H3N2 virus]

Slide7: 

Pandemics Do Happen! H1 H1 H3 H2 H7* H5* H9* 1918 Spanish Influenza H1N1 1957 Asian Influenza H2N2 1968 Hong Kong Influenza H3N2 1980 1997 1915 *Avian Flu 2003 2004 1977 1996 2002 1925 1935 1945 1955 1965 1975 1985 1995 2005 2003-2006 1998 1999 2003

Why watch H5N1 virus?: 

Why watch H5N1 virus?

5 out of 6 Criteria Met : 

5 out of 6 Criteria Met Widespread and spreading prevalence in migratory birds; broad host range Continued outbreaks among domestic poultry Mammalian infection (cats, pigs, etc.) lethal Virus is evolving Sporadic human cases (309 cases, as of May 31, 2007) Most in young and healthy Case-fatality ~60% (188 deaths) Rare person-to-person transmission  Sustained and rapid person-to-person transmission

Phases of a Pandemic: Where We Are Now: 

Phases of a Pandemic: Where We Are Now

How is the virus spread among birds?: 

How is the virus spread among birds? Direct contact between healthy and infected birds Infected fecal matter Can be found on surface of unwashed egg shells from infected birds

Border Protection & Risk of Introduction of H5N1 Asian Strain of H5N1: 

Border Protection & Risk of Introduction of H5N1 Asian Strain of H5N1 Migratory Birds – Overlap of summer breeding grounds in Alaska, Northeast Canada

Reassortment (Mutation) Pending: 

Avian Reservoir Avian virus Human virus Reassortment (Mutation) Pending

Reassortment Pending: 

Avian Reservoir Reassortment Pending Avian virus

Addressing practices to slow reassortment : 

Addressing practices to slow reassortment

What we know from history: 

What we know from history

Pandemic Influenza: 1918: 

Pandemic Influenza: 1918 How Lynchburg survived, as told by Dr. Clifton Potter

Pandemic Influenza Hit Lynchburg: 

Pandemic Influenza Hit Lynchburg October-November 1918 Lasted for ~6 weeks This was the 2nd wave of the pandemic after the 1st milder wave in the spring Very virulent Most fatal in 15-35 year olds and elderly Many orphaned children resulted

Slide20: 

Source: America’s Forgotten Pandemic, 1918-1919

Began at R-MWC: 

Began at R-MWC The H1N1 virus entered Lynchburg area by way of a R-MWC student from Boston, MA. R-MWC had hundreds of cases and 3 fatalities: - 1 freshman, 1 senior, 1 faculty member

Lynchburg College 1918 [“Virginia Christian College” until 1919]: 

Lynchburg College 1918 [“Virginia Christian College” until 1919] President, Dr. Hundley, ordered a strict quarantine of the campus No one in or out, including staff and faculty Self-containment worked as LC had a dairy farm and garden foods Food was rationed Less than 10 cases of influenza No deaths from LC

Lynchburg Area 1918: 

Lynchburg Area 1918 Dr. Perrow, city health officer, made announcements in newspaper This decreased panic citywide Instructions were printed on how to make masks Citywide ordinance put into place, requiring all to wear masks when out and about in the city Halloween was canceled

Clinical Features: 

Clinical Features Pandemic Influenza

Clinical Features: 

Clinical Features Aggressive clinical course with concentration in previously healthy children and young adults Current features Virus can survive in environment 6-35 days droplet infection depending on temperature Incubation period in humans ranges from 2-17 days 7-day range current WHO standard for observation

Clinical Features (con’t): 

Clinical Features (con’t) High fever, body aches, malaise Diarrhea, vomiting and abdominal pain in some cases Respiratory distress within 4-13 days of onset Pneumonia consistent feature in severe cases Multi-organ failure

Treatment: 

Treatment Antiviral drugs such as : Tamiflu capsules and Relenza inhaled doses Antibiotics will not help Vaccine (made available after 4-6 months) Rehydration Rest

Goals for Planning: 

Goals for Planning

Goals of Community Measures: 

Goals of Community Measures Delay onset of outbreak Reduce the peak burden on hospitals/infrastructures Decrease the number of cases of deaths and illness Decrease the overall health impact

What is Lynchburg College doing? : 

What is Lynchburg College doing? Pandemic Planning Committee meets regularly A master plan is documented from each department Current plans are to recess classes when a highly virulent pandemic influenza is detected in North America Notifications will be issued through the ‘544-SNOW’ line, e-mail, and the LC homepage Information sessions are being offered to all areas of the LC community

What can students do?: 

What can students do?

What can students do?: 

What can students do? Stay calm Get informed and stay updated Talk with your family Complete the Emergency Travel Plan form http://forms.lynchburg.edu/student/emergency

Protect Yourself!: 

Protect Yourself! Get seasonal flu vaccines Wash your hands frequently Cough and sneeze etiquette [use tissues] Social distancing during the outbreak. Keep 3 feet away & do not assemble.

Travel Concerns: 

Travel Concerns Research your area before your trip -What are the disease risks in that area? -Are you up-to-date on all necessary vaccines? -If sick, where can you go for care? Avoid contact with uncooked poultry and eggs

Travel Concerns (cont.): 

Travel Concerns (cont.) Do not travel if you are sick Monitor your health when you return from an area with reports of avian flu Contact your health care provider if you become ill and tell them you have been to an infected area

More Information: 

More Information www.vdh.virginia.gov/pandemicflu/ www.cdc.gov/flu/pandemic www.pandemicflu.gov www.who.int/csr/en

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