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Effects of Planetary Protection on Life Support and Habitation Systems Panel Session Objective: Discuss the major findings of the Life Support and Habitation and Planetary Protection Workshop conducted in 2005. 02/6/06 - Habitation 2006 Orlando, FL


Panelists: (In Presentation Order) Dr. Jitendra A. Joshi, NASA Headquarters Dr. John A. Hogan (Moderator), NSGF - Ames Research Center Dr. Margaret S. Race, SETI Institute Dr. Daniel J. Barta, Johnson Space Center Joseph J. Kosmo, Johnson Space Center Dr. Darrell Jan, Jet Propulsion Laboratory 02/6/06 - Habitation 2006 Orlando, FL


Life Support & Habitation and Planetary Protection Workshop: Results John A. Hogan National Space Grant Foundation NASA-Ames Research Center John W. Fisher, NASA Ames Research Center Margaret S. Race, SETI Institute Jitendra A. Joshi, NASA Headquarters John D. Rummel, NASA Headquarters 02/6/06 - Habitation 2006 Orlando, FL

Genesis of Workshop: 

Genesis of Workshop Exploration Life Support: Solid Waste Management (SWM) Element Task: Requirements Generation for Future Missions SWM Major System Drivers: Crew Health and Safety Quality of Life Resource Recovery Planetary Protection Mission Objectives 02/6/06 - Habitation 2006 Orlando, FL


Valles Marineris Control Forward Contamination (Planetary Protection and Science) 2. Protect Crew Health and Safety Planetary Protection 02/6/06 - Habitation 2006 Orlando, FL


Valles Marineris Art - Kees Veenenbos; Data - MOLA Science 3. Control Back Contamination Planetary Protection 02/6/06 - Habitation 2006 Orlando, FL

SWM: Planetary Protection Critical Issues: 

Waste storage/disposal Return to Earth On/below the surface In habitat Waste containment requirements Containment duration Certainty Waste state conditions – Biosignatures Waste processor outputs Gas venting Waste state Biological systems Interplanetary disposal SWM: Planetary Protection Critical Issues 02/6/06 - Habitation 2006 Orlando, FL

Other Critical Areas: 

Other ELS Systems: Air Water (ISRU) Food Production Thermal Extravehicular activity (AEVA) systems Monitoring systems, procedures and equipment needs (AEMC) Other Critical Areas 02/6/06 - Habitation 2006 Orlando, FL


April 27-29, 2005 Center For Advanced Space Studies Houston, Texas Organized by: NASA Ames Research Center Sponsored by: NASA Headquarters Life Support & Habitation and Planetary Protection Workshop 02/6/06 - Habitation 2006 Orlando, FL

Workshop Focus Areas: 

Workshop Focus Areas Exploration Life Support Planetary Protection Office Advanced Environmental Monitoring & Control Advanced Extravehicular Activity Life Support & Habitation and Planetary Protection Workshop 02/6/06 - Habitation 2006 Orlando, FL

Workshop Participants: 

Workshop Participants Carlton Allen Judy Allton Jack Barengoltz Daniel Barta Karen Buxbaum Paul Campbell Joe Chambliss Max Coleman Sharon Cobb Alan Drysdale John Fisher Dean Eppler Louise Hamlin Anthony Hanford John Hogan Darrell Jan Mark Kliss Joseph Kosmo Michael Lawson Aaron Mills Charlie (Mark) Ott Alan Perka Margaret Race John Rummel Richard Sauer Laurent Sibille Frederick Smith Perry Stabekis Kasthuri Venkateswaran Carl Walz Chantel Whatley 02/6/06 - Habitation 2006 Orlando, FL

Workshop Process: 

Workshop Process General Breakout Group 1 General Breakout Group 2 Advanced Environmental Monitoring & Control Advanced Extra- Vehicular Activity Exploration Life Support Planetary Protection Group Findings Final Report Pre-Workshop Organizational Meetings Preliminary Presentations Specialized Breakout Groups Pre- Workshop Workshop Post- Workshop General Breakout Groups Group Findings Group Reports Invited Speakers Organizers & Leads Editors Workshop Readings To Participants ALS – D. Barta AEVA – L. Kearney AEMC – D. Jan PP – J. Rummel Robotics – K. Buxbaum/ J. Barengoltz PP Mars - M.S. Race 02/6/06 - Habitation 2006 Orlando, FL

Workshop Charter: 

Workshop Charter Initiate communication, understanding, and a working relationship between the ELS, AEVA, AEMC and PP communities regarding the effect of PP policy development and implementation requirements for future human missions. 2) Define top-level PP issues associated with both forward and back contamination, and determine their likely effects on ELS, AEVA and AEMC hardware and operations for the first human mission to Mars.   3) Identify PP requirements that will be needed to guide future technology development for ELS, AEVA and AEMC systems in advance of the first human mission.   4) Examine management approaches that manage the risk of developing systems prior to full definition of PP policies.   5) Identify important R&TD areas and identify any gaps in science or technology capability that will help guide the development of technologies and approaches w/r/t PP policies.  02/6/06 - Habitation 2006 Orlando, FL

Pre-Workshop Assumptions: 

Pre-Workshop Assumptions 1. Human Mars missions will necessarily generate materials originating from both biotic and abiotic sources that could potentially contaminate Mars and/or be classified as an indicator of life. 2. The first human mission to Mars is not likely to occur before ~2030, and extensive data and information from precursor robotic science missions will help guide the selection of the landing site and will provide sufficient knowledge about Martian environmental materials to support appropriate design of human missions and systems. 3. Multiple Mars human exploration mission architectures may be utilized, including an on-orbit (non-landing) mission and short and/or extended duration surface stays (e.g., 30 to >600 days). 4. Multiple human missions to the Mars surface may occur over the course of years, either to a common landing site or to multiple landing sites. If to a common site, the common site habitat may be reoccupied, and operate at a TBD level during periods between crew stays. 5. A split mission strategy may deploy some mission assets at Mars prior to the launch or landing of the crew. Thus, prior to the arrival of humans on Mars, precursor robotic missions may have delivered and cached cargo and materials including essential hardware and supplies for establishing the first base camp. 6. There may be autonomous deployment of critical surface system elements prior to human arrival, potentially including: science equipment, habitat, unfueled ascent vehicle, and ISRU fuel production, power, thermal control, navigation, communication and transit/mobility systems. 7. Any hardware or materials delivered to Mars by precursor robotic missions are presumed to have complied with the appropriate forward contamination controls prior to arrival. This workshop will focus only on the Planetary Protection (PP) impacts of the materials or hardware during their use in operations and activities associated with human missions. 8. The autonomous deployment of surface system elements prior to human arrival may generate materials that have PP concerns (e.g., associated with construction, excavation, trenching, road building, installation of navigation and communication systems, breathing gas, water, etc.). 9. The design of human and equipment ingress/egress protocols and associated infrastructure will be established to control human contact with the Martian environment. This includes the handling of both reusable and expendable (waste) materials. 10. Planetary protection concerns for a human mission will have three foci (as outlined in the Pingree Park report (Race et al. 2003): a) avoid forward contamination of Mars or interference with scientific exploration from terrestrially-associated microbial contaminants; b) protect astronauts from cross contamination or contact with Martian materials, whether inside or outside the habitat; and c) break the contact chain with Mars and avoid or minimize back contamination from the spacecraft, astronauts and materials returned to Earth. 11. Human Mars surface missions will likely involve human exploration and operations outside of the habitat vessel, requiring human egress/ingress. Extravehicular activity (EVA) may range from local to extensive excursions. The crew will likely utilize personal EVA suits, and may be aided by motorized rovers. 12. High cost penalties associated with the propulsion of large amounts of waste materials, along with crew health and safety, are strong incentives to allow waste materials to remain on Mars after mission completion. For similar reasons, controlled jettisoning of transit segment wastes into interplanetary space may also be desirable. 13. Materials that are jettisoned to space or remain on Mars after mission completion must be managed to avoid forward and back contamination as prescribed by Planetary Protection guidelines (to be established). 14. No assumptions are made at this time about quarantine requirements or facilities (or health stabilization facilities and requirements) upon return from Mars. 02/6/06 - Habitation 2006 Orlando, FL

Key Working Principles: 

Key Working Principles Deliberations are to be focused primarily on initial human Mars exploration missions. PP issues associated with pre-delivered cargo and systems are not major considerations for this workshop. Like robotic missions, human missions will need to take a conservative approach and assume that martian life exists until proven otherwise. Safeguarding the Earth from potential back contamination is the highest planetary protection priority in Mars exploration. No human habitat or EVA system will be fully closed. Therefore missions carrying humans to Mars will inevitably contaminate the planet to some degree with terrestrial organisms and materials. It will be critical that every attempt be made to obtain evidence of past and/or present life on Mars well before these missions occur. It is therefore essential to identify, characterize, minimize, and control contamination sources and pathways. Crew and hardware on Mars will inevitably be exposed to martian materials. To the maximum extent practicable, these exposures should occur under controlled conditions. To decrease the potential for back contamination and mission costs, it is desirable to leave wastes and other contaminated materials on Mars upon mission completion. It is nearly impossible to “break the chain of contact” with Mars. Crew/hardware return and quarantine procedures require thorough investigation. 02/6/06 - Habitation 2006 Orlando, FL

Top-Level Findings/Recommendations: 

Top-Level Findings/Recommendations Planetary Protection and science constraints may have a significant impact on mission architecture, technology trade options, operations and development costs. PP and science requirements require definition early in the development cycle. Establish forward and back contamination limits. Definition of “contaminants” is required. Define waste containment and disposal requirements Establish Earth return operations and quarantine requirements Define material inventory and characteristics, process products, and release mechanisms. Establish detection standards, response times and back contamination identification methods. 02/6/06 - Habitation 2006 Orlando, FL

Top-Level Findings/Recommendations: 

Top-Level Findings/Recommendations Currently not possible to provide quantitative PP guidelines. Develop a classification system of zones of biological, scientific, contamination and operational importance prior to and during human missions. Current proposed approach: Do not affect or otherwise contaminate “special regions” of Mars (via cleaning, prudent landing sites). Lunar operations should serve as a test-bed for Mars missions with respect to Planetary Protection and science operations. Testing can occur without penalty Avoid developing two distinct and expensive technology pathways 02/6/06 - Habitation 2006 Orlando, FL

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