Safety Features on Needles Prevent Needle Stick Injuries

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Safety Features on Needles Prevent Needle Stick Injuries :

Safety Features on Needles Prevent Needle Stick Injuries


BACKGROUND Every year there are thousands of needle sticks in the healthcare setting. I know this is a concern for every nurse. “Hospital-based health care personnel sustain an estimated 385,000 needlestick and sharps related injuries each year.” (Megan Bush Knapp, 2009) Not only do these sticks cause injures, but they also expose people to diseases such as HIV and Hepatitis C. I have been a nurse for two years and have been stuck twice. Both of the sticks could have been prevented. I am thankful that the two I encountered were both sterile. I can contribute one of the needle sticks to being in a hurry and not recapping the needle the correct way. If this needle had some type of self-sheathing protection I would have not been stuck. The second one was a freak accident. I went to start an IV on a patient when I noticed the shaft on the needle was bent. I re-sheathed the needle, instead of pulling the catheter off to activate the safety feature on the needle. I went to put the needle in the sharps container and the needle came out while I was about to drop it in the sharps container. It landed on my opposite hand that I had trash in sticking me in the thumb. I have realized the importance of needle stick prevention. A nurse can never be too careful when it comes to preventing needles sticks.


INTRODUCTION The risk of obtaining injuries and contracting disease can be prevented by using safety devices on needles. Registered nurses in the healthcare setting are at an increased risk for needle stick injuries due to needles that are used in the healthcare setting without safety devices on them. The objective of this study is to compare the incident of needle stick injuries without safety devices versus injuries with safety devices. It will also, explore the cost associated with implementing safety devices in the healthcare industry. This paper seeks to answer the question: Are registered nurses in the healthcare setting, who use needles with safety features compared to those without safety features at a decreased risk for needle sticks.


METHODS Data was obtained from credible sources through on-line research. The research included searching for articles that were less than five years old to ensure the most recent information was obtained for the outcomes. Search included databases CINAHL, Pub Med and Cochrane. These databases are extensive and provide peer reviewed articles to choose in the research. Unfortunately, some of the articles require payment in order to review. Therefore, there is some cost associated with the research.


SUMMARY OF EVIDENCE A randomized control study designed to determine the benefits and harms of safety medical devices determined that “the introduction of safe blood collection systems with resheathable winged steel needle resulted in a lower NSI rate in two interrupted time series studies.” (M. C. Lavoie, 2014) This study included the number of reported sharps injuries before and six months after the introduction of safety devices on needles which resulted in decreased injuries after the introduction of safety devices on needles. Seventeen studies were performed to obtain the data.


SUMMARY OF EVIDENCE A quantitative observation study aimed to identify facilitating barriers and behavioral factors, which may affect prevention of percutaneous injuries, determined that “most injuries that occur after use can be prevented by the use of engineered sharps injury prevention phlebotomy devices such as bluntable and retractable needles and hinged or sliding needle guards.” (Megan Bush Knapp, 2009) The observational data was collected during the performance of phlebotomy. Data was measured using Microsoft Excel where frequencies were calculated. Nine total hospitals participated in the study.


SUMMARY OF EVIDENCE A retrospective analysis of percutaneous injuries attributed decrease incident rates with the use of pushbutton devices compared to resheathable devices. “During the period from 2011-2012 the percutaneous injury rate decreased from 5.5% to 2.85% after the introduction of the pushbutton device.” (Alexanra Derevnuk, 2013) A qualitative study was reviewed comparing the incident of needle stick injuries before and after the introduction of safety devices. “Data was extracted from mandatory needlestick report forms of the hospitals Occupational Health Service.” (Cornelia Hoffmann, 2013) After the introduction of safety devices the incident rates decreased by 21.9%. (Cornelia Hoffmann, 2013)


SUMMARY OF EVIDENCE “Needle stick injuries can be costly with estimates for a single injury ranging from $65 to as high as $4,800 for post exposure treatment and testing.” (Andrea Chambers, 2013) “The uses of safety-engineered medical devices are widely recommended for the prevention of both needlestick and other sharp-related injuries in healthcare workplaces.” (Andrea Chambers, 2013)


APPLY THE EVIDENCE Nurses can be advocates for needle stick prevention with the use of safety devices on needles. These devices can prevent needle stick injuries if used appropriately. “Decreasing risk of healthcare worker exposure to blood borne pathogens continues to be an occupational health priority.” (Alexanra Derevnuk, 2013) Nurses have to be the leader in the change to needle stick prevention. The research conducted proves that safety devices prevent needle sticks. Nurses can get with their managers and hospital administrators to make the changes necessary. Nurses can implement training for the safer needle use practices. “Sustained and successful implementation may include the continued commitment to the review and evaluation of safer alternatives.” (Andrea Chambers, 2013)


STAKEHOLDERS/CHANGE AGENTS All healthcare workers that use needles will benefit from this change. This would include medical doctors, registered nurses, licensed practical nurse, phlebotomist, and nurse extenders. The benefits would be worth the change. The increased cost would negatively affect the hospitals expenses, but the cost of needle sticks would decrease the overall cost.


FEASIBILITY Evidence supports safety devices for needle stick injury prevention, but stakeholders may not want to make the change due to the associated increased cost. Many hospitals have already introduced some safety devices to help prevent needle stick injuries. The research has shown that needles with auto resheathing capability are better at preventing these injuries. It will be hard to convince administrators to make the change due to the increased cost. Sustaining this type of change would be easy to maintain if the additional cost would decrease the cost of treatment after a needle stick injury.


CONCLUSION In conclusion, research has shown that registered nurses in the healthcare setting are at decreased risk for needle stick injuries when using needles with safety features. “Globally, more than 35 million healthcare personnel face the risk of sustaining percutaneous injury with a contaminated sharps instrument every year.” (Cornelia Hoffmann, 2013) Making the risk great, but these risks can be lowered by using needles with safety devices.


REFERENCES Alexanra Derevnuk, F.-C. M.-B. (2013). Reduction of Percutaneous Injures in Healthcare Workers: Use of a Retractable Winged Steel Needle. American Journal of Infection Control, 41 (6), S80-S81. Andrea Chambers, C. A. (2013). Evaluating the implementation of health and safety innovations under a regulatory context: A collective case study of Ontario's safer needle regulation. Implementation Science, 8 (1), 8-9. Cornelia Hoffmann, L. B. (2013). Reduction of needlestick injuries in healthcare personnel at a university hospital using safety devices. Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, 8 (20), 20. doi:10.1186/1745-6673-8-20 M. C. Lavoie, J. V. (2014). Devices for preventing percutaneous exposure injuries caused by needles in healthcare personnel. Cochrane Database (3). doi:10.1002/14651858CDO09740.pub2 Megan Bush Knapp, M. S.-C. (2009). Evaluation of institutional practices for prevention of phlebotomy-associated percutaneous injuries in hospital settings. American Journal of Infection Control, 37 (6), 490-494.

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