lec14 Shan Lan Robust scheduling

Views:
 
Category: Education
     
 

Presentation Description

No description available.

Comments

Presentation Transcript

New Approaches to Add Robustness into Airline Schedules: 

New Approaches to Add Robustness into Airline Schedules Shan Lan, Cindy Barnhart and John-Paul Clarke Center for Transportation and Logistics Massachusetts Institute of Technology May 5 , 2002 Courtesy of Shan Lan, Cindy Barnhart and John-Paul Clarke. Used with permission

Outline: 

Outline Background, Motivation and Our Contributions Overview of Robust Airline Schedule Planning Robust Aircraft Maintenance Routing – reduce delay propagation Flight Schedule Retiming – reduce passenger missed connections Summary and Future Research Directions

Airline Schedule Planning Process: 

Airline Schedule Planning Process Most existing planning models assume that aircraft, crew, and passengers will operate as planned

Airline Operations: 

Airline Operations Many reasons can cause delays Severe weather conditions, unexpected aircraft and personnel failures, congested traffic, etc. Delays may propagate through the network Long delays and cancellations cause schedule disruptions Airlines must reschedule aircraft/crew and re-accommodate passengers Huge revenue loss: Delays cost consumers and airlines about $6.5 billion in 2000 (Air Transport Association)

Flight Delays & Cancellations: 

Flight Delays andamp; Cancellations Trend (1995-1999) (Bratu and Barnhart, 2002) Significant increase (80%) in flights delayed more than 45 min Significant increase (500%) in the number of cancelled flights Year 2000 (Bratu and Barnhart, 2002) 30% of flights delayed 3.5% of flights cancelled Future: Air traffic in US is expected to double in the next 10-15 years (Schaefer et al. (2001)) Each 1% increase in air traffic  a 5% increase in delays (Schaefer et al. (2001)) Lead to more frequent and serious delay and schedule disruptions

Passenger Disruptions: 

Passenger Disruptions Passengers are disrupted if their planned itineraries are infeasible because flights cancellation Insufficient time to connect 4% of passengers disrupted in 2000 (Bratu and Barnhart, 2002) Half of them are connecting passengers Very long delays for disrupted passengers Average delay for disrupted passengers is approx. 419 minutes (versus 14 min delay for non-disrupted passengers) (Bratu and Barnhart, 2002) Significant revenue loss

Our Contributions: 

Our Contributions Provide alternative definitions for robustness in the context of airline schedule planning Develop an optimization model and solution approach that can generate aircraft maintenance routes to minimize delay propagation Develop optimization models and solution approach to minimize the expected total number of passengers missing connection, and analyze the model properties Proof-of-concept results show that these approaches are promising Develop integrated models for more robustness

Outline: 

Outline Background, Motivation and Our Contributions Overview of Robust Airline Schedule Planning How to deal with schedule disruptions Challenges of building robust airline schedules Definitions of robustness Robust airline schedule planning approaches Robust Aircraft Maintenance Routing -- reduce delay propagation Flight Schedule Retiming – reduce passenger missed connections Summary and Future Research Directions

How to Deal with Schedule Disruptions: 

How to Deal with Schedule Disruptions Two ways to deal with schedule disruptions Re-optimize schedule after disruptions occur (operation stage) Build robustness into the schedules (planning stage) Existing planning systems do not have effective methods to manage disruptions A more robust plan can reduce the effect of disruptions on the operations  reduce operation costs and improve quality of service Robust airline schedule planning methods are needed

Challenges of Building Robust Plans: 

Challenges of Building Robust Plans Lack of a systematic way to define robustness in the context of airline schedule planning Aircraft, crew and passenger flows interact in the hub-and-spoke network Huge problem size  tractability issue Difficult to balance robustness and costs

Definitions of Robustness: 

Definitions of Robustness Minimize cost Minimize aircraft/passenger/crew delays and disruptions Easy to recover (aircraft, crew, passengers) Isolate disruptions and reduce the downstream impact

Robust Airline Schedule Planning: 

Robust Airline Schedule Planning Min Cost Ease of recovery Min delays/ disruptions Isolation of disruptions

Where Should We Start?: 

Where Should We Start? Difficult to balance cost that airlines are willing to pay for robustness versus cost of operation Looking for robust solution without significant added costs Aircraft maintenance routing problem: The financial impact is relatively small  It is more a feasibility problem How to route aircraft has impacts on flight delays and cancellations, passengers, crews Question: What robustness can be achieved for the maintenance routing problem?

Outline: 

Outline Background, Motivation and Our Contributions Overview of Robust Airline Schedule Planning Robust Aircraft Maintenance Routing – reduce delay propagation Delay Propagation Modeling Idea String based formulation Solution approach Proof-of-concept results Flight Schedule Retiming – reduce passenger missed connections Summary and Future Research Directions

Delay Propagation: 

Delay Propagation Arrival delay may cause departure delay for the next flight that is using the same aircraft if there is not enough slack between these two flights Delay propagation may cause schedule, passenger and crew disruptions for downstream flights (especially at hubs) f1 MTT f2

Propagated Delay vs. Independent Delay: 

Propagated Delay vs. Independent Delay Flight delay may be divided into two categories: Propagated delay Caused by inbound aircraft delay – function of routing 20-30% of total delay (Continental Airlines) Independent delay Caused by other factors – not a function of routing

Definitions: 

Definitions i j Slack Min Turn Time PDT PAT ADT AAT PD IAD TAD j’ i’ i’’ PD IDD TDD Planned Turn Time

Modeling Idea: 

Modeling Idea Delays propagate along aircraft routes Only limited slack can be added Appropriately located slack can prevent delay propagation Routing aircraft intelligently better allocated slack Essentially add slack where advantageous, reducing slack where less needed

Illustration of the Idea: 

Illustration of the Idea f1 MTT f2 f3 f4 MTT Original routing

Modeling Issues: 

Modeling Issues Difficult to use leg-based models to track the delay propagation One variable (string) for each aircraft route between two maintenances (Barnhart, et al. 1998) A string: a sequence of connected flights that begins and ends at maintenance stations Delay propagation for each route can be determined Need to determine delays for each feasible route Most of the feasible routes haven’t been realized yet PD and TAD are a function of routing PD and TAD for these routes can’t be found in the historical data IAD is not a function of routing and can be calculated by tracking the route of each individual aircraft in the historical data

Generating Flight Delays for Any Feasible Route: 

Generating Flight Delays for Any Feasible Route Step1: Determine propagated delays from historical data: PDij = max (TADi – slackij,0) Step 2: Determine Independent Arrival Delays (IAD) from historical data: IADj= TADj – PDij Step 3: Determine TAD and PD for feasible routes: For the first flight on each string, New_TAD = IAD New_PDij =max (New_TADi – slackij,0) New_TADj= IADj+ New_PDij

String Based Formulation: 

String Based Formulation

Objective Function Coefficient: 

Objective Function Coefficient Random variables (PD) can be replaced by their mean Distribution of Total Arrival Delay Possible distributions analyzed: Normal, Exponential, Gamma, Weibull, Lognormal, etc. Our statistical analysis shows that lognormal distribution is the best fit A closed form of expected value function can be obtained

Solution Approach: 

Solution Approach This formulation is a deterministic mixed-integer program with a huge number of 0-1 variables Branch-and-price Branch-and-Bound with a linear programming relaxation solved at each node of the branch-and-bound tree using column generation IP solution A special branching strategy: branching on follow-ons (Ryan and Foster 1981, Barnhart et al. 1998)

Computational Results: 

Computational Results Test Networks Data divided into two sets: First data set (Jul 2000) used to build model and generate routes Second data set (Aug 2000) used to test these new routes

Results - Delays: 

Results - Delays July 2000 data August 2000 data

Results - Delay Distribution: 

Results - Delay Distribution Total delays for existing and new routings

Results - Passenger Disruptions: 

Results - Passenger Disruptions Disruptions calculated at the flight level If a flight was cancelled, all passengers on that flight is disrupted If actual departure time of flight B – actual arrival time of flight A andlt; minimum connecting time  all passengers connecting from A to B are disrupted

Outline: 

Outline Background, Motivation and Our Contributions Overview of Robust Airline Schedule Planning Robust Aircraft Maintenance Routing Flight Schedule Retiming – reduce passenger missed connections Passenger delays and disruptions Modeling Idea Formulations and their properties Solution approach Proof-of-concept results Summary and Future Research Directions

Passenger Delays and Disruptions: 

Passenger Delays and Disruptions Flight delay and passenger delay (Bratu and Barnhart, 2002) Passenger delay caused by disruptions is the most critical part Minimize number of disrupted passengers A good proxy for passenger delays

Definitions Related to Passenger Disruption : 

Definitions Related to Passenger Disruption If ACT – MCT andlt; 0, passengers are disrupted

Minimize Passenger Missed Connections: 

Minimize Passenger Missed Connections If the slack is 'eaten' by flight delay, passengers are disrupted Adding more slack can be good for connecting passengers, but can result in reduced productivity Appropriately located slack can prevent passenger disruptions Moving flight departure times in a small time window can lead to better allocated slack

Illustration of the Idea: 

Illustration of the Idea Airport A Airport B Airport C Airport D Suppose 100 passengers in flight f2 will connect to f3  Expected disrupted passengers reduced: 10

Where to Apply: 

Where to Apply Whether a passenger will be disrupted depends on flight delays, a function of fleeting and routing Before solving maintenance routing Impact of the propagation of flight delays won’t be considered New fleeting and routing solution may cause delay propagate in a different way  may eventually change the number of disrupted passengers After solving fleeting and routing problem Delay propagation has been considered Need to maintain the current fleeting and routing solution Schedule Design Crew Scheduling Fleet Assignment Maintenance Routing

Connection-Based Formulation: 

Connection-Based Formulation Objective minimize the expected total number of passengers missing connection Constraints: For each flight, exactly one copy will be selected. For each connection, exactly one copy will be selected and this selected copy must connect the selected flight-leg copies. The current fleeting and routing solution cannot be altered.

Connection-Based Formulation: 

Connection-Based Formulation Theorem 1: The second set of constraints are redundant and can be relaxed Theorem 2: The integrality of the connection variables can be relaxed

Alternative Connection-based Formulations: 

Alternative Connection-based Formulations Formulation II Formulation III

Model Properties: 

Model Properties Theorems on constraints: The second set of constraints are redundant and can be relaxed in formulations two and three The integrality constraints of the connection variables can be relaxed in formulations two and three Theorem on LP relaxations The LP relaxation of formulation one is at least as strong as those of formulations two and three

Problem Size: 

Problem Size A network from a major US airline used by Barnhart et al. (2001) 2,044 flights and 76,641 itineraries. Suppose 7 copies will be generated for each flight (if 5 minutes interval is used, 7 copies correspond to a 30 minute time window) Assume on average every flight connects to 12 flights with connecting passengers.

How to Maintain Current Fleeting and Routing Solution: 

How to Maintain Current Fleeting and Routing Solution For an aircraft maintenance route: the planned turn time andgt;= minimum turn time Force , if the time between the arrival of flight copy and the departure of flight copy is less than the minimum turn time. The upper bounds will be set to zero for these x variables

Solution Approach: 

Solution Approach Random variables can be replaced by their mean Deterministic Problem Distribution of Branch-and-Price

Computational Results: 

Computational Results Network We use the same four networks, but add all flights together and form one network with total 278 flights. Data divided into two sets: First data set (Jul 2000) used to build model and generate schedule Second data set (Aug 2000) used to test the new schedule Strength of the formulations

Computational Results: 

Computational Results Assume 30 minute minimum connecting time For July 2000 data For August 2000 data

Computational Results: 

Computational Results August 2000 data Assume 25 minute minimum connecting time Assume 20 minute minimum connecting time

Computational Results: 

Computational Results How many copies to generate

Outline: 

Outline Background, Motivation and Our Contributions Overview of Robust Airline Schedule Planning Robust Maintenance Routing Flight Schedule Retiming Summary and Future Research Directions Summary of Contributions Future Research Directions

Summary of Contributions: 

Summary of Contributions Provide alternative definitions for robustness in the context of airline schedule planning Develop an optimization model and solution approach that can generate aircraft maintenance routes to minimize delay propagation Develop optimization models and solution approach to minimize the expected total number of passengers missing connections, and analyze the model properties Proof-of-concept results show that these approaches are promising Develop integrated models for more robustness

Future Research Directions: 

Future Research Directions Integrated Models Integrated robust aircraft maintenance routing with fleet assignment Robust aircraft maintenance routing with time window Integrated flight schedule re-timing with FAMTW Other approaches Fleet assignment with minimal expected cost Fleet assignment under demand uncertainty Aircraft routes with swap opportunities Aircraft routes with short cycles

Computational Results: 

Computational Results July 2000 data Assume 25 minute minimum connecting time Assume 20 minute minimum connecting time

Impact on Passengers: 

Impact on Passengers Disruptions calculated at the flight level If a flight was cancelled, all passengers on that flight is disrupted If actual departure time of flight B – actual arrival time of flight A andlt; minimum connecting time  all passengers connecting from A to B are disrupted Number of disrupted passengers only calculated for connections between flights that both have ASQP records ASQP has records only for domestic flights flown by jet airplanes and major airlines Actual departure and arrival times for flights without ASQP records are unknown  Assume no disruptions for these flights Passengers only counted as disrupted once If passenger is disrupted on any flight leg of itinerary, passenger not counted as disrupted on the following flight legs

Passenger Delays and Disruptions: 

Passenger Delays and Disruptions Passenger delays the difference between scheduled and actual arrival time at passengers’ destination Passengers are disrupted if their planned itineraries are infeasible Flight delay and passenger delay (Bratu and Barnhart, 2002)

Passenger Disruption: 

Passenger Disruption Disrupted passengers Significant numbers: 4%  20-30 million in U.S. Experience very long delay Contribute to more than half of the total passenger delay Cause huge revenue loss Destroy airlines’ image Reduce disrupted passengers Passenger delay caused by disruption is the most critical part Hard to determine the delays for each disrupted passengers  Minimize number of disrupted passengers

LP Solution: 

LP Solution Algorithm for LP relaxation Step 0: Create initial feasible solution Step 1: Solve the restricted master problem (RMP) Find optimal solution to RMP with a subset of all strings Step 2: Solve the pricing problem Generate strings with negative reduced cost If no string is generated, stop: the LP is solved Step 3: Construct a new restricted master problem Add the strings generated Go to step 1

Notation: 

Notation S: set of feasible strings F: set of flights G: set of ground variables :set of strings ending (starting) with flight i : binary decision variable for each feasible string s y: integer variable to count number of aircraft on the ground at maintenance stations : number of aircraft on the ground before (after) flight i departs at the maintenance station from which flight i departs : number of aircraft on the ground before (after) flight i arrives at the maintenance station from which flight i arrives

Notation (Cont.): 

Notation (Cont.) : propagated delay from flight i to flight j if flight i and flight j are in string s : indicator variable, equals 1 if flight i is in string s, and equals 0 otherwise : number of times string s crosses the count time, a single point time at which to count aircraft : number of times ground arc g crosses the count time N : number of planes available.

Data: 

Data Airline Service Quality Performance (ASQP) provides good source of delay information ASQP provides flight operation information: For all domestic flights served by jet aircraft by major airlines in U.S. Planned departure time and arrival time, actual departure time and arrival time (including wheels-off and wheels-on time, taxi-out and taxi-in time, airborne time) Aircraft tail number for each flight Cancelled flights (reasons for cancellation, and aircraft tail number are not available)

Effect of Cancellations: 

Effect of Cancellations For cancelled flights in the historical data we don’t know which aircraft supposed to fly them We don’t have the delay information We assume the propagated delays for these flights are zero Lower cancellation rates Less passengers disrupted because of cancellation More passengers disrupted because of flight delays 7 days in Aug 2000 with very few cancellations (cancellation rate = 0.19%) For Aug 2000, 65% of disrupted passengers are disrupted because of flight delays For 7 selected days in Aug 2000, 92% of disrupted passengers are disrupted because of flight delays

Results - Low Cancellation Days: 

Results - Low Cancellation Days Passenger disruptions for 7 selected days in Aug 2000 with very few cancellations Reduction in number of disrupted passengers per non-cancelled flights is same as that for entire month

Extensions: 

Extensions Combine with scheduling More slacks may be added  further reduce delay propagation Combine with fleet assignment Need to determine cost for propagated delay More feasible strings  better solution Minimum turn time is a function of fleet type Integrate with fleet assignment and schedule generation

authorStream Live Help