Terrorism BK

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International Terrorism: 

International Terrorism Baris Kesgin March 13, 2007

Defining Terrorism: 

Defining Terrorism State sponsors and rogue groups blur defined terrorist acts Potentially politically loaded term One person's “terrorist” is another's “freedom fighter” Shimko: ‘how we define terrorism shape policy prescriptions to fight terrorism’ Implications for international cooperation Can be difficult to define ultimately, but we have particular components common to most definitions

On the Internet: 

On the Internet

Terrorism: Official Definitions: 

Terrorism: Official Definitions Title 22, United States Code, Section 2656f(d) Premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by subnational groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an audience. Federal Bureau of Investigation The unlawful use of force or violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives.

Official Definitions (cont'd): 

Official Definitions (cont'd) U.S. Department of Defense The calculated use of unlawful violence or threat of unlawful violence to inculcate fear, intended to coerce or to intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally political, religious or ideological. United Nations Any action intended to cause death or serious bodily harm to civilians or non-combatants, when the purpose of such an act, by its nature or context, is to intimidate a population or compel a government or an international organization to carry out or to abstain from any act, cannot be justified on any grounds and constitutes an act of terrorism.” Source: The Economist 10 September 2005, pg. 32.

Terrorism: A Working Definition: 

Terrorism: A Working Definition use of lethal violence or threat of violence political motivation (not necessarily exclusively political) individuals targeted are not directly connected to the political objective—violence is somewhat random perpetrators are not officially connected to the state * See the discussion in Shimko, pp. 294-295

Psychology of Terrorism: 

Psychology of Terrorism “What is frightening is not the abnormality of those who carry out the suicide attacks but their sheer normality.” “[O]ne of the most common motivations for joining a terrorist organization is the desire for revenge or retribution for a perceived injustice.” “Terrorists are exceptional demographically: usually males between 15 and 30 years of age.” “large-scale military responses to terrorism tend to be ineffective or temporarily to increase terrorist activity” [italics in original] Source: Scott L. Plous and Philip G. Zimbardo (2004, Sept). “How Social Science Can Reduce Terrorism” Chronicle of Higher Educations.

Psychology of Terrorism (cont'd): 

Psychology of Terrorism (cont'd) Motives/ Objectives Causing fear within a targeted audience Disrupting normal life Damaging infrastructure Undermining confidence in government Recognition Coercion Provocation

Terrorist Tactics: 

Terrorist Tactics Bombings Attacks on infrastructure Assassinations Hostage-taking Hijacking Arson Biological/chemical attacks

Advantages of Terrorism: 

Advantages of Terrorism Inexpensive compared to the efforts required to suppress it Requires little training or equipment Appeals to the heroic model of conflict; recruiting is relatively easy in distressed communities Sometimes generates good media coverage Makes conventional political movements look moderate in comparison

Disadvantages of Terrorism: 

Disadvantages of Terrorism Almost never works by itself because the targets do not have political power; Changing governmental policies requires either mass mobilization or elite influence; violence alone is not sufficient Tends to alienate the local population through Random attacks Government and international retaliation Violates assorted norms of international law and therefore alienates the international community Easily degenerates into conventional criminal activity Individual ideological terrorist movements typically last only about ten to fifteen years; cycles of terrorism last about twenty

Terrorism: A typology: 

Terrorism: A typology State Collective punishment Suppression of dissidents Some do not use terrorism to describe it, but rather prefer ‘repression’ State-sponsored use of terrorists, e.g. death squads

State Sponsors of Terrorism (US Dept of State): 

State Sponsors of Terrorism (US Dept of State) Country Designation Date Cuba March 1, 1982 Iran January 19, 1984 North Korea January 20, 1988 Sudan August 12, 1993 Syria December 29, 1979

Terrorism: A typology (cont'd): 

Terrorism: A typology (cont'd) Nationalist Focused upon a certain state/country Purpose is to acquire independence Examples: ETA, IRA, PLO, PKK Criminal Drug cartel, mafia(s)

Terrorism: A typology (cont'd): 

Terrorism: A typology (cont'd) Ideological Anarchist: attempt to overthrow established gov'ts Leftist: aiming to establish socialist/ communist govt Rightist: neo-Nazi or neo-Fascist groups “Religious” 'divinely commanded purposes'? Targeting broad categories of foes

Al-Qaeda Terrorism: 

Al-Qaeda Terrorism Diffuse organization of radical “Islamic” terrorists 1980s - ‘Afghan Arabs’ v. Soviet force 1990-1 – Gulf War; Saudi decision to allow US troops 1991-6 – Sudan and Al-Qaeda 1996-2002 – Afghanistan 2002-present – Worldwide (Pakistan/Iraq/Indonesia) Focus on the USA and “Islamic” governments closely allied with the US (Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Jordan)

Slide17: 

Al-Qaeda Terrorism (cont'd)

Al-Qaeda Attacks: 

Al-Qaeda Attacks February 26, 1993 - bombing of the WTC October 3, 1993 - killing of US soldiers in Somalia June 25, 1996 - truck bomb at Khobar Towers barracks in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia August 8, 1998 - bombing of US Embassies in Nairobi, Kenya and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania October 12, 2000 - bombing of the USS Cole in the Yemeni port of Aden September 11, 2001 - the WTC, and the Pentagon April 11, 2002 - truck bomb near an ancient Jewish shrine Djerba, Tunisia

Al-Qaeda Attacks (cont'd): 

Al-Qaeda Attacks (cont'd) May 8, 2002 - suicide bombing outside Sheraton Hotel in Karachi, Pakistan October 12, 2002 - nightclub bombings in Bali, Indonesia November 28, 2002 - suicide bomb at the Paradise Hotel in Mombasa, Kenya May 12, 2003 - suicide bombing in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia May 16, 2003 - explosions in Casablanca, Morocco November 15, 2003 - car bombs at the HSBC HQ in Istanbul, Turkey March 11, 2004 - ten bombs explode at a train station in Madrid, Spain

Al-Qaeda and 'International Society': 

Al-Qaeda and 'International Society' How does it threaten our international society (or ‘club of states’)? (1) Monopoly of force - Challenges notion of sovereign state being sole legitimate user of force - ‘less responsible’ and ‘unaccountable’ (2) Religious caliphate v. sovereign states - Both territorial and source of legitimacy (divine v. secular) - State system seen as ‘immoral’ by bin-Laden (separates Muslims)

Threat to International Society (cont'd): 

Threat to International Society (cont'd) (3) International Orgs and International Law - Al Qaeda rejects UN as founded upon ‘Western Norms’ - Int Law is man-made law; illegitimate source compared to God’s law (4) Undermining public’s trust in state - We no longer ‘feel secure’ in our nation-states (5) Killing Civilians (bin Laden’s Feb. 1998 “Fatwah”) ‘The ruling to kill the Americans and their allies--civilians and military--is an individual duty for every Muslim who can do it in any country in which it is possible to do it’

Threat to International Society (cont'd): 

Threat to International Society (cont'd) (5) cont'd Two Justifications for Fatwah against civilians American electorate democratically supports government policies Tit-for-Tat: US military makes no distinction itself (6) Provokes most powerful member of International Society to overreact and undermine rules - Get hegemon to conduct un-societylike policies ie: Detention, torture, invading another sovereign state

Why are these important?: 

Why are these important? Challenges notion of sovereign state being the sole legitimate user of force International Law is man-made law; illegitimate source compared to God’s law Undermine public’s trust in state: We no longer ‘feel secure’ in our nation-states Get hegemon/most powerful members of Intnat’l Soc to conduct un-society like policies, to overreact and undermine rule

Combating International Terrorism -Strategies: 

Combating International Terrorism -Strategies (1) 'Bush Doctrine' or 'statist strategy' make no distinction between the terrorists who committed these acts and those who harbor them -President Bush, 9/20/2001 Assumptions States only units with capabilities to support international terrorist groups State structures can be reformed to combat conditions promoting terrorism Traditional strategy (interstate war) for a non-traditional problem (transnational terrorism)

Strategies (cont'd): 

Strategies (cont'd) (1a) 'Flypaper' Attract terrorists to one spot and 'fight them there so we don't have to fight them here' Assumes finite amount of terrorists Iraq 2003 to present Problems: May backfire by instead providing 'training ground' for terrorists (CIA analysis, May 2005) Moral: placing the war in someone else's country (Counter argument: bringing democracy)

Strategies (cont'd): 

Strategies (cont'd) (2) 'Cosmopolitan approach' Terrorism is driven by economic and social deprivation ‘the root causes’ Poor/loss of state structures Tactics: Nation-building (Somalia, Sudan, etc.) Economic aid

As a result of our efforts, as a result of our helicopter pilots being seen by the citizens of Indonesia helping them, that value system of ours will be reinforces... It dries up those pools of dissatisfaction that might give rise to terrorist activity...: 

Clearing the Swamp: Colin Powell Remarks: 4 January 2005 As a result of our efforts, as a result of our helicopter pilots being seen by the citizens of Indonesia helping them, that value system of ours will be reinforces... It dries up those pools of dissatisfaction that might give rise to terrorist activity...

Strategies (cont'd): 

Strategies (cont'd) (3) Financial connections Eliminating Al-Qaeda's financial resources Also 'energy independence' -removing source of revenue that might eventually be used to finance terrorism (4) Police-Clandestine Problem with 'statist' view is that Al-Qaeda is a non-state entity (less structured, less spatially specific) Yet, Al-Qaeda sophisticated/technologically proficient Must match individuals w/ individuals (surveillance)

Mixing Strategies: 

Mixing Strategies Military action But, indiscriminant force becomes counterproductive Law-enforcement But, legal processes are slow and do not quickly impede terrorist organizations Financial restrictions Intelligence

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