4 18 Personality

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Attitude Attitude: Cognitive representation that summarizes an individual’s evaluation of a particular person, group, action or idea Why do we care about attitude and its change?


Attitude toward the behavior Subjective norm Intention Behavior Perceived behavioral control Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1980; 1991)

Attitude Formation: 

Attitude Formation Three Sources of Attitude Formation Cognitive information: What people know about an attitude object Affective information: How people feel about the attitude object Behavioral information: People’s past, present and future interactions with the attitude object

Attitude Change: 

Attitude Change Where is your mustache?


Personality Definition The unique and relatively stable pattern of behaviors, thoughts, and emotions shown by individuals Distinction between Personality and Attitude Object Stability Examples? Trust, Propensity to trust, Self-efficacy, Initiative, Ambition, Commitment…

Why do we care?: 

Why do we care? 'Does personality matter in terms of predicting human behavior?' Strong vs. weak situation

How do we measure personality?: 

How do we measure personality? Too many dimensions to measure Each personality-related adjective has its own dimension Idiosyncratic approach till 1970’s Major source of criticism against personality approach More organized approach equipped with the development of factor analysis methodology Big 5 Model

Big 5 Factors: 

Big 5 Factors Extraversion Initiative, ambitious, sociable, expressive… I like lots of excitement in life I usually am very cheerful Emotional stability Anxious, depressed, angry, embarrassed, insecure… I often worry about things that are out of my control I usually feel sad or 'down'

Big 5 Factors (con’d): 

Big 5 Factors (con’d) Agreeableness Courteous, flexible, trusting, cooperative, forgiving, soft-hearted… I generally am quite courteous to other people People never think I am cold and shy Conscientiousness Thorough, responsible, organized… I keep my room neat and clean People generally find me to be extremely reliable Openness to experience Imaginative, curious, broad-minded, artistically sensitive… I have a lot of curiosity I enjoy the challenge of change

Personality and hiring decision: 

Personality and hiring decision Despite little evidence of direct relationship between personality and performance, some still enforce the idea of personality test in hiring decisions

Cultural Differences in Personality: 

Cultural Differences in Personality No direct research yet Examples Asian vs. American Executives Variance in personality scores: Asian vs. American Relative importance in hiring decisions


Takeaways Personality matters the most when the effect of context is weak!

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