4 18 Personality

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Attitude: 

Attitude Attitude: Cognitive representation that summarizes an individual’s evaluation of a particular person, group, action or idea Why do we care about attitude and its change?

Slide2: 

Attitude toward the behavior Subjective norm Intention Behavior Perceived behavioral control Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1980; 1991)

Attitude Formation: 

Attitude Formation Three Sources of Attitude Formation Cognitive information: What people know about an attitude object Affective information: How people feel about the attitude object Behavioral information: People’s past, present and future interactions with the attitude object

Attitude Change: 

Attitude Change Where is your mustache?

Personality: 

Personality Definition The unique and relatively stable pattern of behaviors, thoughts, and emotions shown by individuals Distinction between Personality and Attitude Object Stability Examples? Trust, Propensity to trust, Self-efficacy, Initiative, Ambition, Commitment…

Why do we care?: 

Why do we care? 'Does personality matter in terms of predicting human behavior?' Strong vs. weak situation

How do we measure personality?: 

How do we measure personality? Too many dimensions to measure Each personality-related adjective has its own dimension Idiosyncratic approach till 1970’s Major source of criticism against personality approach More organized approach equipped with the development of factor analysis methodology Big 5 Model

Big 5 Factors: 

Big 5 Factors Extraversion Initiative, ambitious, sociable, expressive… I like lots of excitement in life I usually am very cheerful Emotional stability Anxious, depressed, angry, embarrassed, insecure… I often worry about things that are out of my control I usually feel sad or 'down'

Big 5 Factors (con’d): 

Big 5 Factors (con’d) Agreeableness Courteous, flexible, trusting, cooperative, forgiving, soft-hearted… I generally am quite courteous to other people People never think I am cold and shy Conscientiousness Thorough, responsible, organized… I keep my room neat and clean People generally find me to be extremely reliable Openness to experience Imaginative, curious, broad-minded, artistically sensitive… I have a lot of curiosity I enjoy the challenge of change

Personality and hiring decision: 

Personality and hiring decision Despite little evidence of direct relationship between personality and performance, some still enforce the idea of personality test in hiring decisions

Cultural Differences in Personality: 

Cultural Differences in Personality No direct research yet Examples Asian vs. American Executives Variance in personality scores: Asian vs. American Relative importance in hiring decisions

Takeaways: 

Takeaways Personality matters the most when the effect of context is weak!

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