Biomes Notes

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Biosphere: 

Biosphere Definition: entire planet w/ all living species & physical features Biosphere= hydrosphere + earth + atmosphere Climate = major physical factor that affects distribution of living things: uneven solar radiation at different lattitudes tilt in earth's axis causes seasons rotation of earth distributes heat toward poles air temperature differences cause rain & wind mountain produces wet side vs dry rain shadow elevation or altitudes causes temperature differences

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BIOSPHERE = hydrosphere + earth + atmosphere Climate = major physical factor that affects distribution of living things: uneven solar radiation at different lattitudes tilt in earth's axis causes seasons rotation of earth distributes heat toward poles air temperature differences cause rain & wind mountain produces wet side vs dry rain shadow elevation or altitudes causes temperature differences

BIOMES: 

BIOMES Definition = terrestrial areas of specific vegetation, soil, climate conditions Major Biomes Tropical Rain Forest Desert Savannah Grasslands Chaparral Temperate Deciduous Forest Coniferous Forest or Taiga Tundra

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Tundra Deciduous Forest Savanna Taiga Chaparral Rainforest Grasslands Desert Alpine

Tropical Rain Forest: 

Tropical Rain Forest contains 50% of world's species in only 3% world's land area poor soil: shallow roots, buttresses no wind: animal & plant pollination plants struggle for light: tall trees, dense canopy, dim understory ** world's biggest storage of carbon dioxide ** deforestation (for grazing/ hardwoods) by "slash & burn" technique

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Plants Bengal Bamboo Bougainvillea Curare Coconut Tree Durian Jambu Kapok Tree Mangrove Forests Strangler Figs Animals Africa Forest Elephant Bengal Tiger Chimpanzee Common Palm Civet Dawn Bat Golden Lion Tamarin Harpy Eagle Jambu Fruit Dove King Cobra Red-shanked Douc Langur Kinkajou Linn's Sloth Orangutan Proboscis Monkey Silvery Gibbon Slender Loris Sumatran Rhinoceros Toco Toucan Vampire Bat Wagler's Pit Viper

DESERT: 

DESERT 30 o N/S latitudes, center of continents, lee of mountain ranges evaporation exceeds rainfall rainfall less than 10 inches per year hot day and cold night temperatures plant and animal adaptations to conserve water: ** overgrazing & poor irrigation leading to desertification

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Plants Barrel Cactus Brittle Bush Chainfruit Cholla Creosote Bush Crimson Hedgehog Cactus Desert Ironwood Joshua Tree Jumping Cholla Mojave Aster Ocotillo Palo Verde Pancake Prickly Pear Cactus Saguaro Cactus Soaptree Yucca Animals Armadillo Lizard Banded Gila Monster Bobcat Cactus Wren Coyote Desert Bighorn Sheep Desert Kangaroo Rat Desert Tortoise Javelina Cactus Ferruginoug Pygmy Owl Sonoran Desert Toad Sonoran Pronghorn Antelope Thorny Devil

TROPICAL SAVANNA: 

TROPICAL SAVANNA warm climates with extended dry seasons between tropical forests and deserts tall grasses and short trees rhinos, elephants, giraffes, zebras

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Plants Acacia Senegal Baobab Bermuda Grass Candelabra Tree Elephant Grass Gum Tree Eucalyptus Jackalberry Tree Jarrah tree Kangaroo Paw Manketti Tree River Bushwillow Umbrella Thorn Acacia Whistling Thorn Animals African Elephant African Wild Dog Black Mamba Caracal Chacma Baboon Egyptian Mongoose Emu Grant's Zebra Koala Bear Lion Nigriceps Ants Nile Crocodile

GRASSLANDS: 

GRASSLANDS prairies, pampas, steppes, veldts flat-rolling lands seasonal extremes of hot and cold recurrent fires 10-30 inches of rain rich soil ** improper farming leads to erosion of topsoil

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Plants: Buffalo Grass, Sunflower, Crazy Weed, Asters, Blazing Stars, Coneflowers, Goldenrods, Clover, and Wild Indigos. Animals: Coyotes, Eagles, Bobcats, the Gray Wolf, Wild Turkey, Fly Catcher, Canadian Geese, Crickets, Dung Beetle, Bison, and Prairie Chicken.

CHAPARRAL: 

CHAPARRAL temperate scrublands long hot dry summers, cool wet winters fires every 30-50 years plant adaptations to conserve water and survive fire:

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Plants Blue Oak Coyote Brush Common Sagebrush Fairy Duster French Broom King Protea Lebanon Cedar Manzanita Mountain Mahogany Saltmarsh Bird's Beak Animals Aardwolf Black-tailed Jackrabbit Cactus Wren Golden Jackal Grey Fox Isand Grey Fox Puma San Joachin Kit Fox Spotted Skunk Wild Goat

TEMPERATE DECIDUOUS FOREST: 

TEMPERATE DECIDUOUS FOREST intermediate rainfall moderate temperature distinct changing seasons a few dominant tree species plant adaptations to seasonal change

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Plants American Beech Carpet Moss Common Lime Guelder Rose Lady Fern Northern Arrowwood Pecan Shagbark Hickory Tawny Milksap Mushroom White Birch White Oak Animals American Bald Eagle American Black Bear Coyote Duckbill Platypus Eastern Chipmunk European Red Squirrel Fat Dormouse Least Weasel White-tailed Deer

TUNDRA: 

TUNDRA grasslands in northern-most parts of continents permafrost short summers, frigid winters plant adaptations: animal adaptations:

TUNDRA: 

TUNDRA Plants Arctic Moss Arctic Willow Bearberry Caribou Moss Diamond-leaf Willow Labrador Tea Pasque Flower Tufted Saxifrage Animals Arctic Fox Caribou Ermine Grizzly Bear Harlequin Duck Musk Ox Polar Bear Snowy Owl

CONIFEROUS FOREST: 

CONIFEROUS FOREST taiga = boreal forest evergreen trees dominate short summer, cold snowy winters plant adaptations: ** world's greatest lumber reserve

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Plants Balsam Fir Black Spruce Douglas-fir Eastern Red Cedar Jack Pine Paper Birch Siberian Spruce White Fir Animals American Black Bear Bald Eagle Bobcat Canadian Lynx Gray Wolf Grizzly Bear Long-Eared Owl Red Fox River Otter Snowshoe Rabbit Wolverine