Pulp and Paper Merit Badge

Category: Education

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Merit Badge Class PPT for Instructor to use and make changes to fit his or her class


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Pulp and Paper:

Pulp and Paper

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1. Tell the history of papermaking. Describe the part paper products play in our society and economy. Discovery of Papermaking In 105 A.D. Ts’ai Lun , a Chinese court official, mashed pieces of mulberry bark, cloth and hemp in water until they were reduced to pulp. He then drained away the water, pressing and drying the matted fibers. The result was paper. The secret of papermaking remained in China for 650 years, until Arabs learned the art from Chinese prisoners of war. The process was brought to Europe in the 12th century—but the method of making paper from wood was lost along the way. Rags were used instead

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William Rittenhouse and William Bradford founded the first North American paper mill in 1690 at Wissahickon Creek, near Philadelphia. Other mills soon opened, with much of the industry concentrated in New York, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania and Connecticut. Papermaking in Maine began in the 1730s, when a small mill was built on the Presumpscot River in Westbrook. Maine’s attraction for paper manufacturing was its rivers and streams—important sources of power and clean water for the manufacturing process. Wood was as yet unimportant to papermaking, which still used rags as its raw material. In 1854 Samuel Dennis Warren purchased the mill in Westbrook for $28,000, starting the S.D. Warren Company. At that time discarded clothes were beaten to a pulp and poured into molds to make paper at the mill. Under his leadership the mill grew steadily; by 1856 the S.D. Warren mill (now owned by Sappi Fine Papers North America) was the largest importer of rags in the world. A rag shortage in the 1850s, along with increasing demand for paper, enticed European and American inventors to find alternative supplies for making pulp. These inventors found mechanical and chemical methods for efficiently making paper from wood. Poplar was the wood of choice, and new mills began to open near the source of this fiber. Many of these mills were in New England. The first wood pulp in Maine was produced in the basement of a Topsham sawmill in 1868, marking the beginning of the paper industry’s rapid growth in Maine. The Topsham mill produced 1 ton of pulp per day. By 1875 the S.D. Warren mill in Westbrook first blended wood fibers with rag pulp; five years later the Westbrook mill was the largest paper mill in the world.

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Paper products create jobs on all levels. There are those who cut the trees, get it to the mills, the mills process the lumber to paper, the products are sold and distributed to the large warehouse and then sold again and distributed to the smaller companies.

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2. Learn about the pulp and paper industry. A. Describe the ways the industry plants, grows, and harvests trees. B. Explain how the industry manages its forests so that the supply of trees keeps pace with the demand. C. Tell how the industry has incorporated the concepts of sustainable forest management (SFM). D. Describe two ways the papermaking industry has addressed pollution.

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2. A. Describe the ways the industry plants, grows, and harvests trees. Seed Trees provide a natural source of seeds from which a new stand of trees grows after a mature stand is harvested. Shelterwood system , trees are harvested is stages every 10 to 20 years. Single tree selection system , trees are harvested individually as they mature. Improvement cutting , may be used to thin the forest of undesirable trees – under sized trees or ones that are crowding larger trees Sanitation cutting removes trees infested Insects or disease

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2. B. Explain how the industry manages its forests so that the supply of trees keeps pace with the demand. Clearcutting , clearfelling , or clearcut logging is a forestry/logging practice in which most or all trees in an area are uniformly cut down. Clearcutting , along with shelterwood and seed tree harvests, is used by foresters to create certain types of forest ecosystems and to promote select species that require an abundance of sunlight or grow in large, even-age stands . Logging companies and forest-worker unions in some countries support the practice for scientific, safety, and economic reasons.

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2. C. Tell how the industry has incorporated the concepts of sustainable forest management (SFM).

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The environmental effects of bleaching Unfortunately , bleaching caused serious impacts on our land . Release of waste water bleach is the most serious problem for the pulp and paper. Examples of pollutants dioxins and chlorine compounds. 2. D. Describe two ways the papermaking industry has addressed pollution. The environmental impact of paper is significant, which has led to changes in industry and behavior at both business and personal levels. With the use of modern technology such as the printing press and the highly mechanized harvesting of wood, disposable paper has become a cheap commodity. This has led to a high level of consumption and waste. With the rise in environmental awareness due to the lobbying by environmental organizations and with increased government regulation there is now a trend towards sustainability in the pulp and paper industry. Deforestation Water pollution Air pollution Waste Chlorine and chlorine-based materials 1 of 2

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2. D. Describe two ways the papermaking industry has addressed pollution. 2 of 2 Forests combat the greenhouse effect because, in wood, they naturally capture and store carbon (carbon dioxide) from the atmosphere. Products from the forest also store carbon. Paper and wooden houses and structures may store carbon for decades or throughout their lifetimes. In this way, the cycling of carbon back into the atmosphere is delayed. The forests, especially young, vigorusly growing forests like those used in the paper industry, are carbon sinks, good at “fixing” atmospheric carbon as trees take in far more carbon than they give out.

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3. List the trees that are the major sources of papermaking fibers. A. Discuss what other uses are made of the trees and of the forestland owned by the pulp and paper industry. B. Describe two ways of getting fibers from wood, and explain the major differences between them. C. Tell why some pulps are bleached , and describe the process. The pulp and paper making industry uses both “hard” and “soft” wood. These are birch and aspen, grown in temperate climates and eucalyptus grown in the warmer climate of Portugal, Spain and South America. Softwood, i.e. primarily pine and spruce, give the longer fibres that are needed to give paper strength. Hardwood fibres are about much shorter, but give excellent important properties especially to printing and writing papers.

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3. A. Discuss what other uses are made of the trees and of the forestland owned by the pulp and paper industry Furniture making and building construction, mulch. gum, shoe polish, photographic film, dyes, soap, glue and medicines.

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There are two basic kinds of processes used to separate the pulp, or fibers, from other substances in the wood. One is a mechanical process that uses a spinning grindstone to separate the fibers. This process makes newsprint and other cheap papers. The other, and the most common, is a chemical process. In some cases, a combination of these processes is used . 3. B. Describe two ways of getting fibers from wood, and explain the major differences between them. In the chemical process, chippers run machines that chip the wood into small pieces. Digester operators supervise the next steps. The wood chips are placed in huge vats called digesters, mixed with chemicals, and heated. The pressure builds up in the digester and the fibers become separated from the other ingredients in the wood. Digester operators watch their instrument panels to maintain the proper cooking temperature and pressure. The wood fiber, or pulp, is then washed to remove any impurities .

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3. C. Tell why some pulps are bleached, and describe the process. Bleaching of wood pulp is the chemical processing carried out on various types of wood pulp to decrease the color of the pulp, so that it becomes whiter. The main use of wood pulp is to make paper where whiteness (similar to but not exactly the same as "brightness") is an important characteristic Two approaches are used in the chemical bleaching of pulps. One approach utilizes selective chemicals that destroy some of the chromophoric group but do not attack lignin. The other approach is to almost totally remove all lignin. The first approach provide around 70% brightness and retain high pulp yield, while second approach provide 90% + brightness but reduces pulp yield.

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4. Describe how paper is made. Discuss how paper is recycled. Make a sheet of paper by hand. The method of making paper is essentially a simple one—mix up vegetable fibers, and cook them in hot water until the fibers are soft but not dissolved. The hot water also contains a base chemical such as lye, which softens the fibers as they are cooking. Then, pass a screen-like material through the mixture, let the water drip off and/or evaporate, and then squeeze or blot out additional water. A layer of paper is left behind. Essential to the process are the fibers, which are never totally destroyed, and, when mixed and softened, form an interlaced pattern within the paper itself . The process of waste paper recycling involves mixing used paper with water and chemicals to break it down. It is then chopped up and heated, which breaks it down further into strands of cellulose, a type of organic plant material; this resulting mixture is called pulp, or slurry. It is strained through screens, which remove any glue or plastic that may still be in the mixture then cleaned, de-inked, bleached, and mixed with water. Then it can be made into new recycled paper

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5. Explain what coated paper is and why it is coated. Describe the major uses for different kinds of coated paper. Describe one other way that paper is changed by chemical or mechanical means to make new uses possible? Coated paper is paper which has been coated by a compound or polymer to impart certain qualities to the paper, including weight, surface gloss, smoothness or reduced ink absorbency. Kaolinite , calcium carbonate, Bentonite , talc... are used to coat paper for high quality printing used in packaging industry and in magazines. The chalk or china clay is bound to the paper with synthetic viscofiers , such as styrene-butadiene latexes and natural organic binders such as starch. The coating formulation may also contain chemical additives as dispersants, resins, PE: to give water resistance and wet strength to the paper, or to protect against ultraviolet radiation.

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6. Make a list of 15 pulp or paper products found in your home. Share examples of 10 such products with your counselor. __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________

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7. With your parent's and counselor's approval, do ONE of the following: A. Visit a pulp mill. Describe how the mill converts wood to cellulose fibers. B. Visit a paper mill and get a sample of the paper made there. Describe the processes used for making this paper. Tell how it will be used. C. Visit a container plant or box plant. Describe how the plant's products are made. D. Visit a recycled paper collection or sorting facility. Describe the operations there. E. Using books, magazines, your local library, the Internet (with your parent's permission), and any other suitable research tool, find out how paper products are developed. Find out what role research and development play in the papermaking industry. Share what you learn with your counselor.

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8. Find out about three career opportunities in the papermaking industry that interest you. Pick one and find out the education, training, and experience required for this profession. Discuss this with your counselor, and explain why this profession might interest you. In converting plants, the paper is made into finished products, ranging from paper plates and napkins to wallpaper and cardboard boxes. Many different kinds of workers are employed in these plants, depending on the product being made. About one-fourth of the workers in the paper industry have maintenance, professional, technical, administrative, or clerical jobs. Professionals in the industry include process engineers and paper chemists. They have special training in making paper. Along with mechanical and chemical engineers, they help develop new products and new ways of making them. Foresters are also important in the paper industry. They often manage the growing and harvesting of trees and help paper companies buy wood. In addition, many other technicians, engineers, and managers are needed to produce paper and paper products .

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Resources for this PPT furnished by http://careers.stateuniversity.com/pages/600/Paper-Industry.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Papermaking https://images.search.yahoo.com/search/images;_ylt=AwrTcYTXAChVl2cAPw.JzbkF;_ylu=X3oDMTBsZ29xY3ZzBHNlYwNzZWFyY2gEc2xrA2J1dHRvbg--;_ylc=X1MDOTYwNjI4NTcEX3IDMgRiY2sDNHNjMnZ1NWFiaTdsZSUyNmIlM0Q0JTI2ZCUzRGQ5cHdDdmxwWUVMT3lkQlp4Ul93TGtqQlZuWldiYUY0aFpSTXdnLS0lMjZzJTNEYWUlMjZpJTNEaW1LamxrX283NDZudDVzNklFOU8EZnIDeWZwLXQtOTAxBGdwcmlkA1BLbUpSZ25KU2tTN0FuOG41ZHl5b0EEbXRlc3RpZANudWxsBG5fc3VnZwMxMARvcmlnaW4DaW1hZ2VzLnNlYXJjaC55YWhvby5jb20EcG9zAzAEcHFzdHIDBHBxc3RybAMEcXN0cmwDMTcEcXVlcnkDaG93IHBhcGVyIGlzIG1hZGUEdF9zdG1wAzE0Mjg2ODUwMzEEdnRlc3RpZANJTUcwMQ--?gprid=PKmJRgnJSkS7An8n5dyyoA&pvid=RbY_eDIwNi5OMF_xVLkerhGDMjYwMgAAAACm01MV&p=how+paper+is+made&fr=yfp-t-901&fr2=sb-top-images.search.yahoo.com&ei=UTF-8&n=60&x=wrt http://www.wikihow.com/Make-Paper

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