Signs, Signals and Codes Merit Badge

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Counselor PPT for Teaching Merit Badge, make any changes needed to fit your class - Full Permission - If you can not download, email me bsagptx@yahoo.com and i'll send it to you.

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Signs, Signals and Codes:

Signs, Signals and Codes

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1. Discuss with your counselor the importance of signs, signals, and codes, and why people need these different methods of communication. Briefly discuss the history and development of signs, signals, and codes. Easier - A code is a system of symbols, letters, words, or signals that are used instead of ordinary words and numbers to send messages or store information. A code is used to keep the message short or to keep it secret.   Harder - Codes and ciphers are forms of secret communication. A code replaces words, phrases, or sentences with groups of letters or numbers, while a cipher rearranges letters or uses substitutes to disguise the message. The technology of such secret communication is called cryptology.   Secret writing has been employed about as long as writing has existed. Cryptology has long been employed by governments, military, businesses, and organizations to protect their messages. Today, encryption is used to protect storage of data and transactions between computers. 1 of 5

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2. Explain the importance of signaling in emergency communications. Discuss with your counselor the types of emergency or distress signals one might use to attract airborne search-and-rescue personnel if lost in the outdoors or trying to summon assistance during a disaster. Illustrate these signaling examples by the use of photos or drawings. Signal Use smoke or signal mirrors to signal for help. Whistle instead of yelling. It carries further and requires less energy . Three is the universal distress signal. If you're near a clearing, arrange three fires or piles of rocks in a field. You can also scratch a message into the dirt or sand . 2 of 5

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REQUIRE ASSISTANCE REQUIRE MEDICAL ASSISTANCE NO YES PROCEEDING IN THIS DIRECTION Ground-to-Air Visual Signal Code A simple set of ground-to-air signals will allow you to communicate with searchers flying overhead. Make your symbols as big as you can. Use whatever is on hand to construct symbols that can be seen easily from the air—rocks, overturned sod, piles of branches, and pieces of clothing and equipment. Where snow covers the ground, use your feet to stomp out the shapes of the symbols. Lining the shapes with branches, ashes, soil, or other dark material can make the symbols more visible. 4 of 5

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Purpose of Smoke Signals The Standard Code One puff meant ATTENTION. Two puffs meant ALL'S WELL. Three puffs of smoke, or three fires in a row, signifies Danger, Trouble or a call for HELP 5 of 5

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3. Do the following: a. Describe what Morse code is and the various means by which it can be sent. Spell your first name using Morse code. Send or receive a message of six to 10 words using Morse code. b. Describe what American Sign Language (ASL) is and how it is used today. Spell your first name using American Sign Language. Send or receive a message of six to 10 words using ASL 1 of 4

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4 of 4 Using ASL Spell SCOUTS and Your Name

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4. Give your counselor a brief explanation about semaphore, why it is used, how it is used, and where it is used. Explain the difference between semaphore flags and nautical flags. Then do the following: a. Spell your first name using semaphore. Send or receive a message of six to 10 words using semaphore. b. Using illustrations or photographs, identify 10 examples of nautical flags and discuss their importance. 1 of 6

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__ A an d 1 (LH down RH low) _ B and 2 (LH down; RH out) _ C and 3 (LH down; RH high) _ D and 4 (LH down; RH up) _ E and 5 (LH high; RH down) _ F and 6 (LH out; RH down) __ G and 7 (LH low; RH down) _ H and 8 (LH across low; RH out) _ I and 9 (LH across low; RH up) The Semaphore Alphabet 2 of 6

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_ J and alphabetic (LH out; RH up) _ K and 0 zero (LH up; RH low) _ L (LH high; RH low) _ M (LH out; RH low) _ N (LH low; RH low) _ O (LH across high; RH out) _ P (LH up; RH out) _ Q (LH high; RH out) _ R (LH out; RH out) The Semaphore Alphabet 3 of 6

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_ S (LH low; RH out) _ T (LH up; RH high) _ U (LH high; RH high) _ V (LH low; RH up) _ W (LH out; RH across high) _ X (LH low; RH across high) _ Y (LH out; RH high) _ Z (LH out; RH across low) The Semaphore Alphabet 4 of 6

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N autical Flags 5 of 6

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5. Explain the braille reading technique and how it helps individuals with sight impairment to communicate. Then do the following: a. Either by sight or by touch, identify the letters of the  braille alphabet that spell your name. By sight or touch, decode a braille message at least six words long. b. Create a message in braille at least six words long, and share this with your counselor. 1 of 3 Braille is a tactile writing system used by the blind and the visually impaired. It is traditionally written with embossed paper. Braille-users can read computer screens and other electronic supports thanks to refreshable braille displays. They can write braille with the original slate and stylus or type it on a braille writer, such as a portable braille note-taker, or on a computer that prints with a braille embosser. Braille is named after its creator, Frenchman Louis Braille, who lost his eyesight due to a childhood accident. In 1824, at the age of 15, Braille developed his code for the French alphabet as an improvement on night writing. He published his system, which subsequently included musical notation, in 1829. The second revision, published in 1837, was the first digital (binary) form of writing.

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Using the Braille Alphabet spell SCOUTS and Your Name 3 of 3

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6. Do the following: a. Describe to your counselor six sound-only signals that are in use today. Discuss the pros and cons of using sound signals versus other types of signals. b. Demonstrate to your counselor six different silent Scout signals. Use these Scout signals to direct the movements and actions of your patrol or troop. 1 of 3

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2 of 3 6. b . Demonstrate to your counselor six different silent Scout signals. Use these Scout signals to direct the movements and actions of your patrol or troop.

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7. On a Scout outing, lay out a trail for your patrol or troop to follow. Cover at least one mile in distance and use at least six different trail signs and markers. After the Scouts have completed the trail, follow no-trace principles by replacing or returning trail markers to their original locations.

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8. For THREE of the following activities, demonstrate five signals each. Tell what the signals mean and why they are used: a. Sports official’s hand signs/signals b. Heavy-equipment operator’s hand signals c. Aircraft carrier catapult crew signals d. Cyclist’s hand signals e. An activity selected by you and your counselor 1 of 6

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9. Share with your counselor 10 examples of symbols used in everyday life. Design your own symbol. Share it with your counselor and explain what it means. Then do the following: a. Show examples of 10 traffic signs and explain their meaning. b. Using a topographical map, explain what a map legend is and discuss its importance. Point out 10 map symbols and explain the meaning of each. c. Discuss text-message symbols and why they are commonly used. Give examples of your favorite 10 text symbols or emoticons. Then see if your counselor or parent can identify the meaning or usage of each symbol. 1 of 4 Design your own symbol a nd explain what it means

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Usually diamond-shaped and yellow, warning signs caution drivers that the road is slippery when wet; there is an intersection ahead, the lanes narrow, or there may be bicyclists, farm animals, or wildlife on or near the roadway. Blue rectangle or square SERVICE signs are a welcome sight for travelers who need a break from the road. We look for these signs to help us find service stations, places to eat, rest areas, phones, and overnight facilities. The handicapped-accessible sign is one of the most inviting for disabled travelers. A red circle with a slash often communicates the do not's - enter, turn, U-turn, pedestrians, or parking. CONSTRUCTION signs are orange diamonds specifically used only to WARN drivers about construction and work zone activity. And don't forget to slow down and give road crews a 'brake'! 2 of 4

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10. Briefly discuss the history of secret code writing (cryptography). Make up your own secret code and write a message of up to 25 words using this code. Share the message with a friend or fellow Scout. Then share the message and code key with your counselor and discuss the effectiveness of your code. Pigpen The Pigpen code is quite easy to catch on to. First you write out the whole alphabet in two grids, as shown: Each letter is represented by the part of the "pigpen" that surrounds it. If it's the second letter in the box, then it has a dot in the middle. So an A looks like this: And a B looks like this: Example: This is decoded as "LISTEN TO THE WIND". 1 of 5

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Half-reversed alphabet Here you can use the same alphabet for coding and decoding, so it saves you some writing! A stands for N , and N stands for A B stands for O , and O stands for B C stands for P , and P stands for C and so on. Just write out the letters from A to M, and write the letters from N to Z directly below them. A B C D E F G H I J K L M NO P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Example: SCOUT = FPBHG 2 of 5

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Invisible Ink Have you ever written a message using invisible ink? You can easily make your own ink to do this. It's quite easy! All you need is some milk from the fridge, and you can write on a piece of paper using a fine paint brush or a cotton bud. While the milk is still wet, you can easily read it because it is still shiny, but once it is dry no-one can tell that it's there at all. To read the secret message, you have to heat up the page. You can do this over a candle, but be very careful you don't let the paper catch alight! Do it outside, and have some water nearby, just in case. You can also do it by putting the paper in a warm oven for a few minutes. Be careful! If the oven is too hot, the paper might catch alight and you'll lose your message! You can also use lemon juice as invisible ink. 3 of 5

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Numbers stand for letters This is a very easy code to solve! Each number stands for a letter. 1 stands for A 2 stands for B 3 stands for C and so on. So if I tell you the number is 10, you count ten letters into the alphabet: "A B C D E F G H I J", and you get a J . To help solve this code a bit quicker, you can write out the whole alphabet, and then write out the numbers from 1 to 26 below each letter. A B C D E F G H I J K L M 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Now, whenever you see a number, you can either count that many letters, or look up the number and write down the letter above it. Example: SCOUT = 19 3 15 21 20 4 of 5

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Code Stick To make a code on a code stick, you need a long strip of paper, and a walking stick or a broomstick. First you wind the strip of paper tightly around the broomstick. Then you write your message all the way down the stick (you can write it on several lines). When you unwind the message, no-one can read it unless they have the same stick as you! But if they have the stick, they can read the message just by winding the strip of paper around it again. 5 of 5

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Information shared by Inquiry.net – Wikipedia – Yahoo Image This PPT is for Merit Badge Counselors to use to teach the Merit Badge, The Instructor can make changes to fit his/her class.

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