CHESS Merit Badge

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CHESS

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1. Discuss with your merit badge counselor the history of the game of chess. Explain why it is considered a game of planning and strategy. 2. Discuss with your merit badge counselor the following: a. The benefits of playing chess, including developing critical thinking skills, concentration skills, and decision-making skills, and how these skills can help you in other areas of your life b. Sportsmanship and chess etiquette 3. Demonstrate to your counselor that you know each of the following. Then, using Scouting's Teaching EDGE*, teach someone (preferably another Scout) who does not know how to play chess: a. The name of each chess piece b. How to set up a chessboard c. How each chess piece moves, including castling and en passant captures 4. Do the following: a. Demonstrate scorekeeping using the algebraic system of chess notation. b. Discuss the differences between the opening, the middle game, and the endgame. c. Explain four opening principles. d. Explain the four rules for castling. e. On a chessboard, demonstrate a "scholar's mate" and a "fool's mate." f. Demonstrate on a chessboard four ways a chess game can end in a draw.

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5. Do the following: a. Explain four of the following elements of chess strategy: exploiting weaknesses, force, king safety, pawn structure, space, tempo, time. b. Explain any five of these chess tactics: clearance sacrifice, decoy, discovered attack, double attack, fork, interposing, overloading, overprotecting, pin, remove the defender, skewer, zwischenzug . c.  Set up a chessboard with the white king on e1 , the white rooks on a1 and h1 , and the black king on e5 . With White to move first, demonstrate how to force checkmate on the black king.  d. Set up and solve five direct-mate problems provided by your merit badge counselor. 6. Do ONE of the following: a. Play at least three games of chess with other Scouts and/or your merit badge counselor. Replay the games from your score sheets and discuss with your counselor how you might have played each game differently. b. Play in a scholastic (youth) chess tournament and use your score sheets from that tournament to replay your games with your merit badge counselor. Discuss with your counselor how you might have played each game differently. c. Organize and run a chess tournament with at least four players, plus you. Have each competitor play at least two games.

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1. Discuss with your merit badge counselor the history of the game of chess. Explain why it is considered a game of planning and strategy. The history of chess spans some 1500 years. The earliest predecessors of the game originated in India, before the 6th century AD. From India, the game spread to Persia. When the Arabs conquered Persia, chess was taken up by the Muslim world and subsequently spread to Southern Europe. In Europe, chess evolved into roughly its current form in the 15th century. In the second half of the 19th century, modern chess tournament play began, and the first World Chess Championship was held in 1886. The 20th century saw great leaps forward in chess theory and the establishment of the World Chess Federation (FIDE). Developments in the 21st century include use of computers for analysis, which originated in the 1970s with the first programmed chess games on the market. Online gaming appeared in the mid-1990s. The complex game of chess requires the contemplation of both players using both short (tactics) and long range (strategy) planning with the ultimate goal of capturing the king . Players are , of necessity , required to be intimately acquainted with the different capabilities of each chess piece as well as the intricacies of the playing and winning the game through the experiences that come from both playing and studying the game . Strategic planning is an organization's process of defining its strategy, or direction, and making decisions on allocating its resources to pursue this strategy. In order to determine the direction of the organization, it is necessary to understand its current position and the possible avenues through which it can pursue a particular course of action.

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2. Discuss with your merit badge counselor the following: a . The benefits of playing chess, including developing critical thinking skills, concentration skills, and decision-making skills, and how these skills can help you in other areas of your life b. Sportsmanship and chess etiquette Chess is a game for people of all ages. You can learn to play at any age and in chess, unlike in many other sports, you don't ever have to retire. Age is also not a factor when you're looking for an opponent-young can play old and old can play young. Chess develops memory.   The chess theory is complicated and many players memorize different opening variations. You will also learn to recognize various patterns and remember lengthy variations. Chess improves concentration. During the game you are focused on only one main goal-to checkmate and become the victor.   § Chess develops logical thinking. Chess requires some understanding of logical strategy. For example, you will know that it is important to bring your pieces out into the game at the beginning, to keep your king safe at all times, not to make big weaknesses in your position and not to blunder your pieces away for free. (Although you will find yourself doing that occasionally through your chess career. Mistakes are inevitable and chess, like life, is a never-ending learning process.)   § Chess promotes imagination and creativity. It encourages you to be inventive. There are an indefinite amount of beautiful combinations yet to be constructed.   § Chess teaches independence. You are forced to make important decisions influenced only by your own judgment.   § Chess develops the capability to predict and foresee consequences of actions. It teaches you to look both ways before crossing the street.   § Chess inspires self-motivation. It encourages the search of the best move, the best plan, and the most beautiful continuation out of the endless possibilities. It encourages the everlasting aim towards progress, always steering to ignite the flame of victory. 1 of 3

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2. Discuss with your merit badge counselor the following: a . The benefits of playing chess, including developing critical thinking skills, concentration skills, and decision-making skills, and how these skills can help you in other areas of your life b. Sportsmanship and chess etiquette § Chess shows that success rewards hard work. The more you practice, the better you'll become. You should be ready to lose and learn from your mistakes. One of the greatest players ever, Capablanca said, "You may learn much more from a game you lose than from a game you win. You will have to lose hundreds of games before becoming a good player."   § Chess and Science. Chess develops the scientific way of thinking. While playing, you generate numerous variations in your mind. You explore new ideas, try to predict their outcomes and interpret surprising revelations. You decide on a hypothesis, and then you make your move and test it.   § Chess and Technology. What do chess players do during the game? Just like computers they engage in a search for the better move in a limited amount of time. What are you doing right now? You are using a computer as a tool for learning.   § Chess and Mathematics. You don't have to be a genius to figure this one out. Chess involves an infinite number of calculations, anything from counting the number of attackers and defenders in the event of a simple exchange to calculating lengthy continuations. And you use your head to calculate, not some little machine.   § Chess and Research. There are millions of chess resources out there for every aspect of the game. You can even collect your own chess library. In life, is it important to know how to find, organize and use boundless amounts of information. Chess gives you a perfect example and opportunity to do just that.   § Chess and Art. In the Great Soviet Encyclopedia chess is defined as "an art appearing in the form of a game." If you thought you could never be an artist, chess proves you wrong. Chess enables the artist hiding within you to come out. Your imagination will run wild with endless possibilities on the 64 squares. You will paint pictures in your mind of ideal positions and perfect outposts for your soldiers. As a chess artist you will have an original style and personality. 2 of 3

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2. Discuss with your merit badge counselor the following: a . The benefits of playing chess, including developing critical thinking skills, concentration skills, and decision-making skills, and how these skills can help you in other areas of your life b. Sportsmanship and chess etiquette § Chess and Psychology. Chess is a test of patience, nerves, will power and concentration. It enhances your ability to interact with other people. It tests your sportsmanship in a competitive environment.   § Chess improves schoolwork and grades. Numerous studies have proven that kids obtain a higher reading level, math level and a greater learning ability overall as a result of playing chess. For all those reasons mentioned above and more, chess playing kids do better at school and therefore have a better chance to succeed in life.   § Chess opens up the world for you. You don't need to be a high ranked player to enter big important competitions. Even tournaments such as the US Open and the World Open welcome players of all strengths. Chess provides you with plenty of opportunities to travel not only all around the country but also around the world. Chess is a universal language and you can communicate with anyone over the checkered plain.   § Chess enables you to meet many interesting people. You will make life-long friendships with people you meet through chess.   § Chess is cheap. You don't need big fancy equipment to play chess. In fact, all you may need is your computer! (And we really hope you have one of those, or else something fishy is going on here.) It is also good to have a chess set at home to practice with family members, to take to a friend's house or even to your local neighborhood park to get everyone interested in the game.   § CHESS IS FUN! Dude, this isn't just another one of those board games. No chess game ever repeats itself, which means you create more and more new ideas each game. It never gets boring. You always have so much to look forward to. Every game you are the general of an army and you alone decide the destiny of your soldiers. You can sacrifice them, trade them, pin them, fork them, lose them, defend them, or order them to break through any barriers and surround the enemy king. You've got the power! To summarize everything in three little words-Chess is Everything! 3 of 3

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2. Discuss with your merit badge counselor the following: a. The benefits of playing chess, including developing critical thinking skills, concentration skills, and decision-making skills, and how these skills can help you in other areas of your life b. Sportsmanship and chess etiquette Chess Etiquette - Acceptable and Unacceptable Practices Chess etiquette is to be strictly observed when using good sportsmanship and being respectful. Here are the more common rules of etiquette. All games should begin with the players shaking hands and without speaking to each other. Each player should notice the position of all the pieces on the board and which moves can be taken. It's considered to be very rude to attempt to distract another player when playing in a tournament. This is especially the case if the other player is your opponent. The touch-move rule should always be used. The touch-move rule states that when either player touches a piece on the board and it's intentional, they must either capture or move that piece, but only if it's a legal move. If it's accidental, it doesn't count as an actual move and play continues as usual. In any chess tournament, chess etiquette should always be observed. When any player makes a move that is illegal, the director of the tournament should always be called over to investigate. When this occurs, if the "Sudden Death" control is being used in the tournament, the other player receives an extra two minutes to complete the move. When the chess game is being held at a club, you should always greet new players and offer to play with them. If a player with a lot of experience plays against a beginner, they should help the beginner to make better moves and allow them to take moves back if they wish. When you're working on a chess puzzle, don't move the pieces. Keep them in your mind and don't blurt out the answer to spoil it for others. 1 of 2

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2. Discuss with your merit badge counselor the following: a. The benefits of playing chess, including developing critical thinking skills, concentration skills, and decision-making skills, and how these skills can help you in other areas of your life b. Sportsmanship and chess etiquette It's considered bad chess etiquette to boast or gloat over your victory in a tournament, and on the other end of the spectrum, you shouldn't be angry about a loss. Quite often in tournament play, when a game has been completed, the opposing players retire to a different room so those who are still playing aren't disturbed. They can discuss the game and the moves that were used in order to play an even better game next time. When the game is being played in a tournament, the director of the tournament has the power to take certain actions. This includes punishing players for breaches of etiquette. Time can be added or taken away as a form of sanction. Players can be forfeited if they violate any rules, and if spectators cause disruptions, they can be banned. Not talking while any game is in progress is always part of chess etiquette. This not only applies to the game you're playing, but games that other players are engaged in. It's very distracting to have spectators talking while you're playing. This is true for tournament play, but also when you're playing against an opponent for fun. 2 of 2

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3. Demonstrate to your counselor that you know each of the following. Then, using Scouting's Teaching EDGE*, teach someone (preferably another Scout) who does not know how to play chess: a. The name of each chess piece b. How to set up a chessboard c. How each chess piece moves, including castling and en passant captures The EDGE method is a four step method for teaching a skill: E xplain D emonstrate G uide E nable PAWN ROOK KNIGHT BISHOP QUEEN KING

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3. Demonstrate to your counselor that you know each of the following. Then, using Scouting's Teaching EDGE*, teach someone (preferably another Scout) who does not know how to play chess: a. The name of each chess piece b. How to set up a chessboard c. How each chess piece moves, including castling and en passant captures

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3. Demonstrate to your counselor that you know each of the following. Then, using Scouting's Teaching EDGE*, teach someone (preferably another Scout) who does not know how to play chess: a. The name of each chess piece b. How to set up a chessboard c. How each chess piece moves, including castling and en passant captures The rook moves any number of vacant squares forwards, backwards, left, or right in a straight line. It also takes part, along with the king, in a special move called castling. The bishop moves any number of vacant squares diagonally in a straight line. Consequently, a bishop stays on squares of the same color throughout a game. The two bishops each player starts with move on squares of opposite colors. The queen moves any number of vacant squares in any direction: forwards, backwards, left, right, or diagonally, in a straight line. The king moves exactly one vacant square in any direction: forwards, backwards, left, right, or diagonally. It can also castle in conjunction with a rook. 1 of 3

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3. Demonstrate to your counselor that you know each of the following. Then, using Scouting's Teaching EDGE*, teach someone (preferably another Scout) who does not know how to play chess: a. The name of each chess piece b. How to set up a chessboard c . How each chess piece moves, including castling and en passant captures The pawn moves forward exactly one space, or optionally, two spaces when on its starting square, toward the opponent's side of the board. When there is an enemy piece one square diagonally ahead of the pawn, either left or right, then the pawn may capture that piece. A pawn can perform a special type of capture of an enemy pawn called en passant If the pawn reaches a square on the back rank of the opponent, it promotes to the player's choice of a queen, rook, bishop, or knight. Pieces other than pawns capture in the same way that they move. A capturing piece replaces the opponent piece on its square, except for an en passant capture. Captured pieces are immediately removed from the game. A square may hold only one piece at any given time. Except for castling and the knight's move, no piece may jump over another piece 2 of 3 The knight moves on an extended diagonal from one corner of any 2×3 rectangle of squares to the furthest opposite corner. Consequently, the knight alternates its square color each time it moves. The knight is the only piece that jumps over any intervening piece(s) when moving (castling being the only special instance in which pieces jump over one another). 2 3 1

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3. Demonstrate to your counselor that you know each of the following. Then, using Scouting's Teaching EDGE*, teach someone (preferably another Scout) who does not know how to play chess: a. The name of each chess piece b. How to set up a chessboard c . How each chess piece moves, including castling and en passant captures 2 of 3 Castling En Passant

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4. Do the following: a. Demonstrate scorekeeping using the algebraic system of chess notation. b. Discuss the differences between the opening, the middle game, and the endgame. c. Explain four opening principles. d. Explain the four rules for castling. e. On a chessboard, demonstrate a "scholar's mate" and a "fool's mate." f. Demonstrate on a chessboard four ways a chess game can end in a draw. Algebraic notation (or AN ) is a method for recording and describing the moves in a game of chess. It is now standard among all chess organizations and most books, magazines, and newspapers. In English-speaking countries, algebraic notation replaced the parallel method of descriptive notation, which became common in the 19th century and continued with sporadic use as recently as the 1980s or 1990s. European countries, except England, used algebraic notation before the period when descriptive notation was common. Each square of the chessboard is identified by a unique coordinate pair—a letter and a number. The vertical column of squares (called files ) from White's left (the queenside) to his right (the kingside) are labeled a through h . The horizontal rows of squares (called ranks ) are numbered 1 to 8 starting from White's side of the board. Thus each square has a unique identification of file letter followed by rank number. (For example, White's king starts the game on square e1; Black's knight on b8 can move to open squares a6 or c6.)

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4. Do the following: a. Demonstrate scorekeeping using the algebraic system of chess notation. b. Discuss the differences between the opening, the middle game, and the endgame. c. Explain four opening principles. d. Explain the four rules for castling. e. On a chessboard, demonstrate a "scholar's mate" and a "fool's mate." f. Demonstrate on a chessboard four ways a chess game can end in a draw. Common aims in opening play Irrespective of whether they are trying to gain the upper hand as White and equalize as Black or to create dynamic Imbalances, players generally devote a lot of attention in the opening stages to: Development : One of the main aims of the opening is to mobilize the pieces on useful squares where they will have impact on the game. To this end, knights are usually developed to f3, c3, f6 and c6 (or sometimes e2, d2, e7 or d7), and both players' king and queen pawns are moved so the bishops can be developed (alternatively, the bishops may be fianchettoed with a manoeuvre such as g3 and Bg2). Rapid mobilization is the key. The queen, and to a lesser extent the rooks, are not usually played to a central position until later in the game, when many minor pieces and pawns are no longer present. Control of the center : At the start of the game, it is not clear on which part of the board the pieces will be needed. However, control of the central squares allows pieces to be moved to any part of the board relatively easily, and can also have a cramping effect on the opponent. The classical view is that central control is best effected by placing pawns there, ideally establishing pawns on d4 and e4 (or d5 and e5 for Black). However, the hypermodern school showed that it was not always necessary or even desirable to occupy the center in this way, and that too broad a pawn front could be attacked and destroyed, leaving its architect vulnerable; an impressive-looking pawn center is worth little unless it can be maintained. The hypermoderns instead advocated controlling the center from a distance with pieces, breaking down one's opponent's center, and only taking over the center oneself later in the game. This leads to openings such as Alekhine's Defense – in a line like 1.e4 Nf6 2.e5 Nd5 3.d4 d6 4.c4 Nb6 5.f4 (the Four Pawns Attack ), White has a formidable pawn center for the moment, but Black hopes to undermine it later in the game, leaving White's position exposed. 1 of 3

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4. Do the following: a. Demonstrate scorekeeping using the algebraic system of chess notation. b. Discuss the differences between the opening, the middle game, and the endgame. c. Explain four opening principles. d. Explain the four rules for castling. e. On a chessboard, demonstrate a "scholar's mate" and a "fool's mate." f. Demonstrate on a chessboard four ways a chess game can end in a draw. King safety : The king is somewhat exposed in the middle of the board. Measures must be taken to reduce his vulnerability. It is therefore common for both players either to castle in the opening (simultaneously developing one of the rooks) or to otherwise bring the king to the side of the board via artificial castling. Prevention of pawn weakness : Most openings strive to avoid the creation of pawn weaknesses such as isolated, doubled and backward pawns pawn islands, etc. Some openings sacrifice endgame considerations for a quick attack on the opponent's position. Some unbalanced openings for Black, in particular, make use of this idea, such as the Dutch and the Sicilian. Other openings, such as the Alekhine and the Benoni , invite the opponent to overextend and form pawn weaknesses. Specific openings accept pawn weaknesses in exchange for compensation in the form of dynamic play. (See Pawn structure.) Piece coordination : As each player mobilizes their pieces, each attempts to assure that they are working harmoniously towards the control of key squares. Create positions in which the player is more comfortable than the opponent : Transposition is one common way of doing this. [ Apart from these ideas, other strategies used in the middlegame may also be carried out in the opening. These include preparing pawn breaks to create counterplay , creating weaknesses in the opponent's pawn structure, seizing control of key squares, making favourable exchanges of minor pieces (e.g. gaining the bishop pair), or gaining a space advantage, whether in the centre or on the flanks. 2 of 3

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4. Do the following: a. Demonstrate scorekeeping using the algebraic system of chess notation. b. Discuss the differences between the opening, the middle game, and the endgame. c. Explain four opening principles. d. Explain the four rules for castling. e. On a chessboard, demonstrate a "scholar's mate" and a "fool's mate." f. Demonstrate on a chessboard four ways a chess game can end in a draw. The Middle Game in Chess by Reuben Fine lists three major factors in the middlegame : king safety, force (material) and mobility, although not all of these factors are of equal importance. If king safety is a serious issue, a well-executed attack on the king can render other considerations, including material advantages, irrelevant. Material is another important consideration, Fine notes that—if all other things are equal—any material advantage will usually be decisive. According to Fine, a material advantage will usually not give a direct mating attack unless the advantage is very large (a rook or more), rather it can be used as a means of gaining more material and a decisive endgame advantage. Not all games reach the endgame, since an attack on the king, or a combination leading to large material gains can end the game while it is still in the middlegame . At other times, an advantage needs to be pursued in the endgame, and learning how to make favorable exchanges leading to a favorable endgame is an important skill. 3 of 3

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4. Do the following: a. Demonstrate scorekeeping using the algebraic system of chess notation. b. Discuss the differences between the opening, the middle game, and the endgame. c. Explain four opening principles. d. Explain the four rules for castling. e. On a chessboard, demonstrate a "scholar's mate" and a "fool's mate." f. Demonstrate on a chessboard four ways a chess game can end in a draw. 1) Control the center squares - The center squares are the four squares at d4, d5, e4, and e5, and, to a lesser degree, the squares that immediately surround those four. The center squares represent valued "high ground" from which attacks can originate. Therefore an important opening rinciple is to control the center squares. Develop your pieces to occupy and/or attack the center. 2) Improve mobility - At the beginning of the game, many of your pieces cannot move because other pieces are in the way. One of your opening objectives is to open up lines of attack. Develop your pieces to improve their mobility. 3) Extend and defend - As pieces reach out to control territory, use them to defend each other. Develop your pieces to create a wall of defense. 4) Minor pieces first - Minor pieces refer to the knights and bishops. Major pieces refer to the rooks and queen. Extended major pieces become prime targets. You can lose precious moves fleeing the attacks from minor pieces. Therefore, develop your minor pieces first, leave the major ones for last.

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4. Do the following: a. Demonstrate scorekeeping using the algebraic system of chess notation. b. Discuss the differences between the opening, the middle game, and the endgame. c. Explain four opening principles. d. Explain the four rules for castling. e. On a chessboard, demonstrate a "scholar's mate" and a "fool's mate." f. Demonstrate on a chessboard four ways a chess game can end in a draw. 1. Neither the king nor the rook have moved. 2. The squares between the king and rook must be clear of all pieces. 3. You cannot be in check when you castle. 4. You cannot castle through check when you castle. What this means is that the square the king passes over must not be attacked by any enemy pieces.

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4. Do the following: a. Demonstrate scorekeeping using the algebraic system of chess notation. b. Discuss the differences between the opening, the middle game, and the endgame. c. Explain four opening principles. d. Explain the four rules for castling. e. On a chessboard, demonstrate a "scholar's mate" and a "fool's mate." f. Demonstrate on a chessboard four ways a chess game can end in a draw. In chess, Scholar's Mate is the checkmate achieved by the moves: 1. e4 e5 2. Qh5 Nc6 3. Bc4 Nf6? 4. Qxf7# The moves might be played in a different order or in slight variation, but the basic idea is the same: the queen and bishop combine in a simple mating attack on f7 (or f2 if Black is performing the mate). Scholar's Mate is sometimes referred to as the "Four-Move Checkmate", although there are other ways to checkmate in four moves. 1 of 2

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4. Do the following: a. Demonstrate scorekeeping using the algebraic system of chess notation. b. Discuss the differences between the opening, the middle game, and the endgame. c. Explain four opening principles. d. Explain the four rules for castling. e. On a chessboard, demonstrate a "scholar's mate" and a "fool's mate." f. Demonstrate on a chessboard four ways a chess game can end in a draw. 2 of 2 Fool's Mate , also known as the "Two-Move Checkmate", is the quickest possible checkmate in chess. A prime example consists of the moves: 1. f3 e5 2. g4 Qh4# resulting in the position shown. (The pattern can have slight variations, for example White might play 1.f4 instead of 1.f3 or move the g-pawn first, and Black might play 1...e6 instead of 1...e5.)

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4. Do the following: a. Demonstrate scorekeeping using the algebraic system of chess notation. b. Discuss the differences between the opening, the middle game, and the endgame. c. Explain four opening principles. d. Explain the four rules for castling. e. On a chessboard, demonstrate a "scholar's mate" and a "fool's mate." f. Demonstrate on a chessboard four ways a chess game can end in a draw. A chess game may end with a drawn result from six possible scenarios. Insufficient Material. The following combinations can never deliver checkmate (assuming no pawns) against a lone King: 1) lone King, 2) King and one Knight, 3) King and one Bishop. A player must claim the draw, otherwise play continues (either player may still lose on time). Draw by Repetition. If the same position occurs 3 times (not necessarily on consecutive moves) with the same player to move, either player may point this out and claim a draw. If neither player claims the draw, play continues (either player may still lose on time). Stalemate. If a player has no legal moves on his/her turn, but is not in check, the game is over and the result is a draw. Fifty-Move Rule. If either player makes 50 consecutive moves without moving a pawn or making a capture (irreversible moves), either player may claim a draw. If neither player claims the draw, play continues (either player may still lose on time). Draw by Agreement. Players may offer a draw at any time during a game, but preferably immediately after making a move. If the opponent wants to accept the draw offer, he/she must do so before making a move, otherwise the draw offer expires. Draw offers may be repeated. Both Flags Down. If neither player has time left on the clock, either player may claim a draw (unless one of the players has already been checkmated or resigned).

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5. Do the following: a. Explain four of the following elements of chess strategy: exploiting weaknesses, force, king safety, pawn structure, space, tempo, time. b. Explain any five of these chess tactics: clearance sacrifice, decoy, discovered attack, double attack, fork, interposing, overloading, overprotecting, pin, remove the defender, skewer, zwischenzug . c.  Set up a chessboard with the white king on e1 , the white rooks on a1 and h1 , and the black king on e5 . With White to move first, demonstrate how to force checkmate on the black king.  d. Set up and solve five direct-mate problems provided by your merit badge counselor. Exploiting Weaknesses Force King Safety Pawn Structure A move that is the only one which does not result in a serious disadvantage for the moving player 1 of 2 The placement of the pawns is known as the pawn structure. As pawns are the least mobile of the pieces and the only pieces unable to move backwards, the position of the pawns Greatly influences the character of the game. Chess requires that we look for weaknesses in our opponent‘s positions while keeping ourselves out of weak positions. As always, the game remains a balance of attacking and defending. A weakness is simply a flaw in a position that we can exploit. king is somewhat exposed, Measures must be taken to reduce his vulnerability.

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5. Do the following: a. Explain four of the following elements of chess strategy: exploiting weaknesses, force, king safety, pawn structure, space, tempo, time. b. Explain any five of these chess tactics: clearance sacrifice, decoy, discovered attack, double attack, fork, interposing, overloading, overprotecting, pin, remove the defender, skewer, zwischenzug . c.  Set up a chessboard with the white king on e1 , the white rooks on a1 and h1 , and the black king on e5 . With White to move first, demonstrate how to force checkmate on the black king.  d. Set up and solve five direct-mate problems provided by your merit badge counselor. Space Tempo Time 2 of 2 Opportunities to make moves: similar meaning to tempo . A move that does not alter the position significantly is described as "wasting time", and forcing the other player to waste time is described as "gaining time". The territory (squares) controlled and occupied by each player's pieces and pawns. Amount of relative time represented by a move. That is, you can open a game by moving your king pawn two squares and get to the e4 square in one move . Or you can spend two moves playing 1. e3, followed by 2. e4, and lose a tempo accomplishing the same thing.

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5. Do the following: a. Explain four of the following elements of chess strategy: exploiting weaknesses, force, king safety, pawn structure, space, tempo, time. b. Explain any five of these chess tactics: clearance sacrifice, decoy, discovered attack, double attack, fork, interposing, overloading, overprotecting, pin, remove the defender, skewer, zwischenzug . c.  Set up a chessboard with the white king on e1 , the white rooks on a1 and h1 , and the black king on e5 . With White to move first, demonstrate how to force checkmate on the black king.  d. Set up and solve five direct-mate problems provided by your merit badge counselor. term used to describe a deliberate sacrifice of material with the goal of "clearing" of either a square, diagonal, or file. Clearance Sacrifice A decoy is a distraction. Often a player might use a decoy to force the opponent to think about something else, while the player is actually focused on a different target entirely. Decoy Discovered Attack An attack which happens when one piece moves out of the way, opening a line for another attacking piece to threaten something (either checkmate or material). Fork / Double Attack: A double attack is an attack or threat on two things at once. The advantage of a  double attack  is that it is hard to defend two things with one move. We use the term fork to describe a double attack by a single unit, usually a Knight, Queen or pawn. 1 of 2

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5. Do the following: a. Explain four of the following elements of chess strategy: exploiting weaknesses, force, king safety, pawn structure, space, tempo, time. b. Explain any five of these chess tactics: clearance sacrifice, decoy, discovered attack, double attack, fork, interposing, overloading, overprotecting, pin, remove the defender, skewer, zwischenzug . c.  Set up a chessboard with the white king on e1 , the white rooks on a1 and h1 , and the black king on e5 . With White to move first, demonstrate how to force checkmate on the black king.  d. Set up and solve five direct-mate problems provided by your merit badge counselor. 2 of 2 Overloading A piece that has too many things to do is "overloaded." For example, a bishop which has to both stop a passed pawn from Queening and guard against a checkmate is overloaded . By carrying out one threat (for example, queening the pawn) the opponent could force the overworked bishop to leave its post, allowing the checkmate threat to succeed. Pin When   a piece cannot move because it is blocking/guarding a more valuable piece behind it from being captured, that piece is "pinned". Removal of the Defender A tactic that involves eliminating the critical defensive piece that otherwise stands in the way of achieving a much greater goal (most often checkmate or the winning of large amounts of material). A player looks to remove the defender as a destructive means to achieve their goal. Skewer A move which threatens a valuable piece (such as the King or Queen), forcing that piece to move away and allowing the attacking piece to take a less valuable piece behind the valuable one.

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5. Do the following: a. Explain four of the following elements of chess strategy: exploiting weaknesses, force, king safety, pawn structure, space, tempo, time. b. Explain any five of these chess tactics: clearance sacrifice, decoy, discovered attack, double attack, fork, interposing, overloading, overprotecting, pin, remove the defender, skewer, zwischenzug . c.  Set up a chessboard with the white king on e1 , the white rooks on a1 and h1 , and the black king on e5 . With White to move first, demonstrate how to force checkmate on the black king.  d. Set up and solve five direct-mate problems provided by your merit badge counselor.

PowerPoint Presentation:

5. Do the following: a. Explain four of the following elements of chess strategy: exploiting weaknesses, force, king safety, pawn structure, space, tempo, time. b. Explain any five of these chess tactics: clearance sacrifice, decoy, discovered attack, double attack, fork, interposing, overloading, overprotecting, pin, remove the defender, skewer, zwischenzug . c.  Set up a chessboard with the white king on e1 , the white rooks on a1 and h1 , and the black king on e5 . With White to move first, demonstrate how to force checkmate on the black king.  d. Set up and solve five direct-mate problems provided by your merit badge counselor. SEE WORKSHEET

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6. Do ONE of the following: a. Play at least three games of chess with other Scouts and/or your merit badge counselor. Replay the games from your score sheets and discuss with your counselor how you might have played each game differently. b. Play in a scholastic (youth) chess tournament and use your score sheets from that tournament to replay your games with your merit badge counselor. Discuss with your counselor how you might have played each game differently. c. Organize and run a chess tournament with at least four players, plus you. Have each competitor play at least two games.

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