Automotive Maintenance MB

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Automotive Maintenance :

Automotive Maintenance

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Basic Tools Using the right tools when working on your car will make the job easier. An ASE (Automotive Service Excellence) certified technician typically has hundreds of common and specialty tools to work on a variety of vehicles. However, every auto owner should have some basic hand tools and safety equipment to perform periodic maintenance and minor repairs. Safety Equipment When working on vehicles, think safety first. You should use the proper tools and clothing to protect yourself. Eye Protection Eye Protection is a must when working on cars. Eyes are so fragile. Safety glasses and goggles will help prevent foreign materials from entering your eyes. These are especially important when inspecting the underbody of a vehicle and working around chemicals. Goggles can be used over prescription glasses. Ear Protection Use earplugs or earmuffs when the work area is excessively loud. Noise with high decibel levels can damage your hearing. Gloves Use work gloves when you are performing work on tires or exhaust. Extremely worn tires can have sharp steel belts poking from the tread. Exhaust systems can be hot and have rusty holes that can cut your hands. Use disposable latex gloves when you are working with chemicals, oils, and grease. 1. a. Explain to your counselor the hazards you are most likely to encounter during automotive maintenance activities, and what you should do to anticipate, help prevent, mitigate, or lessen these hazards. b. Discuss with your counselor the safety equipment, tools, and clothing used while checking or repairing a motor vehicle. Use this equipment, tools, and/or clothing (when needed or called for) in meeting the requirements for this merit badge.

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2. General Maintenance, Safety, and Registration Do the following: a. Review the maintenance chart in the owner's manual. Explain the requirements and time limits. b. Demonstrate how to check the following: 1. Brake Fluid 2. Engine Oil 3. Coolant 4. Power steering fluid 5. Windshield washer fluid 6. Transmission fluid 7. Battery fluid (if possible) and condition of the battery terminals c. Locate the fuse boxes; determine the size of fuses. Demonstrate the proper replacement of burned-out fuses. d. Demonstrate how to check the condition and tension of belts and hoses. e. Check the lighting in the vehicle, including instrument, warning, and exterior bulbs. f. Locate and check the air filter. g. Explain the purpose, importance, and limitations of safety belts and passive restraints.

Lets Go Outside:

Lets Go Outside

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h. Find out the requirements for the state inspection in your state, including how often a vehicle needs to be inspected. All Texas registered vehicles are required to receive an annual inspection. All inspections include a comprehensive safety inspection; however, some vehicles are required to have an emissions test in addition to the safety inspection.

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2. i . Explain the importance of registering a vehicle and find out the annual registration fee for renewing your family car's registration. In Texas, car registration is handled by the Texas Department of Transportation ( TxDOT ), while driver licensing is handled by the Department of Public Safety, Driver License Division. The paperwork and collection of fees for vehicle registration is usually handled by the County Tax Assessor-Collectors office in the area where you reside. Some processes in remote areas can be accomplished at county subcontractors―these can be in grocery stores, other offices, and almost anywhere. Most vehicle registration fees will run about $70, but these vary from county to county based on special assessments approved by local voters. You will also have the choice of selecting from many types of special license plates for an additional fee.

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3. Dashboard. Do the following: a. Explain the function of the fuel gauge, speedometer, tachometer, oil pressure, and engine temperature gauge. Point out each one on the instrument cluster. Fuel Volts Tachometer Speedometer Oil Pressure Temp Gauge

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3. b. Explain the symbols that light up on the dashboard and the difference between the yellow and red symbols. Explain each of the indicators on the dashboard, using the owner's manual, if necessary. 1. ABS warning light – it is turned on every time there's something wrong with the Anti-lock Brake System. Note that the ABS symbol is activated once the drive starts the engine but it's automatically turned off after a few seconds. 2. Low fuel notification – this panel is switched on if the fuel level gets very low and refuel is required. 3. Seat belt reminder – the symbol appears and remains active as long as the engine is started and the seat belt remains unfastened; depending on the car manufacturer and car model, the seat belt reminder is combined with an audio notification. 4. Electrical problem warning – this light warns you that there's a problem with the electrical system of the car. 1 of 2

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5. Brake system alert – the notification is powered on if the ECU detects a problem to the brake system 6. Warning light – it signals an unidentified problem with your car; it usually requires the car to be serviced. 7. Child seat indicator – if turned on, it informs you that the standardized child safety seat is attached 8. Tire pressure monitor – the warning is turned on in case of low tire pressure which could raise the fuel consumption or affect the grip. 9. Air filter – usually installed on the center console but also found on the dashboard, this light informs the driver that a malfunction was detected at the passenger compartment air filter 10. Front airbag – the light monitors the front airbag and, in case it is turned on, signals a problem with it; it usually requires professional assistance. 11. Side airbag – same as the front airbag but intended for the side airbag 12. Child seat – this symbol informs the driver that there may be a problem with the rear-mounted child seat; similar to number 7 but used by different manufacturers 2 of 2

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4. Tires. Do the following: a. Explain the difference between tire manufacturer's and vehicle manufacturer's specifications and show where to find them. O.E. tires are designed to the vehicle manufacturer’s specifications and do not offer a mileage warranty. However, your tires are warranted for workmanship. Tire manufacturers can make all tires last 100,000 miles if they wanted to. They can make the tread compound harder or they can make it softer. The pros and cons revolve around performance. The harder the tread compound, the longer they last, but the performance such as handling and braking is less. Softer tread compounds give superior handling and braking etc, but the tread life is less.

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Check your tire pressure regularly. Tires tend to lose air over time. Buy a digital tire gauge and check your tires once a month and before a long trip. Proper inflation pressures can be found in your owner's manual or on a sticker on the car (usually on the driver's doorjamb or fuel-filler lid .) Remember to check tire pressure only after the car has been sitting for several hour in order to ensure that the tires are cold -- the friction of driving heats the tires and increases pressure, which can hide an under-inflated tire. b. Demonstrate how to check pressure and properly inflate a tire. Check the spare tire and make sure it is ready for use.

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4. c. Explain why wheel alignment is important to the life of a tire. Explain camber, caster, and toe-in adjustments on wheel alignment. Camber is the angle of the wheel, measured in degrees, when viewed from the front of the vehicle. If the top of the wheel is leaning out from the center of the car, then the camber is positive ,if it's leaning in, then the camber is negative. If the camber is out of adjustment, it will cause tire wear on one side of the tire's tread. If the camber is too far negative, for instance, then the tire will wear on the inside of the tread 1 of 2

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4. c. Explain why wheel alignment is important to the life of a tire. Explain camber, caster, and toe-in adjustments on wheel alignment. Toe-in means that the fronts of the tires are closer to each other than the rears. Toe-out is just the opposite. An incorrect toe-in will cause rapid tire wear to both tires equally. When you turn the steering wheel, the front wheels respond by turning on a pivot attached to the suspension system. Caster is the angle of this steering pivot, measured in degrees, when viewed from the side of the vehicle. If the top of the pivot is leaning toward the rear of the car, then the caster is positive, if it is leaning toward the front, it is negative. If the caster is out of adjustment, it can cause problems in straight line tracking. If the caster is different from side to side, the vehicle will pull to the side with the less positive caster. If the caster is equal but too negative, the steering will be light and the vehicle will wander and be difficult to keep in a straight line. If the caster is equal but too positive, the steering will be heavy and the steering wheel may kick when you hit a bump. Caster has little affect on tire wear. 2 of 2

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d. Explain the purpose of the lateral-wear bar indicator. The TWI (tread wear indicator) is what it is called now. The purpose is to indicate the remaining tread before the tire is legally worn out which is at 02/32nds. The TWI indicates the 02/32nds. Most people will replace tires before they are at 02/32nds but at that point a tire is considered legally worn out. You can locate the TWI by looking along the edge of the tire where the sidewall and the tread meet and you will now find a small arrow or triangle with the letters TWI. Follow the arrow into the tread and you will see the lateral-wear bar that is now referred to as a TWI.

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4. e. Explain how to dispose of old tires in accordance with local laws and regulations. Landfills. As solid waste disposal facilities, landfills operate under the conditions of TCEQ permits. Split, quartered, or shredded tires may be disposed of in a landfill. Tires may also be stored or processed at a landfill if its permit allows these activities. Waste Tires. Out of amounts appropriated above, The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) shall enforce statutory requirements relating to waste, scrap, or used tires. It is the intent of the Legislature that all reasonable steps be taken to minimize the illegal storage, transport, or disposal of waste or scrap tires. The TCEQ shall audit or otherwise monitor businesses that sell, transport, or store such tires and identify illegal or improper activities as well as study methods for achieving a greater level of compliance for tire disposal within the State of Texas.

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1 gallon / 125,000 BTUs energy GM 8.1L $850.00 Spark Plugs – easy cold start 1 gallon / 147,000 BTUs energy GM 6.6L $4,810 110 volt heating element 5.Engine. Do the following: a. Explain how an internal combustion engine operates. Tell the differences between gasoline and diesel engines. Explain how a gasoline-electric hybrid vehicle is powered. 1 of 3

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5. a The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber. In an internal combustion engine the expansion of the high temperature and pressure gases, which are produced by the combustion, directly applies force to a movable component of the engine, such as the pistons or turbine blades and by moving it over a distance, generate useful mechanical energy. 2 of 3

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Modern HEVs make use of efficiency-improving technologies such as regenerative braking, which converts the vehicle's kinetic energy into battery-replenishing electric energy, rather than wasting it as heat energy as conventional brakes do. Some varieties of HEVs use their internal combustion engine to generate electricity by spinning an electrical generator (this combination is known as a motor-generator), to either recharge their batteries or to directly power the electric drive motors. A hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) combines a conventional internal combustion engine propulsion system with an electric propulsion system. 3 of 3

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b. Explain the purpose of engine oil. Explain the API service code, the SAE number, and the viscosity rating. Of the all the lubricants engine oil is the most import. Lubricants for gasoline and diesel engine are different as the load, cycles and fuels are different. The oil in an engine does more than just reduce friction between its moving parts. It also helps to seal the high-pressure combustion gases inside the cylinders, to impede the corrosion of metal parts, to absorb some of the harmful by-products of combustion, and to transfer heat from one part of the engine to another. 1 of 2

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b. Explain the purpose of engine oil. Explain the API service code, the SAE number, and the viscosity rating. The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) has established a numerical code system for grading motor oils according to their viscosity characteristics. SAE viscosity gradings include the following, from low to high viscosity: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50 or 60. The numbers 0, 5, 10, 15 and 25 are suffixed with the letter W, designating their "winter" (not "weight") or cold-start viscosity, at lower temperature. The number 20 comes with or without a W, depending on whether it is being used to denote a cold or hot viscosity grade. The American Petroleum Institute (API) sets minimum for performance standards for lubricants. Motor oil is used for the lubrication, cooling, and cleaning of internal combustion engines. Motor oil may be composed of a lubricant base stock only in the case of non-detergent oil, or a lubricant base stock plus additives to improve the oil's detergency, extreme pressure performance, and ability to inhibit corrosion of engine parts. 2 of 2

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5. c. Explain where to find the recommended oil type and the amount of oil to be used in the vehicle's engine. One of the most important things you can do to help your car survive winter's icy blast is to change the oil and fluids at regular intervals. Changing the oil and fluids help avoid costly breakdowns and may ultimately prolong your car's life. Consult your owner's manual to see the manufacturer's suggested intervals for oil and fluid changes. If you don't have the manual for your car, service manuals for most makes and models of cars can be purchased at your local automotive shop. Most manuals will give you a range of mileage's for changing your oil. If you use your car for vigorous commutes through cold weather, play it safe and stick to the lower end of the range.

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Plumbing ­­The cooling system in your car has a lot of plumbing. We'll start at the pump and work our way through the system, and in the next sections we'll talk about each part of the system in more detail. The pump sends the fluid into the engine block, where it makes its way through passages in the engine around the cylinders. Then it returns through the cylinder head of the engine. The thermostat is located where the fluid leaves the engine. The plumbing around the thermostat sends the fluid back to the pump directly if the thermostat is closed. If it is open, the fluid goes through the radiator first and then back to the pump. There is also a separate circuit for the heating system. This circuit takes fluid from the cylinder head and passes it through a heater core and then back to the pump. 6. Cooling system Do the following: a. Explain the need for coolant in the cooling system.

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6. b. Explain how to flush and change the engine coolant in the vehicle , and how to properly dispose of the used coolant. Changing antifreeze regularly is a vital part of preventative maintenance and keeps vehicles performing at optimal levels. To avoid engine problems, including freeze-ups and overheating, the experts at Prestone Products offer these easy steps to help make the annual antifreeze flush and fill a safe, uncomplicated do-it-yourself project. Park your car in a safe area. Make sure pets are secured safely and no children are in the area. Be sure to check your owner's manual for any special cooling system service instructions. Begin with the engine cold and the ignition off. If you change coolant when the engine is hot, you risk burns from the hot coolant and engine. 2. Drain your radiator to remove loose rust and sediment. Open the radiator drain valve and drain the used antifreeze/coolant into a bucket large enough to catch the flow (typically, a two-gallon bucket is sufficient). Close the drain valve. 3. Dispose of the used antifreeze/coolant according to local laws and regulations. Be sure to label the disposed container clearly as "used antifreeze" and secure with a childproof cap. Don't use containers from beverages to store used antifreeze. Keep the container stored securely away from children and animals until you can dispose of or recycle the used coolant safely.

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7. Fuel system. Do the following: Explain how the air and fuel systems work together and why it is necessary to have an air filter and fuel filter. One of the surest ways to get more power out of an engine is to increase the amount of air and fuel that it can burn. One way to do this is to add cylinders or make the current cylinders bigger. Sometimes these changes may not be feasible -- a turbo can be a simpler, more compact way to add power, especially for an aftermarket accessory.

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7. Fuel system. Do the following: b. Explain how a how a fuel injection system works and how an on-board computer works with the fuel injection system. Fuel injection is a system for mixing fuel with air in an internal combustion engine. It has become the primary fuel delivery system used in gasoline automotive engines, having almost completely replaced carburetors in the late 1980s. A fuel injection system is designed and calibrated specifically for the type(s) of fuel it will handle. Most fuel injection systems are for gasoline or diesel applications. With the advent of electronic fuel injection (EFI), the diesel and gasoline hardware has become similar. EFI's programmable firmware has permitted common hardware to be used with different fuels. Carburetors were the predominant method used to meter fuel on gasoline engines before the widespread use of fuel injection. A variety of injection systems have existed since the earliest usage of the internal combustion engine. Animated cut through diagram of a typical fuel injector 1 of 2

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7. Fuel system. Do the following: b. Explain how a how a fuel injection system works and how an on-board computer works with the fuel injection system. Increasing the combustion efficiency of an engine increases the exhaust oxygen percentage. Most fuel injection engines use an oxygen sensor to infer the air/fuel ratio of the engine, the increased oxygen content in the exhaust is 'read' by the computer to be a lean mixture in the engine. The computer then adds extra fuel to bring the pollution back to 'normal'. 2 of 2

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8. Ignition and electrical systems. Do the following: a. Diagram and explain the parts of the electrical system. Automobile electrical system has gradually evolved over the years and today it assimilates automatic computer control of the automotive mechanics. In the early days, automobiles electrical system comprised of only basic wiring technologies that were used for distributing power to other parts of a vehicle. It had only switches, wires, relays and controlled motors as its key components but today’s electrical system includes sensors, actuators, alternators, battery, oxygen sensors , generator, starter solenoid , starter drive, high power electrical system and other devices.

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8. Ignition and electrical systems. Do the following: b. Explain the cylinder engine sequence. A flatplane crank with the typical 12-6-6-12 o'clock crank pin locations, when viewed from the front of the engine. This configuration is identical to an inline-four cylinder engine. Flatplane The flatplane V8 is similar to two inline four cylinders sharing a single crankshaft. When viewed from one end, the crankshaft appears to form a flat shape. Crossplane The other, much more common type is the crossplane V8, which Cadillac came up with in 1923. The first and fourth crank pins are 180° apart, and the inner two are 180° apart from each other, and 90° apart from the pins on each end.

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8. Ignition and electrical systems. Do the following: c. Explain the purpose of the spark gap. ­The spark plug is quite simple in theory: It forces electricity to arc across a gap, just like a bolt of lightning. The electricity must be at a very high voltage in order to travel across the gap and create a good spark. Voltage at the spark plug can be anywhere from 40,000 to 100,000 volts. The difference between a "hot" and a "cold" spark plug is in the shape of the ceramic tip.

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8. Ignition and electrical systems. Do the following: d. Demonstrate how to change the spark plugs in any internal combustion engine (lawn mower, dirt bike, motorcycle). 1. Get a service/repair manual before you start any of your own work on your vehicle. Make sure your motor is off and cool before you start. 2. Take just one spark plug wire off one plug by grabbing the spark plug wire boot and not the wire itself. Or use a spark plug wire puller. 3. Make sure there is no dirt and/or oil around the spark plug. If needed, wipe the area around the spark plug hole being careful not to brush the dirt and oil away from the hole. 4. Take out that plug with the proper tools by turning the plug to the left (counter clockwise). Usually the tool is a 13/16 or 5/8 deep socket. You may have to have a swivel joint and an extension also. 5. Replace it with a new one turning the spark plug in by hand until hand tight. Use the same tool you used to take out the old plug to snug up the new plug. 6. Connect the spark plug wire onto the new plug. Make sure it is on. They usually kind of snap on. 7. Follow steps one through six until all spark plugs have been replaced.

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8. Ignition and electrical systems. Do the following: e. Demonstrate how to safely connect jumper cables to your car battery. Connect the positive (+) clamp to the positive terminal of the healthy battery and the other positive clamp to the corresponding terminal of the dead battery. Next, the negative (-), or ground, terminal on the good battery and, finally, the negative clamp to the engine block, frame or other grounded metal as far as possible from the battery. You want to avoid sparks in the vicinity of the explosive hydrogen gas that emits from the battery. Do not connect it to the ground terminal (negative).

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9. Drive Train. Do the following: Diagram the drive train and explain the different parts. Engine Transmission Drive Shaft Differential

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9. Drive Train. Do the following: b. Explain the difference between automatic and standard transmissions. The basic difference between the two is in the operation of the clutch. Every car has a clutch of some kind that connects and disconnects the engine from the transmission to allow you to select the proper gears for the speed of the car. In cars with a standard transmission, the clutch is mechanical, and you have to physically disengage it by stepping on a clutch pedal every time you stop the car or select a gear with the shifter. The clutch, gas pedal, and shifter have to be properly coordinated by the driver in order to obtain smooth and rapid shifts when accelerating. Automatic transmissions, on the other hand, have 'torque converters,' which automatically select the proper gears for the speed of the car. The torque converter performs what the clutch does in a standard transmission, but it does all the shifting work by itself.

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9. Drive Train. Do the following: c. Explain the types of automatic transmission fluid. Automatic transmission fluid ( ATF ) is the fluid used in vehicles with self shifting or automatic transmissions. It is typically colored red or green to distinguish it from motor oil and other fluids in the vehicle. On most vehicles its level is checked with a dipstick while the engine is running. MD-3 Chevron Automatic Transmission Fluid MD-3 is a passenger car and light truck automatic transmission fluid for most pre-2006 automatic transmissions built by General Motors, Ford Motor Company and other makes requiring a high-performance, multi-purpose, power transmission fluid. ATF+4® Chevron ATF+4® Automatic Transmission Fluid is formulated with high purity synthetic base stocks. It is designed to maintain its viscosity through excellent oxidation stability and the use of long lasting viscosity modifiers. Type F Type F is specifically designed for most pre-1977 Ford vehicles and some makes between 1977 and 1981. Effective March 1997, Ford discontinued administration of approvals for Type F fluids. However, there are still many vehicles on the road that use Type F. Type F and MERCON fluids are not interchangeable.

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9. Drive Train. Do the following: d. Explain the types of lubricants used in a standard transmission and in the differential. API classification subdivides all transmission oils into 6 classes: API GL-1, oils for light conditions. They consist of base oils without additives. Sometimes they contain small amounts of antioxidizing additives, corrosion inhibitors, depresants and antifoam additives. API GL-1 oils are designed for spiral-bevel, worm gears and manual transmissions without synchronizers in trucks and farming machines. API GL-2, oils for moderate conditions. They contain antiwear additives and are designed for worm gears. Recommended for proper lubrication of tractor and farming machine transmissions. API GL-3, oils for moderate conditions. Contain up to 2.7% antiwear additives. Designed for lubricating bevel and other gears of truck transmissions. Not recommended for hypoid gears. API GL-4, oils for various conditions - light to heavy. They contain up to 4.0% effective antiscuffing additives. Designed for bevel and hypoid gears which have small displacement of axes, the gearboxes of trucks, and axle units. Recommended for non-synchronized gearboxes of US trucks, tractors and buses and for main and other gears of all vehicles. These oils are basic for synchronized gearboxes, especially in Europe. 1 of 2

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9. Drive Train. Do the following: d. Explain the types of lubricants used in a standard transmission and in the differential. API GL-5, oils for severe conditions. They contain up to 6.5% effective antiscuffing additives. The general application of oils in this class are for hypoid gears having significant displacement of axes. They are recommended as universal oils to all other units of mechanical transmission (except gearboxes). Oils in this class, which have special approval of vehicle manufacturers, can be used in synchronized manual gearboxes only. API GL-5 oils can be used in limited slip differentials if they correspond to the requirements of specification MIL-L-2105D or ZF TE-ML-05. In this case the designation of class will be another, for example API GL-5+ or API GL-5 LS. API GL-6, oils for very heavy conditions (high speeds of sliding and significant shock loadings). They contain up to 10% high performance antiscuffing additives. They are designed for hypoid gears with significant displacement of axes. Class API GL-6 is not applied any more as it is considered that class API GL-5 well enough meets the most severe requirements. 2 of 2

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9. Drive Train. Do the following: e. Explain the difference between front-wheel, rear- wheel, and four-wheel drive. Front-wheel drive is the most common form of engine/transmission layout used in modern passenger cars, where the engine drives the front wheels. Most front wheel drive vehicles today feature transverse engine mounting, though many in prior decades were positioned longitudinally instead. Rear-wheel drive was the traditional standard while four-wheel drive is also sometimes used. The vast majority of rear wheel drive vehicles use a longitudinally-mounted engine in the front of the vehicle, driving the rear wheels via a driveshaft linked via a differential between the rear axles. Four-wheel drive , 4WD , 4x4 ("four by four"), or AWD ("all wheel drive") is a four-wheeled vehicle with a drivetrain that allows all four wheels to receive torque from the engine simultaneously.

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10. Brake System. Do the following: Explain the brake system (including anti-lock systems) and how it operates. Master Cylinder When you step on the brake pedal in your car, you are really depressing a plunger within your car's master cylinder. The master cylinder is a component that has a reservoir filled with hydraulic brake fluid. When the plunger in the master cylinder is acted upon, brake fluid travels to each wheel's breaking unit passing through a series of tubes and hoses . Brake fluid is incompressible, so absolutely no pressure is lost when it travels through the tubes. Think of it as a steel bar that is able to make turns through pipes in order to get to the wheels. Calipers Brake fluid cannot contain any air bubbles due to the fact that air is compressible. If air bubbles are suspected to be present in the braking system, the entire system must be drained (or bled) to remove the air. Once the fluid has arrived at the braking units, it is forced into a caliper. Calipers consist of two hinged components that, once the pressure from the fluid is present, press against a piston. Brake Pads and Rotors Attached to each wheel is a disc called a brake rotor. The rotor rotates with the wheel and moves completely in unison with it. The rotor is placed in such a way that its edge is between the caliper and the piston. The rotor is pinched when the brakes are applied, and this slows the car down. However, there are brake pads between the rotor and the caliper pistons. Brake pads are composed of two parts: the steel backing, which supports the other part, the actual friction material that comes in contact with the rotor. This material does the work by converting the motion of the rotor into heat energy through friction. The friction that takes place slows down the rotor, which is attached to the actual wheel, and produces heat. 1 of 2

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10. Brake System. Do the following: Explain the brake system (including anti-lock systems) and how it operates. 2 of 2 ABS was first introduced in the seventies and prevented skidding by applying small increments of hydraulic-pressure and then releasing it, effectively pumping the brakes automatically and preventing the tires from locking. This technology has increased the overall stability of a car, helped traction, and to lower stopping distances once the brakes have been applied.

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10. Brake System. Do the following: b. Explain the differences between disc and drum systems. Disc brakes are generally considered superior to drum brakes for several reasons. First, they dissipate heat better (brakes work by converting motion energy to heat energy). Under severe usage, such as repeated hard stops or riding the brakes down a long incline, disc brakes take longer to lose effectiveness (a condition known as brake fade). Disc brakes also perform better in wet weather, because centrifugal force tends to fling water off the brake disc and keep it dry, whereas drum brakes will collect some water on the inside surface where the brake shoes contact the drums.

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10. Brake System. Do the following: c. Demonstrate how to check the condition of a vehicle's brake system. After checking make recommendations for repairs (if necessary). Older vehicles don’t have a plastic reservoir; instead, the master cylinder is a little metal box with a lid that you must remove to check the fluid level. 1 of 2

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10. Brake System. Do the following: c. Demonstrate how to check the condition of a vehicle's brake system. After checking make recommendations for repairs (if necessary). Thoroughly clean the caliper and the vents in the rotor. When gummed up, the rear brakes don't self-adjust. The arrow points to the adjusting wheel. Rear shoes should be within 0.5mm of the drum. Rubber grommets can be removed from the backing plate to inspect (lower) and adjust (upper). Visually check the three system rubber lines, and also feel them for any abnormalities. The junction of lines on the forward passenger frame rail can be inspected for leaks. Inspecting your brake system takes just a few minutes and should alert you to any potential problems before they occur. A visual inspection should be done at each oil change, while checking the pads, rotors, shoes, and drums can be done less frequently. 2 of 2

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11. Do two of the following: a. Determine the value of three different vehicles you are interested in purchasing. One must be new and one must be used; the third vehicle can be new or used. For each vehicle, find out the requirements and cost of automobile insurance to include basic liability and options for collision, comprehensive, towing, and rental car. Using the three vehicles you chose and with your merit badge counselor's assistance, complete the operation/maintenance chart provided in the merit badge pamphlet. Use this information to determine the operating cost per mile for each vehicle, and discuss what you learn with your counselor. b. Choose a car cleaner and wax product for a vehicle you want to clean. Explain clear-coat paint and the precautions necessary for care. Clean the vehicle, both inside and out, and wax the exterior. Use a vinyl and rubber protectant (on vinyl tops, rubber door seals, sidewalls, etc.) and explain the importance of the protectant . c. Locate the manufacturer's jack Use the jack to demonstrate how to engage the jack correctly on the vehicle, then change a tire correctly. d. Perform an oil filter and oil change on a vehicle. Explain how to properly dispose of the used oil and filter.

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11. b. Choose a car cleaner and wax product for a vehicle you want to clean. Explain clear-coat paint and the precautions necessary for care. Clean the vehicle, both inside and out, and wax the exterior. Use a vinyl and rubber protectant (on vinyl tops, rubber door seals, sidewalls, etc.) and explain the importance of the protectant . Clear Coats are two part systems (either a Urethane, or a good quality non-yellowing Polyurethane and an Epoxy) a solvent based urethane (a water-based clear coat is not yet available) is applied in two layers; it also contains UVR inhibitors Clear coat is not Armour plating but by adding UV blockers it provides a level of protection for the color pigmentation of the base (color) coat, but it must be protected, and the most durable protection is a polymer sealant. Bear in mind that a clear coat has a thickness of 1.5 – 2.0 Mils, removing more that 0.4 mil (0.0004") of clear coat will cause premature paint film failure. As a point of reference two sheets of Saran wrap placed on top of each other measure 1.5Mil (0.0015") a surface scratch that will `catch' your fingernail is approximately 0.004" deep and will usually require wet sanding and refinishing. There comes a point when you must judge wither removing a scratch will compromise the clear coat and if so you’ll have to ‘live’ with the imperfection 1 of 2

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11. b. Choose a car cleaner and wax product for a vehicle you want to clean. Explain clear-coat paint and the precautions necessary for care. Clean the vehicle, both inside and out, and wax the exterior. Use a vinyl and rubber protectant (on vinyl tops, rubber door seals, sidewalls, etc.) and explain the importance of the protectant . Leather & Vinyl Cleaner/Restorer penetrates the surface of leather, vinyl, rubber, and plastic to loosen contaminants from the pores of the materials. While deep in the pores, it deposits nourishing nutrients and oils to hydrate the material, leaving it soft and supple. Leather & Vinyl Cleaner/Restorer is made with a natural Carnauba wax which creates a protective layer against UV rays, dirt, and staining agents. 2 of 2

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11. c. Locate the manufacturer's jack Use the jack to demonstrate how to engage the jack correctly on the vehicle, then change a tire correctly.

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12. Find out about three career opportunities in the automotive industry. Pick one and find out about the education, training, and experience required for this profession. Discuss this with your counselor, and explain why this profession might interest you. The Automotive Youth Educational Systems (AYES) organization has developed National Apprenticeship Guidelines for its Automotive Technician Specialist training programs and is now a formally approved apprenticeship program. AYES is a partnership among participating automotive manufacturers, participating automotive dealers, and selected high schools and vocational schools.   Engineering - Product Development   Sales, Service & Marketing Auto Mechanic Auto Loan Officer

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Wayne ellis bsagptx@yahoo.com

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