ARCHERY Merit Badge

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Merit Badge Instructor to use teach - download and make any changes to fit your class - presentation is a teaching tool. Leave a commit. - Full Permission - If you can not download, email me bsagptx@yahoo.com and i'll send it to you.

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ARCHERY:

ARCHERY

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1.a,1. Three safety rules when on the shooting line Stance When at the shooting line you must have one foot on either side of the line and may only approach the shooting line after being instructed to do so by the field captain. You should never shoot in front or behind the shooting line. Standing in front can do injury to yourself as it increases the chances of you being hit by a wayward arrow belonging to another archer. If you stand behind the line and start shooting, it could be your wayward arrow that injures another archer . Shooting Only point and fire your arrow at the targets that have been set up. Firing elsewhere can cause injury to others. Bows and arrows are not toys. This is not just true of firing it, or threatening too, in the direction of someone else but also of firing it into the air or off into the distance. You cannot guarantee where the arrow is going to land. Therefore you cannot guarantee that it will not do damage to another human being. A guideline is to keep the bow level with the target when pulling, or "drawing" back because starting high and lowering the bow can lead to the arrow being prematurely fired . The Bow When at the shooting line you must not, under any circumstances, draw back the bow and let the string go without an arrow in it. In archery this is called a "dry fire" and can damage the bow . If the bow is damaged and you continue firing, it can lessen your control on where you are firing your arrows. On a similar note another archer must not use the bow to fire if his draw length is longer than yours . This can also damage the bow .

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1.a, 2.Three safety rules when retrieving arrows. 1. Wait on retrieving arrows at a shooting range until all shooting has ceased and a signal has been given. Some shooting ranges will give a signal such as three whistle blasts to indicate the safe time to retrieve arrows 2. Walk off to one side of your target towards your arrows. Never run up to the target. You can be injured if you stumble into arrows inserted in a target . 3. Stand to one side of the target while pulling out the arrows . Place one hand palm down on the target. Place the arrow between your thumb and fingers, at the base of the thumb. With the other hand grasp the arrow near the base of the target. Pull the arrow in a steady motion straight out of the target. Do not yank it out. This protects the arrow and prevents damage to the target .

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1. a, 3.The four whistle commands used on a range and their related verbal commands. Whistle signal Verbal Command Meaning One Blast Archers to the shooting line Pick up bow and move into position on the shooting line (keep arrows in quiver) Two Blasts Begin shooting Archers may now take the arrows out of the quivers and begin shooting Three Blasts Walk forward and retrieve your arrows Archers have completed all shooting; all archers have set their bows on the rack and are behind the waiting line. They may now go forward and prepare to pull their arrows from the target. Four or more Blasts Cease Fire! Or STOP, STOP, STOP! Immediately let down and put arrows back in your quiver. There is an emergency on the range

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ARCHERY RANGE RULES: 1. Know and obey all range commands. (listed below) 2. Keep your arrows in your quiver until you are told to shoot. 3. Only use the arrows the instructor gave you. Remember what they look like. 4. Always keep your arrows pointed down or towards the target. 5. If you drop an arrow, leave it on the ground. Raise your hand and the instructor will bring you another arrow. 6. Always walk at the archery range. 7. Always be absolutely sure that the path to the target and beyond is clear. 8. Only release the bow string at full draw when there is an arrow on the string. 9. Secure all loose clothing. 10. Always treat your archery equipment with respect. 11. Always treat your fellow archers with respect. 1. b.State and explain the general safety rules for archery. Demonstrate how to safely carry arrows in your hands.

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1. c. Tell about your local and state laws for owning and using archery tackle. Species Texas allows bows to be used to take any game animal, non-protected non-game animal or game birds. Game animals include whitetail deer, mule deer, wild turkey and squirrels. Feral hogs and exotic game are considered non-protected non-game animals. Common game birds include quail and pheasants. Seasons Hunters may use bows during an archery-only open deer season. Licenses Before hunting in Texas, you must purchase a valid hunting license and appropriate permits. To hunt with a bow, you must also purchase an archery stamp endorsement. The archery stamp may be purchased through the Texas Parks and Wildlife, sporting goods store or license vendor.

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2. Do the following: a. Name and point out the parts of an arrow. b. Describe three or more different types of arrows. c. Name the four principle materials for making arrow shafts. d. Do ONE of the following Make a complete arrow from a bare shaft using appropriate equipment available to you. OR 2. To demonstrate arrow repair, inspect the shafts and prepare and replace at least three vanes, one point, and one nock. You may use as many arrows as necessary to accomplish this. The repairs can be done on wood, fiberglass, or aluminum arrows. e. Explain how to properly care for and store arrows.

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2. a. Name and point out the parts of an arrow. Arrows consist of four parts: the shaft, nock, fletching and head. The arrow shaft, or the body, can be made of wood, fiberglass, aluminum or carbon. The shaft's length, diameter and stiffness must correspond to the bow and archer for maximum effectiveness. The nock is at the back or the arrow and has a split channel in the middle where it snaps onto the bowstring. The fletching is a group of vanes attached to the back of the shaft. Fletchings originally were feathers but now usually are made of plastic. The fletching causes the arrow to spin while in flight, stabilizing it so it will fly true. The arrowhead attaches to the front of the arrow, usually with a screw-in insert, allowing the arrow to penetrate the target . b. Describe three or more different types of arrows.

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2. c. Name the four principle materials for making arrow shafts. Instructions 1 Find the right wood. Some good choices are Port Orford cedar, Douglas fir, Norway pine, or birch. Choose saplings that are as straight as possible or thick enough so that you can work with them and shape them. Alternatively, you can work with big blocks of woods and cut shafts out of them. 2 "Season" the wood. This means to dry and prep the wood. Depending on the type of wood and its humidity, it can take from one to six months. Bundle your saplings tightly together with a damp rope and let them dry in a humid environment so that they will dry slowly and not split. A few weeks later, un-bundle them, peel off as much bark as possible, straighten them as described in Step 4, and re-bundle them to let them dry longer, until all humidity is gone. If you have cut your shafts from a large block of dry wood, skip this step. If the block of wood was freshly cut , apply the method described above. 3 Cut and shape your seasoned shafts. Cut your shafts to the desired size, leaving a few inches to have room for error. Shape them to make them as straight as possible. Most arrows are between 28 and 32 inches in length, and 5/16 in diameter. 1 of 2

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2. c. Name the four principle materials for making arrow shafts. 2 of 2 4 Straighten your shafts. Wood arrows have a natural tendency to bend and will have to be straightened from time to time. It is important to start them as straight as possible. Place the bend against the palm of your hand and apply gentle pressure the opposite way. This is a good method to apply to the shaft as it is drying, when the wood is still "green." Don't bend so hard that the wood will break. It is also good to straighten your shafts after they have been dried and cut. You can heat them up slightly over the flame of a candle or stove top to make the wood more flexible. Don't overheat or your wood will become brittle and weak. Apply the non-flammable grease to prevent burning and scorching. For longer bends, use your hands as described above. For smaller bends, use a hook to pull the opposite direction. There are also straightening tools available from archery stores such as Shaft Tamer or Roll-R-Straight. 5 Match your shafts. It is important to have arrows of a consistent weight and spine or elasticity, to make sure your draws are even. Sort them out by these features. Weigh them with a scale to sort them by weight, or use a spine tester, available from archery stores.

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2. d, 1. Make a complete arrow from a bare shaft using appropriate equipment available to you. Instructions Construct Arrow Shaft 1 Inspect the wooden dowels that are available at any home improvement store. Choose dowels that have a diameter of between five-sixteenths and three-eighths of an inch. 2 Examine each dowel to make sure that it is rigid and has no waves or bends. The shaft of an arrow needs to be as straight as possible . 3 Measure each dowel to 28.25 inches using a tape measure. This is the length of the arrow before the tip is added. Make a mark where it will be cut with the pencil. 4 Cut the dowels to the required length with the miter saw. 5 Place one of the dowels in a bench vice. Cut a notch of not more than one-eighth of an inch into one end with the hand saw. Repeat this step for the remaining dowels. Complete the Arrow 6 Cut a feather down the middle with a utility knife to split it into two pieces. Trim each feather so that is measures half an inch wide and between four and five inches long. Repeat this step for 10 or 12 feathers. 7 Apply a bead of wood glue to the end of the arrow that has the notch. Glue one of the cut feathers to the end of the arrow. Repeat this step to glue three arrows equally around the perimeter of the arrow shaft. 8 Insert an arrow head over the opposite end of the dowel. Crimp the arrow head to the shaft with a pair of pliers . OR D, 2

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2. d, 2. To demonstrate arrow repair, inspect the shafts and prepare and replace at least three vanes, one point, and one nock. You may use as many arrows as necessary to accomplish this. The repairs can be done on wood, fiberglass, or aluminum arrows.

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2.e. Explain how to properly care for and store arrows. Store and carry arrows in a covered, secure fashion Keep your bow and arrows in a dry, climate-controlled environment. Bows and arrows stored in garages or basements or attics can warp with exposure to extreme dampness, cold, or heat, so avoid storing your equipment in these areas. Select a case for your bow and arrows. Cases for sport archery and hunting will vary, and will offer different options. Hunting cases often have extra space for multiple bows and arrows. Always check that the case you want has a method for securing the bow in place, such as Velcro straps or rubber mounts, and that it can hold all the equipment you usually use, like cleaning materials and tools. Add a lock to the case if it doesn't come with a lock. A lock prevents people from opening the case and possibly injuring themselves or your equipment. A lock is especially necessary if you store your equipment in a household with children.

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3. a. Explain the proper use, care, and storage of, as well as the reasons for using tabs, arm guards, shooting gloves, and quivers. A finger tab or Archer Tab used in archery is a small leather or synthetic patch that protects an archer's fingers from the bowstring. It is strapped or otherwise attached to an archer's hand. In summertime, tabs are far more comfortable than gloves and can more conveniently use thicker material. They are also less expensive and easier to fit, and are the normal finger-protection used with bows. A bracer (or arm-guard) is a strap or sheath, commonly made of leather, stone, or plastic that covers the inside of an archer's arm to protect it while shooting. Bracers protect the inside of the archer's forearm against injury by the string of the bow or the fletching of the arrow. A useful accessory for the archer to protect fingers over prolonged bowstring drawin , archery shooting gloves can be found in a range of styles and materials. You can choose to use a full shooting glove with reinforced fingers or an archery glove that will slip over only the fingers used in the process of shooting. A quiver is a container for arrows, bolts, or darts. Quivers can be attached in various positions on an archer's body, the bow, or the ground, depending on the type of shooting and the archer's personal preference. Quivers were traditionally made of leather, wood, furs, and other natural materials, but are now often made of metal or plastic.

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3. b. Explain the following terms: cast, draw weight, string height ( fistmele ), aiming, spine, mechanical release, freestyle, and barebow . Draw weight (measure) - The number of pounds of force required to draw a bow twenty-eight (28) inches Fistmele (measure) - The proper distance between the handle of a bow and the bow string when the bow is strung (a.k.a. Brace Height) Spine (measure) - The stiffness of an arrow shaft; contrasted with Flex Mechanical Release (the use of the word "aid" can be omitted when context is appropriate) permits a single point of contact on the string instead of three fingers as most commonly used with finger tabs. This allows less deformity in the string at full draw, as well as providing a more consistent release. This is primarily because the most successful types operate with positive pressure, whereas the conventional 'fingers' release is negative pressure. Freestyle and freestyle limited divisions of field archery, any type of sight is allowed under NFAA rules. All release aids are allowed in freestyle, but in limited freestyle release aids are restricted to gloves, tabs and fingers. Barebow - In field archery, archers who choose to shoot in barebow competitions cannot use sights. Such archers are not allowed to use marks or blemishes as sighting aids, either, according to the NFAA rules. Archers can use stabilizers, but cannot use arrow rests because they may aid in sighting. Archers in the traditional division are not allowed sights or sighting aids either. These archers use recurve bows or longbows. Cast is the distance it can shoot an arrow in archery Aiming is one of the most important aspect of being a good archer. You need to know how to aim to be good at anything in archery from hunting to target practice.

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3. c. Make a bowstring using appropriate materials. Making your own archery bow can be a really fun project and a great way to spend your free time. One of the most important and crucial elements of having a good archery bow is having a sturdy string to shoot your arrows with. Bow strings are made of fibers that are carefully intertwined into one cord that is then attached to the archery bow 1 Decide how long and how thick your bow string needs to be. The typical archery bow has about 50 pounds of draw back, which requires a string made of at least 12 fibers. If your bow is heavier than that, simply add two to three more fibers for every 10 additional pounds. 2 Take your fibers and split them into two groups with six in each group and lay them down on a table with a flat top. Use your thumb and first finger to pinch the two groups of fibers together at one end. Make sure you are about two inches from the very end of the fibers. 3 Twist and braid the group of fibers on the right clockwise. Follow the same process for the other bundle of fibers. 4 Take the two braided fiber bundles and begin to braid them together in a clockwise motion. Once the two groups have been braided together you now have a corded bow string. 5 Tie small loops at both ends of the bow string. These loops will fit over the notches in your bow staff to complete your bow. 6 Coat the bow string in beeswax. This will seal all the fibers together as well as give it a slick surface to prevent the arrows from getting stuck in the fibers when in use.

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4. a. The importance of obedience to a range officer or other person in charge of a range.

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4. b. The difference between an end and a round. An end is a complete set of arrows, usually 12, but depending on the event. A round is a full set of one event, and in team events for example may involve multiple ends . an end is all arrows shot at 1 target. ie an end at an indoor target is 5 arrows a round is 60 arrows + 10 practice arrows. a Field round is 28 targets at known distance's from 30 feet to 80 yds at papper spot targets. A target ( 900 ) round is 30 arrows at 60 yds 30 arrows at 50 yds and 30 arrows at 40 yards.

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Indoor Targets Indoor target archery adds a few alternatives to the Olympic Round. The Vegas Target consists of three separate round targets that are positioned in a triangular shape, with two on the bottom and one on top. Vegas Targets only include the center gold circle, red middle circle and blue outer circle. Another example of an indoor target is the 5 Spot Target, which features five smaller targets arranged in the shape of an "X." Archers shoot one arrow at each target. Straw Bales Straw bales are the oldest practice targets in the sport. One of the reasons for the continued popularity of straw bale targets is that they can withstand a very high number of hits. Straw bales also withstand most kinds of weather conditions and do not rust or decay like other targets. 4. c. The differences among field, target, and 3-D archery. Three-dimensional archery, or 3D archery, is a bow and arrow sport in which archers shoot at life-size replicas of wildlife, such as deer targets. 1 of 2

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4. c. The differences among field, target, and 3-D archery. Field Archery The two major forms of field archery are Freestyle and Barebow . The difference between these two forms is that freestyle uses the same equipment that is used in target archery. But barebow has restrictions and specifically it does not allow the archer to use any artificial aiming or sights.  In Field Archery competitions the archers will shoot two rounds: 1)  hunters round 2) field round. Course In Field Archery the targets are outdoors and are placed in a designated area and are placed sequentially. There will be two different courses one being used in each round, the hunters round and the field round.  There will be 14 targets for each round. The archery will not know the distance or directions they will be shooting until them come up to a target. A post marks distances and so the archer will shot from a particular post at a particular target. When shooting in the Field round, there will be 10 targets that have a single post and four that have four posts. When shooting at a target that has four posts the archer must shoot one arrow from each post starting with the furthest post from the target and work their way in. When there is just a single post the archer shoots all arrows from that post.  In the Hunters Round each target will have four posts and the distances from the post to the target are not supplied to the archer. When an archer is shooting at targets that do not have the distance marked, they are not allowed to use any device or equipment that would allow them to calculate the distance to the target, they can also not use binoculars to see a target better. Basically any equipment that might assist an archer and help to increase their score is not allowed. 2 of 2

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4. d. How the five-color Federation Internationale de Tir à l'Arc (FITA) target is scored. Scoring Tournament archery is usually held indoors, though FITA rules provide for outdoor competition using the same rules, but placing the target farther away from the archers. For indoor competition, the archer must stand behind a shooting line that is 70 meters from the target. The target is set up with its center point exactly 4 feet, 3 inches above the ground. A tournament archery target is made of paper with a rigid backing and is entirely within a 4-foot circle. The target consists of a series of concentric rings, each 2.4 inches wide. The outermost two rings are white. Moving toward the center, two rings each are black, blue, red and gold. The center gold circle is worth a value of 10 points, with each ring worth one point less moving outward, so that the outermost white ring is worth one point

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4. e. How the National Field Archery Association (NFAA) black-and-white field targets and blue indoor targets are scored. Unlike the FITA target with a maximum score of 10, the NFAA target has a maximum value of 5. So a 300 round in the NFAA uses 60 arrows instead of 30. The NFAA 5 ring is also about the size of the FITA 9 ring. blue indoor targets black-and-white field targets NFAA field 5 for black 4 white 3 black 4 arrows shot NFAA Hunter 5 for white 4, 3 black 4 arrows shot blue indoor 5 spot white 5 blue 4 5 arrows in any spot or spots blue indoor single spot 5,4,3,2,1 5 arrows per target. a 1 point deduction for each arrow over 5 shot on indoor targets

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4. f. The elimination system used in Olympic archery competition. a ranking round is shot first, i.e. a full FITA or a 72/144 arrow rannking round (70m). Archers are ranked 1-64, or 1-32, etc.. The OR (Olympic Round) then pits the archers in head to head competition. For 64 archers the first match (1/64) consists of 3 ends of 6 arrows (18 total) shot at 70m on the 122cm target face. Winner advances to the 1/32 round. For the 1/32 round another 18 arrow match is shot, same guidelines as the 1/64. Winner advances to the 1/16 round where, again, another 18 arrow match is contested. Winners advance to the 1/8 round (8 archers remaining at this point). I believe at this point the round then changes to a 12 arrow match shot in 4 ends of 3 Winners advance to the semi-finals (4 archers now remaining). The 12 arrow match is then repeated. Winners then advance to the gold/silver medal match and the non-winners advance to the bronze medal match. Medal matches are also determined using the 12 arrow match, however, I believe the procedure changes slightly with the archers alternating shots (40 sec. allowed per archer/arrow) instead of just shooting all 3 within the proscribed time limit.

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Recurve Bow 5. a. Name and Point to the parts of the recurve bow or longbow you are shooting. The distinguishing feature of a recurve is the reverse curves at the ends; from the handle, the bow limbs curve gracefully toward the archer, then curve away at the ends. These reverse curves "re-curve," giving the bow its name. The recurve design produces a faster and more powerful shot than a traditional bow of comparable draw weight. Option A - Using a Recurve Bow or Longbow Do Option A or B

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Option A - Using a Recurve Bow or Longbow Longbow The traditional bow is often called a longbow, though the terms are not actually interchangeable. A traditional bow is one that does not have the reverse curving limbs; the bow shape is a simple arc from one end to the other. If the bow is about five feet or taller, it's a longbow. A bow made from a single piece of wood (or other material) is called a " selfbow .” 5. a. Name and Point to the parts of the recurve bow or longbow you are shooting.

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Option A - Using a Recurve Bow or Longbow 5. b. Explain how to properly care for and store recurve bows and longbows. 1 Hold the bow in the normal shooting position. Place the bottom end of the bow on the floor between your legs. Wrap the outside curve of the bottom end of the bow around the inside of your calf on the same side of your body as your dominant hand. 2 Pull the top end of the bow towards you with your dominant hand to flex the limbs to release tension from the bowstring. Pull the bowstring from its notch at the top of the bow. Gently release the tensions from the limbs. Pull the string from the bottom notch of the bow. 3 Place a pinch of bowstring wax, about the size of a dime, in your hand. Rub the wax thoroughly into all the fibers of the bowstring with your fingers. 4 Fold the bowstring up around the server -- the middle section of the bowstring where the arrow attaches -- and place the string in a plastic bag. 5 Place the bow and string into a bowcase . Lay the case flat so the bow will be positioned on the outside edges of the limbs.

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Option A - Using a Recurve Bow or Longbow 5. c. Show the 10 steps of good shooting for the bow you are shooting. Stance Nocking the arrow Hand position Pre-draw preparation Drawing the bow The reference point Holding and aiming The Loose Follow through Relaxing You will need to remember all of the ten stages of shooting in the long bow and blend them into your style in a continuous and smooth action. Its a lot to remember all at once, but with practice it will become natural and you wont have to think about it! As with all new skills, it is best to learn correctly under the guidance of a qualified archery coach. The coach can help you learn the correct body positions and actions required, and provide advice when modifications are required to suit the individual. As every person is not exactly the same in body shape, the advice, may have to be modified to suit. This is where the Coach is best able to help the individual. 1 of 6

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1. Stance The archer stands upright in a comfortable, relaxed position with one foot each side of the shooting line. The feet should be about shoulder width apart with an even amount of weight taken on each foot and an even amount of weight between the ball and heel of each foot. This will maintain balance and help keep the body steady. During the shooting sequence, the body position must remain as steady as possible with no shifting of weight or leaning of the body. If there is a problem with bowstring clearance to the arm, then an open stance may be required. Once the stance position has been established, then it must be consistent from shot to shot. A common mistake of archers who have learnt to shoot a recurve or other sighted bow is to align their body with the target rather than the point of aim of their arrow. As a result the body is twisted to the point of aim and when the arrow is loosed, their body spins back. 2. Nocking the Arrow Nock the arrow by placing the nock of the arrow onto the bowstring between the nocking points. Make sure that the cock fletching on the arrow is facing towards you and the nock is pushed firmly onto the bowstring. The arrow shaft is placed on the top finger of your bow hand. 2 of 6

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3. Drawing Hand and Bow Hand Only the index, second and third fingers are used. All longbows should be shot using the mediterranean loose. The index finger is placed above the arrow nock and the second and third fingers are placed below the arrow nock. Curl the fingers around the bowstring so that the first joint of all three fingers are aligned on the bowstring. Keep a space clear between the index and second fingers and the arrow nock, so the fingers do not touch the nock. (This will prevent 'pinching' of the arrow which causes it to rise off your bow hand.) Keep the back of the hand relaxed and as flat as possible. The thumb is tucked into the palm so it can be placed against the neck at full draw. Place a slight pull on the bowstring to set the fingers in position ready for the draw. During the draw maintain an even amount of pressure on all three fingers. Place the bow hand into the handle (grip) of the bow with the centreline of the vee between thumb and index finger in line with the centre of the bow. The base of the thumb muscle should rest on the centreline of the grip. During the draw, the pressure should be taken on the thumb muscle and directly into the wrist. (Low wrist position.) The thumb and fingers should remain relaxed with the tips of the fingers curled around until lightly touching the bow. This will stop the bow falling out of the hand on release. A consistent hand position on the bow grip is necessary. It is a good idea to get into the habit of not shifting your grip of the bow until you have shot all three arrows. 3 of 6

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4. Pre-draw preparation Push out with the bow arm to set the hand position on the handle (avoiding locking the elbow completely straight), then raise the bow arm and drawing arm together, up until the bow arm is parallel with the ground. Keep the front shoulder in its normal low position. (The shoulder must not be allowed to rotate up or back as this shortens the draw length.) Keep the elbow of the drawing arm shoulder high, as this will help bring into action the back muscles needed to draw the bow to full draw. As the string is drawn back a preliminary aim should be made. Before drawing back, check that the string is aligned with the centre of the bow and that the arrow point is aimed at the point at which you are aiming. (As the bowstring is just in front of the eye, it will appear blurred.) When the bow is held in the vertical position, then the bowstring and edge of the bow will be parallel. 5. Drawing the Bow From the pre-draw position, use the back muscles to pull the elbow of the drawing arm backwards in one smooth motion until the drawing hand is placed against the jaw. The position of the head and body should not move. (Pull the bowstring to the face, not move the face to meet the bowstring.) An equal amount of push on the bow hand and pull on the drawing hand will keep the body balanced. 6. The Reference point The Reference Point is where the hand is positioned on the jaw and the bowstring touches the face. It is vitally important that the index finger is firmly placed against the jaw, the thumb is tucked into the palm of the hand so it can be placed firmly against the neck and the bowstring is firmly touching the chin (and nose, if possible.) The relationship between all these positions is important so it is vital that it be as consistent as possible. It also acts as a consistent draw length position. Any variation in the position will effect the amount of force the bow will impart to the arrow. 4 of 6

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7. Holding and Aiming Holding is where the tension is maintained in the back muscles and a final check is made that the arrow is aimed. For many longbow archers this is a fleeting moment. If you have a perfectly matched bow and arrow the tip of the arrow will be in line with the centre of the target but the point of aim may be above or below the target, depending on the point of aim. If you have any doubts about your aim or if any part of body feels out of place, then it is best to stop now, let the bowstring down and re-start again, rather than make a bad shot. If you cannot aim the tip of the arrow on the centre of the target (point blank) it is best to select a point to aim at. In windy conditions this could be a point on the next target! It is permissible to put a small marker on the ground and aim the arrow tip at that. Alternatively, many archers use a rubber ring ( a plumbing O ring is good) on the bow. This can be moved up and down depending on the distance to be shot. Right-hand archers align the left-hand side of the bow and the ring level with the target, ideally the gold but maybe the edge of the boss level with the gold. 8. The Loose The loose or release of the bowstring is the most critical step in the sequence. If it is not done correctly, then all the effort in the previous steps is cancelled out. To loose the arrow correctly, the fingers holding the bowstring must allow the string to slip off the fingers. All three fingers must release at the same time. This will let the bowstring pull away from the fingers with the least amount of deflection. When the release is done correctly, the hand should move backwards, as the back muscles will pull the arm backwards and the fingers should come to rest beside the neck. Some long bow archers use a dead-loose. The finger muscles are flexed open to release the bowstring. However, the hand will usually come to rest about 5cm away from the neck. Flexing the finger muscles will deflect the bowstring sideways and the arrows will have a horizontal spread across the target 5 of 6

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9. Follow Through The Follow Through is maintaining the position of the bow arm on release until the arrow hits the target. As the arrow slides along the bow hand any movement of the bow will deflect the arrow. The position of the head and body should remain steady, while the drawing hand moves backwards after the release. It is important to not let the bow arm fall after the release, as this can become a problem when the bow arm actually starts to fall on the release, making some arrows land low on the target. The longbow arrow moves more slowly than a recurve or compound arrow so there is more time for the arrow to be deflected. 10. Relaxing The archer must relax after each shot to allow the muscles to recover from their effort. About 20 to 30 seconds should be enough time for the muscles to recharge, ready for the next shot. If not enough time is allowed between shots, then the muscles will tire rapidly and may even become sore. Tired muscles will not be able to perform consistently. But remember the advantage of maintaining the grip between looses. 6 of 6

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Keep wrist straight but not rigid. Hold the bow loosely - don't clench the bow Nock the arrow with the cock feather up-out, away from the bow. Release the arrow with a steady motion. Finger gloves, tabs, releases or trigger devices may be used. Check regulations to see what is legal in your hunt area Always use arm & finger protection

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Option A - Using a Recurve Bow or Longbow 5. d. Demonstrate the proper way to string a recurve bow or longbow. Instructions 1 Invest in a good bow stringer. This makes the job of putting the string on the bow much easier. This also prevents damage to the actual bow and to yourself if the bow should happen to bounce back and hit you. 2 Slide the large loop of your string right onto one end of the bow. This should go over the top limb. You can make sure you are putting the loop on the right end of the bow by holding the bow properly in your hand. 3 Use the bow stringer to put the loop on the other end of the string to the other limb of the bow. 4 Hold the bow stringer on the ground between your feet. Hold onto the top limb to keep the first loop from coming off. 5 Push the handle of the bow stringer. This bends the bow and holds it so that you can place the loop around the bottom limb of the bow. 6 Make sure both loops of the string are in the proper places. Adjust is necessary. 7 Remove the bow stringer. Do this slowly so that the bow won't snap back.

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Option A - Using a Recurve Bow or Longbow 5. e. Using a bow square, locate and mark with dental floss, crimp-on, or other method, the nocking point on the bowstring of the bow you are using. Bow Square is the perfect tool for all your string tuning and nock placement needs. Accurately check string brace height, or precision set your nocking point.

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Option A - Using a Recurve Bow or Longbow 5. f. Do ONE of the following: 1. Using a recurve bow or longbow and arrows with a finger release, shoot a single round of ONE of the following BSA, USA Archery, or NFAA rounds: a. An NFAA field round of 14 targets and make a score of 60 points. b. A BSA Scout field round of 14 targets and make a score of 80 points. c. A Junior 900 round and make a score of 180 points. d. An FITA/ USA Archery indoor round I and make a score of 80 points. e. An NFAA indoor round and make a score of 50 points. (The indoor rounds may be shot outdoors if this is more convenient.) OR 2. Shooting 30 arrows in five-arrow ends at an 80-centimeter (32-inch) five-color target at 15 yards and using the 10 scoring regions, make a score of 150. OR 3. As a member of the USA Archery Junior Olympic Development Program (JOAD), qualify as a Yeoman, Junior Bowman, and Bowman. OR 4. As a member of the NFAA's Junior Division, earn a Cub or Youth 100-score Progression patch. Do Option A or B

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5. a. Name and point to the parts of the compound bow you are shooting. Option B - Using a Compound Bow The newest style of bow is the compound bow, invented in the mid-20th century. This bow features pulleys and/or cams on the ends of the limbs, with a long string that criss -crosses the bow multiple times. One limb usually has an elliptical cam, which produces a sudden reduction in the draw weight of the bow when a certain point is reached. Compound bows build up considerable force, which allows for a more accurate shot. Do Option A or B

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Option B - Using a Compound Bow 5. b. Explain how to properly care for and store compound bows. Store bows horizontally resting on limbs 1 Think about your storage needs for your bow. Ask yourself if you will be traveling extensively with it, if it needs to be protected from water and whether you will be storing it long-term. 2 Look for a case that is the correct size. The case should be sturdy enough to handle years of use, as well as meet your other needs such as travel. An airline-approved case will be sturdy, the correct size and long-lasting. Purchase the right case for your needs. 3 Clean the bow, wax the string and place it inside the case according to the manufacturer's instructions. 4 Place the stored bow in a safe place with a locking door, such as a closet, safe or cabinet. The temperature should not fluctuate too much throughout the year where the bow is stored to keep it in its best possible condition.

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Option B - Using a Compound Bow 5. c. Show the 10 steps of good shooting for the compound bow you are shooting. To shoot a compound bow, first assume an easy and relaxed stance. Choose an open stance for more comfort and efficiency. Next attach the release to the string. If you have a loop, it is even better. Attach the release to the loop. Once this is done place your hand in the grip. Take care to ensure that the pressure point is at the thick part of your thumb. After release, the pressure should go directly into your bow arm. Try and keep the bow arm as relaxed as possible. The bow should not be gripped by your bow arm fingers. A finger sling or a bow sling will help with keeping your hand relaxed. A relaxed arm will not twitch or shake. There should be no shake or twitch after the release. Next step is to lift the bow and point it to the target. Do not lift the bow above the target. This is a practice common with recurve bow archers. They do this to gain extra leverage. However with the compound bow, this should be avoided. The idea of pointing it above the target is to get extra leverage in a recurve bow. However this is not possible in a compound bow. Even in the event of a misfire, the arrow must stay in the shooting area. Just lift the bow with your bow arm and let it find a natural and comfortable position. Do no pull it back or rotate it. Try and rest it at a comfortable position. Practise drawing the bow string to acclimatise your muscles with the weight and tension of the bow string. However dry firing is not advised. Practice on a free string. The next step is to draw the string. Draw the string with your back muscles and not your arm muscles. The draw should a clean and straight motion. The draw length is best decided in consultation with an experienced archer or a coach. The next important point is the anchor. A low anchor below your jaw bone is preferred. Try and draw the string to your nose. It helps in maintain the arrow in a straight line. The brain automatically focuses on the centre of the target. As you practice, over time you will become quite accurate at shooting a compound bow and may decide you are ready for hunting!

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Option B - Using a Compound Bow 5. d. Explain why it is necessary to have the string or cable on a compound bow replaced at an archery shop. A compound bow creates mechanical advantage, using a system of pulleys and cables. This mechanical advantage allows the archer to use less force to draw and hold the string back than a re-curve or long bow, while still creating significant arrow speed. Compound bows use very stiff bow limbs to store the energy created by the pulley and cable system. These stiff limbs require the use of a bow press to compress the limbs in order to safely remove the bow cable.

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Option B - Using a Compound Bow 5. e. Locate and mark with dental floss, crimp-on, or other method, the nocking point on the bowstring of the bow you are using. Critical for precision bow tuning. Accurate nocking point placement. Works on both compound and recurve bows. Clip on design for ease of use.

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Option B - Using a Compound Bow 5. f. Do ONE of the following: 1. Using a compound bow and arrows with a finger release, shoot a single round of ONE of the following BSA, USA Archery, or NFAA rounds: a. An NFAA field round of 14 targets and make a score of 70 points. b. A BSA Scout field round of 14 targets and make a score of 90 points. c. A Junior 900 round and make a score of 200 points. d. An FITA/USA Archery indoor round I and make a score of 90 points. e. An NFAA indoor round and make a score of 60 points. (The indoor rounds may be shot outdoors if this is more convenient.) OR 2. Shooting at an 80-centimeter (32-inch) five-color target at 15 yards and using the 10 scoring regions, make a minimum score of 160. Accomplish this in the following manner: Shoot 15 arrows in five-arrow ends, at a distance of 10 yards AND Shoot 15 arrows in five-arrow ends, at a distance of 15 yards. OR 3. As a member of the USA Archery Junior Olympic Development Program (JOAD), qualify as a Yeoman, Junior Bowman, and Bowman. OR 4. As a member of the NFAA's Junior Division, earn a Cub or Youth 100-score Progression patch. Do Option A or B

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