SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM

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SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM:

SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM FADEROGAO, ELVE

SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM:

SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM Schistosoma haematobium is an important digenetic trematode , and is found in the Middle East, India, Portugal and Africa. It is a major agent of schistosomiasis ; more specifically, it is associated with urinary schistosomiasis . Adults are found in the Venous plexuses around the urinary bladder and the released eggs traverse the wall of the bladder causing haematuria and fibrosis of the bladder. The bladder becomes calcified, and there is increased pressure on ureters and kidneys otherwise known as hydronephrosis . Inflammation of the genitals due to S. haematobium may contribute to the propagation of HIV. Studies have shown the relationship between S. haematobium infection and the development of squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder .

SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM:

SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM The free swimming infective larval cercariae burrow into human skin when it comes into contact with contaminated water. The cercariae enter the blood stream of the host where they travel to the liver to mature into adult flukes. In order to avoid detection by the immune system inside the host, the adults have the ability to coat themselves with host antigens.After a period of about three weeks the young flukes migrate to the bladder to copulate. The female fluke lays as many as 3,000 eggs per day which migrate to the lumen of the urinary bladder and ureters. The eggs are eliminated from the host into the water supply with micturition.

SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM:

SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM In fresh water, the eggs hatch forming free swimming miracidia which penetrate into the intermediate snail host ( Bulinus spp., e.g. B. globosus , B. forskalii , B. nyassanus and B. truncatus ). Inside the snail, the miracidium sheds it epithelium and develops into a mother sporocyst . After two weeks the mother begins forming daughter sporocysts . Four weeks after the initial penetration of the miracardium into the snail furcocercous cercariae begin to be released. The cercariae cycle from the top of the water to the bottom for three days in the search of a human host. Within half an hour the cercariae enter the host epithelium .

SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM:

SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM Urinary schistosomiasis is often chronic and can cause pain, secondary infections, kidney damage, and even cancer. It has been infecting humans for at least 4000 years and had its own specific hieroglyph in ancient Egyptian. In the time before treatments were widely available, it was still so prevalent in Egypt that boys were traditionally expected to go through a “male menarche”—sometime during adolescence, it was normal for them to urinate blood. S. haematobium infections continue to be a significant public health problem in much of Africa and the Middle East, second only to malaria among parasitic diseases. Continuing efforts and new strategies are needed to reduce the burden of schistosomiasis haematobium infection on the human family.

MALE & FEMALE SCHISTOSOMAS:

MALE & FEMALE SCHISTOSOMAS

SCHISTOSOMIASIS:

SCHISTOSOMIASIS Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease caused by blood flukes ( trematodes ) of the genus Schistosoma . After malaria and intestinal helminthiasis , schistosomiasis is the third most devastating tropical disease in the world

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Schistosomiasis is due to immunologic reactions to Schistosoma eggs trapped in tissues. Antigens released from the egg stimulate a granulomatous reaction involving T cells, macrophages, and eosinophils that results in clinical disease (see the image below). Symptoms and signs depend on the number and location of eggs trapped in the tissues. Initially, the inflammatory reaction is readily reversible. In the latter stages of the disease, the pathology is associated with collagen deposition and fibrosis, resulting in organ damage that may be only partially reversible.

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Eggs can end up in the skin, brain, muscle, adrenal glands, and eyes. As the eggs penetrate the urinary system, they can find their way to the female genital region and form granulomas in the uterus, fallopian tube, and ovaries. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement occurs because of embolization of eggs from the portal mesenteric system to the brain and spinal cord via the paravertebral venous plexus

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INFECTIOUS AGENT Schistosomiasis is caused by helminth parasites of the genus Schistosoma . Other helminth infections are discussed in the Helminths , Intestinal section earlier in this chapter. MODE OF TRANSMISSION Waterborne transmission occurs via penetration of larval cercariae in contaminated bodies of freshwater.

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Complications of schistosomiasis include the following: Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding GI obstruction Malnutrition Schistosomal nephropathy Renal failure Pyelonephritis Hematuria Hemospermia Squamous cell bladder cancer

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Sepsis ( Salmonella ) Pulmonary hypertension Cor pulmonale Neuroschistosomiasis - Transverse myelitis, paralysis, and cerebral microinfarcts Infertility Severe anemia Low ̶ birth-weight babies Spontaneous abortion Higher risk for ectopic pregnancies End-organ disease Portal hypertension Obstructive uropathy Pregnancy complications from vulvar or fallopian granuloma Carcinoma of the liver, bladder, or gallbladder

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Human beings become infected with schistosomiasis when larval forms of the parasite, released by freshwater snails, penetrate their skin during contact with infested water. In the body, the larvae develop into adult schistosomes . Adult worms live in the blood vessels, where the females release eggs. Some of the eggs are passed out of the body in the feces or urine to continue the parasite life cycle. Others become trapped in body tissues, causing an immune reaction and progressive damage to organs. Two major forms of schistosomiasis exist: intestinal and urogenital.

PREVENTION:

PREVENTION No vaccine is available. The best way to prevent schistosomiasis is to take the following steps if you are visiting or live in an area where schistosomiasis is transmitted: Avoid swimming or wading in freshwater when you are in countries in which schistosomiasis occurs. Swimming in the ocean and in chlorinated swimming pools is safe. Drink safe water. Although schistosomiasis is not transmitted by swallowing contaminated water, if your mouth or lips come in contact with water containing the parasites, you could become infected. Because  water coming directly from canals, lakes, rivers, streams, or springs may be contaminated with a variety of infectious organisms, you should either bring your water to a rolling boil for 1 minute or filter water before drinking it.

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Bring your water to a rolling boil for at least 1 minute will kill any harmful parasites, bacteria, or viruses present. Iodine treatment alone WILL NOT GUARANTEE that water is safe and free of all parasites. Water used for bathing should be brought to a rolling boil for 1 minute to kill any cercariae , and then cooled before bathing to avoid scalding. Water held in a storage tank for at least 1 - 2 days should be safe for bathing. Vigorous towel drying after an accidental, very brief water exposure may help to prevent the Schistosoma parasite from penetrating the skin. However, do not rely on vigorous towel drying alone to prevent schistosomiasis . Those who have had contact with potentially contaminated water overseas should see their health care provider after returning from travel to discuss testing.

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