Chapter 14 Lecture

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Biology 1406 Chapter 14

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Mendel and the Gene Idea Chapter 14

Overview: Drawing from the Deck of Genes:

Overview: Drawing from the Deck of Genes What genetic principles account for the passing of traits from parents to offspring? The “blending” hypothesis is the idea that genetic material from the two parents blends together (like blue and yellow paint blend to make green) © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

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The “particulate” hypothesis is the idea that parents pass on discrete heritable units (genes) This hypothesis can explain the reappearance of traits after several generations Mendel documented a particulate mechanism through his experiments with garden peas © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 14.1:

Figure 14.1

Concept 14.1: Mendel used the scientific approach to identify two laws of inheritance:

Concept 14.1: Mendel used the scientific approach to identify two laws of inheritance Mendel discovered the basic principles of heredity by breeding garden peas in carefully planned experiments © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Mendel’s Experimental, Quantitative Approach:

Mendel’s Experimental, Quantitative Approach Advantages of pea plants for genetic study There are many varieties with distinct heritable features, or characters (such as flower color); character variants (such as purple or white flowers) are called traits Mating can be controlled Each flower has sperm-producing organs (stamens) and egg-producing organ (carpel) Cross-pollination (fertilization between different plants) involves dusting one plant with pollen from another © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 14.2:

Figure 14.2 Parental generation (P) Stamens Carpel First filial generation offspring (F 1 ) TECHNIQUE RESULTS 3 2 1 4 5

Figure 14.2a:

Figure 14.2a Parental generation (P) Stamens Carpel TECHNIQUE 2 1 3 4

Figure 14.2b:

Figure 14.2b First filial generation offspring (F 1 ) RESULTS 5

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Mendel chose to track only those characters that occurred in two distinct alternative forms He also used varieties that were true-breeding (plants that produce offspring of the same variety when they self-pollinate) Example…. 2 Purple parents having purple babies, or 2 Blue parents having Blue babies © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

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In a typical experiment, Mendel mated two contrasting, true-breeding varieties, a process called hybridization (PP {purple} mated with pp {white}) The true-breeding parents are the P generation The hybrid offspring of the P generation are called the F 1 generation (all Pp) When F 1 individuals self-pollinate or cross- pollinate with other F 1 hybrids, the F 2 generation is produced © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Useful Genetic Vocabulary:

Useful Genetic Vocabulary An organism with two identical alleles for a character is said to be homozygous (BB or bb) for the gene controlling that character An organism that has two different alleles for a gene is said to be heterozygous (Bb) for the gene controlling that character Unlike homozygotes, heterozygotes are not true-breeding © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Law of Segregation:

The Law of Segregation When Mendel crossed contrasting, true-breeding white- and purple-flowered pea plants, all of the F 1 hybrids were purple When Mendel crossed the F 1 hybrids, many of the F 2 plants had purple flowers, but some had white Mendel discovered a ratio of about three to one, purple to white flowers, in the F 2 generation © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 14.3-1:

Figure 14.3-1 P Generation EXPERIMENT (true-breeding parents) Purple flowers White flowers

Figure 14.3-2:

Figure 14.3-2 P Generation EXPERIMENT (true-breeding parents) F 1 Generation (hybrids) Purple flowers White flowers All plants had purple flowers Self- or cross-pollination

Figure 14.3-3:

Figure 14.3-3 P Generation EXPERIMENT (true-breeding parents) F 1 Generation (hybrids) F 2 Generation Purple flowers White flowers All plants had purple flowers Self- or cross-pollination 705 purple- flowered plants 224 white flowered plants

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Mendel reasoned that only the purple flower factor was affecting flower color in the F 1 hybrids Mendel called the purple flower color a dominant trait and the white flower color a recessive trait The factor for white flowers was not diluted or destroyed because it reappeared in the F 2 generation © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Mendel observed the same pattern of inheritance in six other pea plant characters, each represented by two traits What Mendel called a “heritable factor” is what we now call a gene © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Table 14.1:

Table 14.1

Mendel’s Model:

Mendel’s Model Mendel developed a hypothesis to explain the 3:1 inheritance pattern he observed in F 2 offspring Four related concepts make up this model These concepts can be related to what we now know about genes and chromosomes © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

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First: alternative versions of genes account for variations in inherited characters For example, the gene for flower color in pea plants exists in two versions, one for purple flowers and the other for white flowers These alternative versions of a gene are now called alleles Each gene resides at a specific locus on a specific chromosome © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 14.4:

Figure 14.4 Allele for purple flowers Locus for flower-color gene Allele for white flowers Pair of homologous chromosomes

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Second: for each character, an organism inherits two alleles, one from each parent Mendel made this deduction without knowing about the role of chromosomes The two alleles at a particular locus may be identical, as in the true-breeding plants of Mendel’s P generation Alternatively, the two alleles at a locus may differ, as in the F 1 hybrids © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Third: if the two alleles at a locus differ, then one (the dominant allele ) determines the organism’s appearance, and the other (the recessive allele ) has no noticeable effect on appearance In the flower-color example, the F 1 plants had purple flowers because the allele for that trait is dominant © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Fourth: (now known as the law of segregation ): the two alleles for a heritable character separate (segregate) during gamete formation and end up in different gametes Thus, an egg or a sperm gets only one of the two alleles that are present in the organism This segregation of alleles corresponds to the distribution of homologous chromosomes to different gametes in meiosis © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Mendel’s segregation model accounts for the 3:1 ratio he observed in the F 2 generation of his numerous crosses The possible combinations of sperm and egg can be shown using a Punnett square , a diagram for predicting the results of a genetic cross between individuals of known genetic makeup A capital letter represents a dominant allele, and a lowercase letter represents a recessive allele © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 14.5-1:

Figure 14.5-1 P Generation Appearance: Genetic makeup: Gametes: Purple flowers White flowers PP pp P p

Figure 14.5-2:

Figure 14.5-2 P Generation F 1 Generation Appearance: Genetic makeup: Gametes: Appearance: Genetic makeup: Gametes: Purple flowers White flowers Purple flowers Pp PP pp P P p p 1 / 2 1 / 2

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P P p p Pp Pp Pp Pp Purple Dominant Parent White Recessive Parent ALL Heterozygous (Pp) PURPLE BABIES

Figure 14.5-3:

Figure 14.5-3 P Generation F 1 Generation F 2 Generation Appearance: Genetic makeup: Gametes: Appearance: Genetic makeup: Gametes: Purple flowers White flowers Purple flowers Sperm from F 1 ( Pp ) plant Pp PP pp P P P P p p p p Eggs from F 1 ( Pp ) plant PP pp Pp Pp 1 / 2 1 / 2 3 : 1

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P p P p PP Pp Pp pp Purple Heterozygous Parent Purple Heterozygous Parent 1 Purple Homozygous Dominant- PP 2 Purple Heterozygotes- Pp 1 White Homozygous recessive-pp

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Because of the different effects of dominant and recessive alleles, an organism’s traits do not always reveal its genetic composition Therefore, we distinguish between an organism’s phenotype , or physical appearance, and its genotype , or genetic makeup In the example of flower color in pea plants, PP and Pp plants have the same phenotype (purple) but different genotypes © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 14.6:

Phenotype Purple Purple Purple White 3 1 1 1 2 Ratio 3:1 Ratio 1:2:1 Genotype PP (homozygous) Pp (heterozygous) Pp (heterozygous) pp (homozygous) Figure 14.6

The Testcross:

The Testcross How can we tell the genotype of an individual with the dominant phenotype? Such an individual could be either homozygous dominant or heterozygous The answer is to carry out a testcross : breeding the mystery individual with a homozygous recessive individual If any offspring display the recessive phenotype, the mystery parent must be heterozygous © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 14.7:

Figure 14.7 Dominant phenotype, unknown genotype: PP or Pp ? Recessive phenotype, known genotype: pp Predictions If purple-flowered parent is PP If purple-flowered parent is Pp or Sperm Sperm Eggs Eggs or All offspring purple 1 / 2 offspring purple and 1 / 2 offspring white Pp Pp Pp Pp Pp Pp pp pp p p p p P P P p TECHNIQUE RESULTS

The Law of Independent Assortment:

The Law of Independent Assortment Mendel derived the law of segregation by following a single character The F 1 offspring produced in this cross were monohybrids , individuals that are heterozygous for one character A cross between such heterozygotes is called a monohybrid cross © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Mendel identified his second law of inheritance by following two characters at the same time Crossing two true-breeding parents differing in two characters produces dihybrids in the F 1 generation, heterozygous for both characters A dihybrid cross , a cross between F 1 dihybrids, can determine whether two characters are transmitted to offspring as a package or independently © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 14.8:

Figure 14.8 P Generation F 1 Generation Predictions Gametes EXPERIMENT RESULTS YYRR yyrr yr YR YyRr Hypothesis of dependent assortment Hypothesis of independent assortment Predicted offspring of F 2 generation Sperm Sperm or Eggs Eggs Phenotypic ratio 3:1 Phenotypic ratio 9:3:3:1 Phenotypic ratio approximately 9:3:3:1 315 108 101 32 1 / 2 1 / 2 1 / 2 1 / 2 1 / 4 1 / 4 1 / 4 1 / 4 1 / 4 1 / 4 1 / 4 1 / 4 9 / 16 3 / 16 3 / 16 1 / 16 YR YR YR YR yr yr yr yr 1 / 4 3 / 4 Yr Yr yR yR YYRR YyRr YyRr yyrr YYRR YYRr YyRR YyRr YYRr YYrr YyRr Yyrr YyRR YyRr yyRR yyRr YyRr Yyrr yyRr yyrr

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Using a dihybrid cross, Mendel developed the law of independent assortment The law of independent assortment states that each pair of alleles segregates independently of each other pair of alleles during gamete formation Strictly speaking, this law applies only to genes on different, nonhomologous chromosomes or those far apart on the same chromosome Genes located near each other on the same chromosome tend to be inherited together © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Concept 14.2: The laws of probability govern Mendelian inheritance:

Concept 14.2: The laws of probability govern Mendelian inheritance Mendel’s laws of segregation and independent assortment reflect the rules of probability When tossing a coin, the outcome of one toss has no impact on the outcome of the next toss In the same way, the alleles of one gene segregate into gametes independently of another gene’s alleles © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Multiplication and Addition Rules Applied to Monohybrid Crosses:

The multiplication rule states that the probability that two or more independent events will occur together is the product of their individual probabilities Probability in an F 1 monohybrid cross can be determined using the multiplication rule Segregation in a heterozygous plant is like flipping a coin: Each gamete has a chance of carrying the dominant allele and a chance of carrying the recessive allele The Multiplication and Addition Rules Applied to Monohybrid Crosses © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 14.9:

Figure 14.9 Segregation of alleles into eggs Segregation of alleles into sperm Sperm Eggs 1 / 2 1 / 2 1 / 2 1 / 2 1 / 4 1 / 4 1 / 4 1 / 4 Rr Rr R R R R R R r r r r r  r

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The addition rule states that the probability that any one of two or more exclusive events will occur is calculated by adding together their individual probabilities The rule of addition can be used to figure out the probability that an F 2 plant from a monohybrid cross will be heterozygous rather than homozygous © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Solving Complex Genetics Problems with the Rules of Probability:

Solving Complex Genetics Problems with the Rules of Probability We can apply the multiplication and addition rules to predict the outcome of crosses involving multiple characters A dihybrid or other multicharacter cross is equivalent to two or more independent monohybrid crosses occurring simultaneously In calculating the chances for various genotypes, each character is considered separately, and then the individual probabilities are multiplied © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 14.UN01:

Figure 14.UN01 Probability of YYRR Probability of YyRR 1 / 4 (probability of YY ) 1 / 2 ( Yy ) 1 / 4 ( RR ) 1 / 4 ( RR ) 1 / 16 1 / 8      

Figure 14.UN02:

Figure 14.UN02 Chance of at least two recessive traits ppyyRr ppYyrr Ppyyrr PPyyrr ppyyrr 1 / 4 (probability of pp )  1 / 2 ( yy )  1 / 2 ( Rr ) 1 / 4  1 / 2  1 / 2 1 / 2  1 / 2  1 / 2 1 / 4  1 / 2  1 / 2 1 / 4  1 / 2  1 / 2  1 / 16  1 / 16  2 / 16  1 / 16  1 / 16  6 / 16 or 3 / 8

Concept 14.3: Inheritance patterns are often more complex than predicted by simple Mendelian genetics:

Concept 14.3: Inheritance patterns are often more complex than predicted by simple Mendelian genetics The relationship between genotype and phenotype is rarely as simple as in the pea plant characters Mendel studied Many heritable characters are not determined by only one gene with two alleles However, the basic principles of segregation and independent assortment apply even to more complex patterns of inheritance © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Extending Mendelian Genetics for a Single Gene:

Extending Mendelian Genetics for a Single Gene Inheritance of characters by a single gene may deviate from simple Mendelian patterns in the following situations: When alleles are not completely dominant or recessive When a gene has more than two alleles When a gene produces multiple phenotypes © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Degrees of Dominance :

Degrees of Dominance Complete dominance occurs when phenotypes of the heterozygote and dominant homozygote are identical In incomplete dominance , the phenotype of F 1 hybrids is somewhere between the phenotypes of the two parental varieties In codominance , two dominant alleles affect the phenotype in separate, distinguishable ways © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 14.10-1:

Figure 14.10-1 P Generation Red White Gametes C W C W C R C R C R C W

Figure 14.10-2:

Figure 14.10-2 P Generation F 1 Generation 1 / 2 1 / 2 Red White Gametes Pink Gametes C W C W C R C R C R C W C R C W C R C W

Figure 14.10-3:

Figure 14.10-3 P Generation F 1 Generation F 2 Generation 1 / 2 1 / 2 1 / 2 1 / 2 1 / 2 1 / 2 Red White Gametes Pink Gametes Sperm Eggs C W C W C R C R C R C W C R C W C R C W C W C R C R C W C R C R C R C W C R C W C W C W

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A dominant allele does not subdue a recessive allele; alleles don’t interact that way Alleles are simply variations in a gene’s nucleotide sequence For any character, dominance/recessiveness relationships of alleles depend on the level at which we examine the phenotype The Relation Between Dominance and Phenotype © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Tay-Sachs disease is fatal; a dysfunctional enzyme causes an accumulation of lipids in the brain At the organismal level, the allele is recessive At the biochemical level, the phenotype (i.e., the enzyme activity level) is incompletely dominant At the molecular level, the alleles are codominant © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Frequency of Dominant Alleles Dominant alleles are not necessarily more common in populations than recessive alleles For example, one baby out of 400 in the United States is born with extra fingers or toes © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

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The allele for this unusual trait is dominant to the allele for the more common trait of five digits per appendage In this example, the recessive allele is far more prevalent than the population’s dominant allele © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Multiple Alleles:

Multiple Alleles Most genes exist in populations in more than two allelic forms For example, the four phenotypes of the ABO blood group in humans are determined by three alleles for the enzyme (I) that attaches A or B carbohydrates to red blood cells: I A , I B , and i . The enzyme encoded by the I A allele adds the A carbohydrate, whereas the enzyme encoded by the I B allele adds the B carbohydrate; the enzyme encoded by the i allele adds neither © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 14.11:

Figure 14.11 Carbohydrate Allele (a) The three alleles for the ABO blood groups and their carbohydrates (b) Blood group genotypes and phenotypes Genotype Red blood cell appearance Phenotype (blood group) A A B B AB none O I A I B i ii I A I B I A I A or I A i I B I B or I B i

Pleiotropy:

Pleiotropy Most genes have multiple phenotypic effects, a property called pleiotropy For example, pleiotropic alleles are responsible for the multiple symptoms of certain hereditary diseases, such as cystic fibrosis and sickle-cell disease © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Extending Mendelian Genetics for Two or More Genes:

Extending Mendelian Genetics for Two or More Genes Some traits may be determined by two or more genes © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Epistasis:

Epistasis In epistasis , a gene at one locus alters the phenotypic expression of a gene at a second locus For example, in Labrador retrievers and many other mammals, coat color depends on two genes One gene determines the pigment color (with alleles B for black and b for brown) The other gene (with alleles C for color and c for no color) determines whether the pigment will be deposited in the hair © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 14.12:

Figure 14.12 Sperm Eggs 9 : 3 : 4 1 / 4 1 / 4 1 / 4 1 / 4 1 / 4 1 / 4 1 / 4 1 / 4 BbEe BbEe BE BE bE bE Be Be be be BBEE BbEE BBEe BbEe BbEE bbEE BbEe bbEe BBEe BbEe BBee Bbee BbEe bbEe Bbee bbee

Polygenic Inheritance:

Polygenic Inheritance Quantitative characters are those that vary in the population along a continuum Quantitative variation usually indicates polygenic inheritance , an additive effect of two or more genes on a single phenotype Skin color in humans is an example of polygenic inheritance © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 14.13:

Figure 14.13 Eggs Sperm Phenotypes: Number of dark-skin alleles: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 / 8 1 / 8 1 / 8 1 / 8 1 / 8 1 / 8 1 / 8 1 / 8 1 / 8 1 / 8 1 / 8 1 / 8 1 / 8 1 / 8 1 / 8 1 / 8 1 / 64 6 / 64 15 / 64 20 / 64 15 / 64 6 / 64 1 / 64 AaBbCc AaBbCc

Nature and Nurture: The Environmental Impact on Phenotype:

Nature and Nurture: The Environmental Impact on Phenotype Another departure from Mendelian genetics arises when the phenotype for a character depends on environment as well as genotype The norm of reaction is the phenotypic range of a genotype influenced by the environment For example, hydrangea flowers of the same genotype range from blue-violet to pink, depending on soil acidity © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 14.14:

Figure 14.14

Figure 14.14a:

Figure 14.14a

Figure 14.14b:

Figure 14.14b

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Norms of reaction are generally broadest for polygenic characters Such characters are called multifactorial because genetic and environmental factors collectively influence phenotype © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Integrating a Mendelian View of Heredity and Variation:

Integrating a Mendelian View of Heredity and Variation An organism’s phenotype includes its physical appearance, internal anatomy, physiology, and behavior An organism’s phenotype reflects its overall genotype and unique environmental history © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Concept 14.4: Many human traits follow Mendelian patterns of inheritance:

Concept 14.4: Many human traits follow Mendelian patterns of inheritance Humans are not good subjects for genetic research Generation time is too long Parents produce relatively few offspring Breeding experiments are unacceptable However, basic Mendelian genetics endures as the foundation of human genetics © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Pedigree Analysis:

Pedigree Analysis A pedigree is a family tree that describes the interrelationships of parents and children across generations Inheritance patterns of particular traits can be traced and described using pedigrees © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 14.15:

Figure 14.15 Key Male Female Affected male Affected female Mating Offspring 1st generation 2nd generation 3rd generation 1st generation 2nd generation 3rd generation Is a widow’s peak a dominant or recessive trait? (a) Is an attached earlobe a dominant or recessive trait? b) Widow’s peak No widow’s peak Attached earlobe Free earlobe FF or Ff WW or Ww Ww ww ww Ww Ww Ww Ww ww ww ww ww Ff Ff Ff Ff Ff ff ff ff ff FF or Ff ff

Figure 14.15a:

Figure 14.15a Widow’s peak

Figure 14.15b:

Figure 14.15b No widow’s peak

Figure 14.15c:

Figure 14.15c Attached earlobe

Figure 14.15d:

Figure 14.15d Free earlobe

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Pedigrees can also be used to make predictions about future offspring We can use the multiplication and addition rules to predict the probability of specific phenotypes © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Recessively Inherited Disorders:

Recessively Inherited Disorders Many genetic disorders are inherited in a recessive manner These range from relatively mild to life-threatening © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Behavior of Recessive Alleles:

The Behavior of Recessive Alleles Recessively inherited disorders show up only in individuals homozygous for the allele Carriers are heterozygous individuals who carry the recessive allele but are phenotypically normal; most individuals with recessive disorders are born to carrier parents Albinism is a recessive condition characterized by a lack of pigmentation in skin and hair © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 14.16:

Figure 14.16 Parents Normal Aa Sperm Eggs Normal Aa AA Normal Aa Normal (carrier) Aa Normal (carrier) aa Albino A A a a

Figure 14.16a:

Figure 14.16a

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If a recessive allele that causes a disease is rare, then the chance of two carriers meeting and mating is low Consanguineous matings (i.e., matings between close relatives) increase the chance of mating between two carriers of the same rare allele Most societies and cultures have laws or taboos against marriages between close relatives © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Cystic Fibrosis:

Cystic Fibrosis Cystic fibrosis is the most common lethal genetic disease in the United States,striking one out of every 2,500 people of European descent The cystic fibrosis allele results in defective or absent chloride transport channels in plasma membranes leading to a buildup of chloride ions outside the cell Symptoms include mucus buildup in some internal organs and abnormal absorption of nutrients in the small intestine © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Sickle-Cell Disease: A Genetic Disorder with Evolutionary Implications:

Sickle-Cell Disease: A Genetic Disorder with Evolutionary Implications Sickle-cell disease affects one out of 400 African-Americans The disease is caused by the substitution of a single amino acid in the hemoglobin protein in red blood cells In homozygous individuals, all hemoglobin is abnormal (sickle-cell) Symptoms include physical weakness, pain, organ damage, and even paralysis © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Fig. 14-UN1 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Heterozygotes (said to have sickle-cell trait) are usually healthy but may suffer some symptoms About one out of ten African Americans has sickle cell trait, an unusually high frequency of an allele with detrimental effects in homozygotes Heterozygotes are less susceptible to the malaria parasite, so there is an advantage to being heterozygous

Dominantly Inherited Disorders:

Dominantly Inherited Disorders Some human disorders are caused by dominant alleles Dominant alleles that cause a lethal disease are rare and arise by mutation Achondroplasia is a form of dwarfism caused by a rare dominant allele © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 14.17:

Figure 14.17 Parents Dwarf Dd Sperm Eggs Dd Dwarf dd Normal Dd Dwarf dd Normal D d d d Normal dd

Figure 14.17a:

Figure 14.17a

Huntington’s Disease: A Late-Onset Lethal Disease:

The timing of onset of a disease significantly affects its inheritance Huntington’s disease is a degenerative disease of the nervous system The disease has no obvious phenotypic effects until the individual is about 35 to 40 years of age Once the deterioration of the nervous system begins the condition is irreversible and fatal Huntington’s Disease: A Late-Onset Lethal Disease © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Multifactorial Disorders:

Multifactorial Disorders Many diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, alcoholism, mental illnesses, and cancer have both genetic and environmental components Little is understood about the genetic contribution to most multifactorial diseases © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Genetic Testing and Counseling:

Genetic Testing and Counseling Genetic counselors can provide information to prospective parents concerned about a family history for a specific disease © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Counseling Based on Mendelian Genetics and Probability Rules:

Counseling Based on Mendelian Genetics and Probability Rules Using family histories, genetic counselors help couples determine the odds that their children will have genetic disorders Probabilities are predicted on the most accurate information at the time; predicted probabilities may change as new information is available © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Tests for Identifying Carriers:

Tests for Identifying Carriers For a growing number of diseases, tests are available that identify carriers and help define the odds more accurately © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 14.18:

Figure 14.18

Fetal Testing:

Fetal Testing In amniocentesis , the liquid that bathes the fetus is removed and tested In chorionic villus sampling (CVS ), a sample of the placenta is removed and tested Other techniques, such as ultrasound and fetoscopy , allow fetal health to be assessed visually in utero © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Video: Ultrasound of Human Fetus I

Figure 14.19:

Figure 14.19 (a) Amniocentesis (b) Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) Ultrasound monitor Amniotic fluid withdrawn Fetus Placenta Uterus Cervix Centrifugation Fluid Fetal cells Several hours Several weeks Several weeks Biochemical and genetic tests Karyotyping Ultrasound monitor Fetus Placenta Chorionic villi Uterus Cervix Suction tube inserted through cervix Several hours Fetal cells Several hours 1 1 2 2 3

Newborn Screening:

Newborn Screening Some genetic disorders can be detected at birth by simple tests that are now routinely performed in most hospitals in the United States © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 14.UN03:

Figure 14.UN03 Complete dominance of one allele Relationship among alleles of a single gene Description Example Incomplete dominance of either allele Codominance Multiple alleles Pleiotropy Heterozygous phenotype same as that of homo- zygous dominant Heterozygous phenotype intermediate between the two homozygous phenotypes Both phenotypes expressed in heterozygotes In the whole population, some genes have more than two alleles One gene is able to affect multiple phenotypic characters ABO blood group alleles Sickle-cell disease PP Pp C R C R C R C W C W C W I A I B I A , I B , i

Figure 14.UN04:

Figure 14.UN04 Epistasis Polygenic inheritance Relationship among two or more genes Description Example The phenotypic expression of one gene affects that of another A single phenotypic character is affected by two or more genes 9 : 3 : 4 BbEe BbEe BE BE bE bE Be Be be be AaBbCc AaBbCc

Figure 14.UN05:

Figure 14.UN05 Flower position Stem length Seed shape Character Dominant Recessive Axial ( A ) Tall ( T ) Round ( R ) Terminal ( a ) Dwarf ( t ) Wrinkled ( r )

Figure 14.UN06:

Figure 14.UN06

Figure 14.UN07:

Figure 14.UN07 George Arlene Sandra Tom Sam Wilma Ann Michael Carla Daniel Alan Tina Christopher

Figure 14.UN08:

Figure 14.UN08

Figure 14.UN09:

Figure 14.UN09

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Figure 14.UN10

Figure 14.UN11:

Figure 14.UN11

Figure 14.UN12:

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Figure 14.UN14:

Figure 14.UN14

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