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Standard in a fragmented market Many proprietary solutions, interoperability issues Low Power consumption Users expect battery to last months to years! Low Cost High density of nodes per network Simple protocol, global implementation ZigBee -Target Markets: Low Data Rate Radio Devices Industrial & Commercial Consumer Electronics Personal Healthcare Toys & Games Home Automation PC Peripherals ZigBee -Target MarketsZigBee Technology Adoption Curve: ZigBee Technology Adoption Curve Evangelize Technology Leaders Early Adopters Mature Market Laggards Gap ZigBee todayZigBee Rate of Adoption: ZigBee Rate of Adoption Time Volume Initial Adoption Industrial Adoption Home Control Adoption Market MaturesStandards Expectations: Standards Expectations Market Expectations Time Market Interest Builds This will satisfy all requirements Disillusionment Obituaries Written Products start to ship Everything is OK ZigBee todayMarket Size – Low Data Rate (No ): Market Size – Low Data Rate (No ) Source: ABI, Dataquest, InternalMarket Segmentation 2002 - 2006: Market Segmentation 2002 - 2006 Industrial Applications will drive initial market Home Environment will become Important Over time, there will be varied Applications (Other) Some Details - Home Controls: Some Details - Home Controls Energy Management is going to be a key aspect Even if we are to ignore the Building Auto and Industrial Markets for a few minutes….Slide11: The Connected Home: The features of a connected home exist today; they are not dreams of tomorrow. This home is connected in the sense that normally independent systems are linked to a centrally controlled system. In a connected home, your home computer, TV, lighting and heating controls, home security system and many appliances within the home can talk to each other via the Internet. These linked systems can be controlled through various devices, including your pager, cellular phone, TV, home PC, PDA, or even your automobile. More specifically, the connected home offers the following: new forms of entertainment; anywhere, anytime communication with family, friends and coworkers; advanced home control and security; new ways to buy over the Internet; safe and secure e-mail and other communications; and always-on, high speed Internet access - all from reliable providers. Founding Members Cisco GM Invensys The NewPower Company Panasonic Sears Contributing Members Best Buy Sun Associate Members ADT Security Services Autco Distributing AVAD Coactive Networks CompUSA Connected Lifestyles Echelon emWare Gatespace Home Director Honeywell Info-linc Metering Technology N.E.W. Customer Service Companies Qubit Technology Reliant Energy Sage Systems Sempra Energy Connections Ucentric Systems Visteon Western Digital zBox Source: Internet Home Alliance the Advantage magazine.Internet Home Alliance Survey Findings Zigbee can provide or help provide 3 of the 5 top features customers want in a connected home: Internet Home Alliance Survey Findings Zigbee can provide or help provide 3 of the 5 top features customers want in a connected home Interest in Individual Features of the Connected Home % of respondents interested Source: Zanthus CEO interview, Internet Home Alliance The Advantage magazine. Zigbee sensors eliminate the need to run wires throughout the house and make adding a new system to an old house realistic Zigbee use in thermostat simplifies wiring and connectivity to the Internet Zigbee’s technical characteristics and cost are ideal for DAP applicationsConnected Home Pilot Programs: Connected Home Pilot Programs Energy Management OnStar at Home To begin Q1 2002 100 households Integrated OnStar’s Virtual Advisor service with home security, control and telecommunications components Provides an easy to use, consistent interface to control home systems such as lighting, temperature and home security Homeowners will be able to control their home operations from any, PC, telephone, WAP phone or wireless PDA in addition to OnStar’s PCS service June to October 2001 300 households Tested the effectiveness of energy management systems NewPower initiated periodic energy curtailments (e.g. raising the temperature a few degrees during peak hours) to save money Individuals could override the curtailments manually or through a Web portal Source: Website, Mercer interview.Home NetworkingHome appliances will complement additional Zigbee markets: Home Networking Home appliances will complement additional Zigbee markets Source: US shipments in 2000 from Appliance Magazine March 2001, Time “Machine of the Year 2000”. Unit Shipments in 2000 (in millions) Volume Comparison Between Home Appliances and CE devices (Unit shipments in the US in 2000)Market Requirements: Market Requirements Global licence free ISM band operation Unrestricted geographic use RF penetration through walls & ceilings Automatic/semi-automatic installation Ability to add or remove devices Possible voice supportMarket Requirements, cont...: Market Requirements, cont... 10k-115.2kbps data throughput 10-75m coverage range (home/garden) Support for 32-255 nodes Support for 4 critical devices 4-100 co-located networks 0.5-2 year battery life Up to 5m/sec. (18kmph) permitted mobility Module cost: $1.5-$2.5 in 2004/5!ZigBee - General Characteristics: ZigBee - General Characteristics Data rates of 250 kbps and 20 kbps Star topology, peer to peer possible 255 devices per network CSMA-CA channel access Optional Guaranteed Time Slot Fully handshaked protocol for transfer reliability Low power (battery life multi-month to years) Dual PHY (2.4GHz and 868/915 MHz) Extremely low duty-cycle (<0.1%) Range: 10m nominal (1-100m based on settings) Location Aware: Yes, but optional ZigBee Alliance - IEEE - Customer Relationship: Silicon ZigBee Stack Application Customer ZigBee Alliance IEEE ZigBee Alliance - IEEE - Customer RelationshipRange Estimation (Meters): Range Estimation (Meters) Using Firefly TRD/RSI propagation modelNetwork Topology: Network Topology Network coordinator Network node Communications flow Other Network Forms: Other Network Forms Network coordinator Communications flow Ad-hoc network Gateway Network node Gateway enabled network Supported Traffic Types: Supported Traffic Types Periodic data Application defined rate Intermittent Basic communication Repetitive low latency data Allocation of guaranteed time slotsThe Network Coordinator: The Network Coordinator Transmits network beacons Sets up a network Manages network nodes Stores network node information Routes messages between paired nodes Receives constantlyThe Network Node: The Network Node Is generally battery powered Searches for available networks Transfers data from its application as necessary Determines whether data is pending Requests data from the network coordinator Can sleep for extended periodsStack System Requirements: Stack System Requirements 8-bit C, e.g. 80c51 Full protocol stack <32k Simple node only stack ~4k Coordinators require extra RAM node device database transaction table pairing tableThe ZigBee Alliance: The ZigBee AllianceSome Participants: Some Participants CompXsStandardization ChallengeHow do we make a protocol a standard?: Standardization Challenge How do we make a protocol a standard? ZigBee Alliance created with companies who share a common vision Alliance initiates need for low data rate W-PAN in IEEE, 802.15.4 is born Both MAC and PHY proposals win vote in IEEE Alliance is focussed on: Upper Layers of stack Interoperability Marketing Keep initial participants limited until spec basics are definedZigBee vs Bluetooth: ZigBee vs Bluetooth Competition or Complementary?Bluetooth is Best: Bluetooth is Best For : Ad-hoc networks between capable devices Handsfree audio Screen graphics, pictures… File transfer But ZigBee is Better IF : The Network is static Lots of devices Infrequently used Small Data Packets Air Interface:: Air Interface: ZigBee DSSS 11 chips/ symbol 62.5 K symbols/s 4 Bits/ symbol Peak Information Rate ~128 Kbit/second Bluetooth FHSS 1 M Symbol / second Peak Information Rate ~720 Kbit/secondZigBee Protocol Stack Size/Complexity : Silicon ZigBee Stack Application ZigBee Protocol Stack Size/Complexity Bluetooth Protocol Stack Size/Complexity : Silicon HOST MODULE Bluetooth Stack Applications Bluetooth Protocol Stack Size/Complexity Timing Considerations: Bluetooth: New slave enumeration = >3s Sleeping slave changing to active = 3s typically Active slave channel access time = 2ms typically ZigBee: New slave enumeration = 30ms typically Sleeping slave changing to active = 15ms typically Active slave channel access time = 15ms typically Timing Considerations ZigBee protocol is optimized for timing critical applicationsInitial Enumeration: Initial Enumeration Coordinator Coordinator ZigBee BluetoothPower Considerations: Power Considerations ZigBee 2+ years from ‘normal’ batteries Designed to optimise slave power requirements Bluetooth Power model as a mobile phone (regular charging) Designed to maximise ad-hoc functionality Application example of a light switch with respect to latency and power consumption …...Battery Life & Latency in a Lightswitch: Battery Life & Latency in a Lightswitch Bluetooth would either : keep a counter running so that it could predict which hop frequency the light would have reached or use the inquiry procedure to find the light each time the switch was operated.To reduce latency, Bluetooth would:: The two devices must stay within 60 us (~1/10 of a hop) 30ppm crystals => could increase at 60us per second. Devices communicate once a second to track each other's clocks. Possibly could be improved by a factor of 100. The devices would then need to communicate once every 100 seconds to maintain synchronisation. => 900 communications / day with no information transfer + perhaps 4 communications on demand 99.5% Battery Power wasted To reduce latency, Bluetooth would:To reduce power consumption, Bluetooth would: Undertake Bluetooth inquiry procedure when light switch operated May typically take 10 seconds using Bluetooth 1.1 ? Much Better In Bluetooth 1.2 possibly reduced to tens of ms BUT Not all requirements have been adopted yet To reduce power consumption, Bluetooth wouldLight switch Conclusion: Light switch Conclusion ZigBee radio using DSSS need only perform CSMA before transmitting, a delay of only 200 us (Radio wake up time) In the case of a light switch, ZigBee offers longer battery life and lower latency than a Bluetooth equivalent.Cost Standpoint: Bluetooth: Low added cost connectivity Take advantage of host processor power (ARM7…) 802.11 functionality but with simplified r.f. specifications ZigBee: Minimum slave cost Minimum software and processing (80C51), no host platform System design for eventual single-chip antenna-to-application realisation Cost Standpoint Solution Prices: Two different solutions optimised for different applications…... Solution Prices Conclusion: Conclusion ZigBee and Bluetooth are two solutions for two application areasZigBee in Building Automation: ZigBee in Building Automation Existing solutions are either: Power Line Carrier based (PLC) Expensive ($15 - $40 BOM) Restricted to where there is existing power lines No mobility Interference from noisy inductance into the system (adding a fan, etc.) Security issues, PLC goes outside the home Interoperability is questionable Or proprietary Interoperability among various manufacturers Cost Existing RF solutions have limited capabilities ZigBee - Bluetooth - PLC Comparison: ZigBee - Bluetooth - PLC ComparisonThank You: Thank You You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.