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Slide1: 

The Human Immunodeficiency Virus: An Evolving Threat

The Current State of the Epidemic HIV & AIDS in the United States: 

The Current State of the Epidemic HIV & AIDS in the United States AIDS deaths in the U.S. decreased by 42% from 1996 - 97 In 2005: >1,000,000 Men, Women & Children infected with HIV >45,000 new infections in 2005 Women accounted for ~ 30% of new HIV diagnoses in U.S. adults

U.S. HIV & AIDS by Race/Ethnicity: 

U.S. HIV & AIDS by Race/Ethnicity Among new AIDS cases in men, 60% were in African Americans and Hispanics Among new AIDS cases in women, 80% were in African Americans and Hispanics AIDS is now the #1 killer of African American women age 25 - 34 HIV incidence among African Americans is 8 times higher than among Caucasians

Slide4: 

HIV infection is more common than previously thought >40 million now HIV infected 5 million infected in 2005 @ a rate of ~14,000/day ~ 2000 in children <15 y.o. ~ 12,000 in persons 15 - 49 y.o. (50% women; 50% 15 - 24 y.o.)  1% of sexually active adults are infected  90% of the infected don't know it!  >3 million died from AIDS in 2005 >33% were adult women ~20% were under 15 years old U.S. versus GLOBAL HIV NUMBERS

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 8% of 15-49 years old are infected  In Botswana, Zimbabwe, Nigeria, Swaziland 25 - 30% of adults are infected  In South African provinces 25 - 45% of pregnant women are infected HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa

Projected changes in life expectancy in selected African countries with high HIV prevalence, 1995–2000: 

Projected changes in life expectancy in selected African countries with high HIV prevalence, 1995–2000 Twenty African nations have suffered severe human development reversals in the past decade (health, education, economic wealth)

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First Reports of the Disease October 1980 - May 1981 Michael Gottlieb, physician in Los Angeles Noted 5 young male patients, all with a rare pneumonia Caused by a single-cell protozoan: Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) Rare condition previously linked with failure of the immune system  All had other active viral and fungal infections  All were sexually active gay men

Slide9: 

What is the Cause of the Disease? Environment & Behavior? In 1981: Described as Gay-related Immune Deficiency (GRID) Early proposed cause: Recreational use of amyl nitrate NO Genetics? No evidence of familial linkage between affected individuals NO Pathogen? In 1981 and 1982: Observed clustering of patients linked by sexual contact (heterosexual & homosexual) Appearance in intravenous drug users Appearance among blood transfusion recipients and hemophiliacs YES Transmissible agent present in the blood and a subset of body fluids Renamed Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

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The Discovery of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 Begins in Jan. 1983: Lymph node biopsy from the neck of Frederic Brugiere Virus was successfully cultured from these cells and infected healthy immune sytem cells upon exposure Shown to be a Retrovirus based on a specific enzymatic activity Françoise Barré-Sinoussi & Luc Montagnier

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The societal context of AIDS produced many early theories for the origin of the disease Major questions: Is AIDS a new or old disease? Where did it first arise? Where did the virus come from? The Origin of HIV and AIDS

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There are several SIV strains specific to certain species of monkey SIVagm - African green monkey SIVmnd - Mandrill ape SIVsm - Sooty Mangabey monkey Under normal conditions, each strain only infects its specific species and does not infect humans Simian Immunodeficiency Viruses Only chimpanzees can be infected with HIV SIVagm

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In 1999: Isolations of SIVcpz from chimpanzees in captivity Nearly identical to HIV-1 Probably entered humans ~50 years ago Pan troglodytes troglodytes chimp species found in Cameroon, West equatorial Africa, Central Africa The natural habitat of these chimpanzees directly coincides with the geographical pattern of the early HIV-1 epidemic HIV came from a strain of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Pan troglodytes troglodytes

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Chimpanzees have probably been infected with SIVcpz for thousands years, but do not display illness Humans in Africa have hunted monkeys and chimps for food Cross-species transmission of SIVcpz has probably occurred for several hundred years But up until about 40 - 50 years ago infected individuals rarely left the region  probably confined the infection to local areas The Zoonosis of HIV-1 Bush-meat trade along new roadways has increased exposure to SIVcpz Facilitates the movement of infection into urban areas  Chimpanzees are the natural host reservoir for HIV-1

Molecular Components of HIV: 

Molecular Components of HIV

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HIV targets key cells of the immune system Innate immune responses are rapid and nonspecific Adaptive immune responses are slow and specific to particular pathogens Vertebrate innate immune responses activate adaptive immunity

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HIV targets key cells of the immune system Innate immune responses are rapid and nonspecific Adaptive immune responses are slow and specific to particular pathogens Vertebrate innate immune responses activate adaptive immunity CD4+ T cells support adaptive immunity by activating other immune cells Helper T cells Macrophages destroy pathogens (innate) and present pathogen components for T cell recognition (adaptive)

Slide18: 

Timecourse of untreated HIV infection

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Timecourse of untreated HIV infection Number of new virus particles released per day = ~1010 About half of the free virus in the blood is replaced every 6 hours

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Why does HIV need our cells? HIV-infected human immune cell

Slide21: 

Viruses require the machinery of the host cell to replicate Viruses have nucleic acid genomes but no means to harness energy to replicate or build macromolecules

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NUCLEUS plasma membrane chromosomal DNA DNA RNA-DNA hybrid viral RNA reverse transcriptase HIV Reverse Transcription

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1) RNA to DNA (RNA-dependent DNA polymerase) 2) Digests RNA from RNA-DNA hybrid (RNAse function) 3) Make DNA from DNA, i.e. double-stranded (DNA-dependent DNA polymerase) RT reverse transcribes the single-stranded RNA genome into double-stranded DNA before integration HIV Reverse Transcriptase

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