Chapter 3: Chapter 3 Attitudes, and Job Satisfaction TWELFTH EDITION Attitudes: Attitudes Attitudes
Evaluative statements or judgments concerning objects, people, or events. Affective Component The emotional or feeling segment of an attitude. Cognitive component The opinion or belief segment of an attitude. Behavioral Component An intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something. The Theory of Cognitive Dissonance: The Theory of Cognitive Dissonance Desire to reduce dissonance
Importance of elements creating dissonance
Degree of individual influence over elements
Rewards involved in dissonance Cognitive Dissonance
Any incompatibility between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes. Measuring the A-B Relationship: Measuring the A-B Relationship Recent research indicates that attitudes (A) significantly predict behaviors (B) when moderating variables are taken into account. Moderating Variables
Importance of the attitude
Specificity of the attitude
Accessibility of the attitude
Social pressures on the individual
Direct experience with the attitude Self-Perception Theory: Self-Perception Theory Attitudes are used after the fact to make sense out of an action that has already occurred. Types of Attitudes: Types of Attitudes Job Involvement Identifying with the job, actively participating in it, and considering performance important to self-worth. Organizational Commitment Identifying with a particular organization and its goals, and wishing to maintain membership in the organization. Job Satisfaction A collection of positive and/or negative feelings that an individual holds toward his or her job. Types of Attitudes: Types of Attitudes Employee Engagement
An individual’s involvement with, satisfaction with, and enthusiasm for the organization. Perceived Organizational Support (POS)
Degree to which employees feel the organization cares about their well-being. An Application: Attitude Surveys: An Application: Attitude Surveys Attitude Surveys
Eliciting responses from employees through questionnaires about how they feel about their jobs, work groups, supervisors, and the organization. Sample Attitude Survey: Sample Attitude Survey Attitudes and Workforce Diversity: Attitudes and Workforce Diversity Training activities that can reshape employee attitudes concerning diversity:
Participating in diversity training that provides for self-evaluation and group discussions.
Volunteer work in community and social serve centers with individuals of diverse backgrounds.
Exploring print and visual media that recount and portray diversity issues. Job Satisfaction: Job Satisfaction Measuring Job Satisfaction
Single global rating
How Satisfied Are People in Their Jobs?
Job satisfaction declined to 50.4% in 2002
Decline attributed to:
Pressures to increase productivity and meet tighter deadlines
Less control over work How Employees Can Express Dissatisfaction: How Employees Can Express Dissatisfaction Exit
Behavior directed toward leaving the organization. Voice
Active and constructive attempts to improve conditions. Neglect
Allowing conditions to worsen. Loyalty
Passively waiting for conditions to improve. Responses to Job Dissatisfaction: Responses to Job Dissatisfaction E X H I B I T 3–5 Source: C. Rusbult and D. Lowery, “When Bureaucrats Get the Blues,” Journal of Applied Social Psychology. 15, no. 1, 1985:83. Reprinted with permission. The Effect of Job Satisfaction on Employee Performance: The Effect of Job Satisfaction on Employee Performance Satisfaction and Productivity
Satisfied workers aren’t necessarily more productive.
Worker productivity is higher in organizations with more satisfied workers.
Satisfaction and Absenteeism
Satisfied employees have fewer avoidable absences.
Satisfaction and Turnover
Satisfied employees are less likely to quit.
Organizations take actions to retain high performers and to weed out lower performers. Job Satisfaction and OCB: Job Satisfaction and OCB Satisfaction and Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB)
Satisfied employees who feel fairly treated by and are trusting of the organization are more willing to engage in behaviors that go beyond the normal expectations of their job. Job Satisfaction and Customer Satisfaction: Job Satisfaction and Customer Satisfaction Satisfied employees increase customer satisfaction because:
They are more friendly, upbeat, and responsive.
They are less likely to turnover which helps build long-term customer relationships.
They are experienced.
Dissatisfied customers increase employee job dissatisfaction.