E 5B1 5D T Volcanoes

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Venus Mercury Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto Sun Barbara Stonewall, M.Ed. December 19, 2002

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“Fires that shook me once, but now to silent ashes fall'n away. Cold upon the dead volcano sleeps the gleam of dying day.” Tennyson

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Volcano Types: Shield Cone: Circular base, gentle slopes, basaltic, non-explosive. Cinder-cone: Small, steep, ejected material returns. Composite Cone: Large, explosive, fragments plus lava.

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Venus Mercury Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto Sun Past Volcanism on Mercury Abundance of surface craters No craters more that 50 km in diameter Evidence of lava-filled craters Volcanic rock samples predate Earth Rock samples dated @ >3000 million years ago

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Venus Mercury Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Sun Pluto Volcanic Activity on Venus 80% of the planet’s surface shows volcanic activity Several million volcanoes have been detected Venus is (debatably) volcanically extinct Many volcanoes are several hundred km across, and thousands of km high

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NASA Photo: A Volcano on Venus Largest volcanoes are shield-cone type No plate tectonics, which is part of how Earth cools Unconfirmed cooling theories: hot spot volcanism and/or bubbling, blistering surface volcanoes

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Venus Mercury Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Sun Pluto Terrestrial Volcanism is a separate topic not covered here; please refer to your textbook, the internet, or other relevant Earth-science resources.

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Venus Mercury Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Sun Pluto Martian Volcanoes Mars is almost volcanically extinct; this is debatable Martian volcanoes are probably all shield-cone types Mars has at least 3 volcanoes larger than those on Earth Mars has the largest volcano in the solar system: Olympus Mons

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Olympus Mons: A Shield Volcano on Mars Earth’s Largest Volcano: Mauna Loa 9 km high 120 km across Olympus Mons: 24 km high 550 km across x 3 = Mars ≈ 1/2 of Earth’s diameter Olympus Mons ≈ 3 times the size of Earth’s largest Volcano Huge size disparity due to Mars’ stationary crust, hence enormous hot-spots that build-up in stationary positions

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Venus Mercury Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Sun Pluto Volcanoes on Io: A moon of Jupiter The most volcanically active place in the solar system At least 8 active volcanoes have been mapped Plumes extend ≈ 280 km above Io’s surface Molten rock spews out faster than the speed of sound The size of Io is ≈ Earth’s moon Jupiter ≈ 318 times more massive than Earth itself Io and Earth’s moon ≈ same orbit, but Io has greater gravitational stress, causing huge amounts of internal heat

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Io: One of Jupiter’s Moons

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Io: Images from Galileo’s Mission (“Raw” images) (Digitally remastered)

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Io Lesson Plans & Activities: presented by ThursdaysClassroom.com August 3, 2001 Thursday's Classroom Corner These stories and lessons are based on the Science@NASA article "Another Daring Adventure for Galileo" KIDS’ STORIES: These far-out discussion questions are as hot as the volcanoes on Io. [lesson plan] [questions] Me-O, My-O, Io!: Students will use the words in the kid's stories and the Volcano Glossary to create their own volcanic verse. Sample poems include Haiku, limerick and simple rhyming forms. [lesson plan] [activity sheet] [sample poems] [glossary] Volcano Jeopardy: Divide your class into competing teams and play this fun game designed to familiarize students with volcanoes all over the Solar System. [lesson plan] [Jeopardy Questions] [Volcanoes Around the Solar System] Io Pizza Party: Some scientists think Io looks like a gigantic pepperoni & olive pizza. Students can decide for themselves by making their own Io Pizza Pie and comparing their work to pictures of Io. [lesson plan] [Io picture] Paper Clip Quicky: In this quick and easy lesson, students use paper clips to understand how Io got so hot on the inside. [lesson plan]

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Venus Mercury Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Sun Pluto Volcanoes on Other Moons of Jupiter: Europa and Ganymede have “Cryovolcanism!”

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Venus Mercury Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Sun Pluto Triton: The seventh (and largest) of Neptune’s Moons also features “Ice Volcanoes!”

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Triton is the only large moon with a retrograde orbit Temperature equals Pluto’s ≈ -235ºC Surface contains only a few craters The surface is young; older features destroyed Ice Volcanoes! Liquid Nitrogen??

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Saturn Uranus Neptune Sun Pluto Venus Mercury Earth Mars Jupiter ? Scientists continue to search for evidence of extraterrestrial volcanism…… ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

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Websites Used for Research can be found at: www.deafscience.net under the “Astronomy” category And…on your Earth Science Class Web you can download the document “E.T. Websites.”

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