S 130CA

Views:
 
Category: Entertainment
     
 

Presentation Description

No description available.

Comments

Presentation Transcript

United States Forest Service Fire & Aviation Management: 

United States Forest Service Fire & Aviation Management Safety First as a Core Value

Firefighter Training, S-130: 

Firefighter Training, S-130 Introduction to Fire fighting

Course Objectives: 

Course Objectives Construct fire line to required standards, using various methods for construction. Strengthen, reinforce and use holding actions on the fire line. Extinguish the fire with or without the use of water. Locate yourself and the fire on a map

Objectives (continued): 

Objectives (continued) Assess and report fire situation data (written or oral) by radio and/or messenger. Complete assigned tasks in a safe and efficient manner. Given and assignment in a wildfire environment, describe factors in that environment which could impact safety.

Safety: 

Safety Safety is defined as freedom from exposure to danger.

Fire fighters’ Requirements: 

Fire fighters’ Requirements Knowledge and skill in methods of avoiding accidents, injury and exposure to danger. An ability and attitude that grows with experience and training. Fire fighting personnel must use the knowledge and skills gained through training and experience in all situations.

Safety Rules : 

Safety Rules LCES - Lookouts, Communications, Escape Routes and Safety Zones The 18 Situations that Shout Watch Out The Ten Standard Fire Orders

Fire Orders: 

Fire Orders Fight fire aggressively but provide for safety first Initiate all actions based on current and expected fire behavior Recognize current weather conditions and obtain weather forecasts Ensure instructions are given and understood Obtain current information on fire status Remain in communication with crew members, your supervisor and adjoining forces Determine safety zones and escape routes Establish lookouts in potentially hazardous situations Retain control at all times Stay alert, keep calm, think clearly and act decisively

Downhill Line Construction Checklist: 

Downhill Line Construction Checklist Crew supervisor(s) and fireline overhead discuss assignments prior to committing crew(s) Decision is made after proposed fireline has been scouted by supervisor(s) of involved crew. LCES will be coordinated for all personnel involved Crew supervisor(s) in direct contact with lookout who can see the fire. Communication established between crews top to bottom. Rapid access to safety(s) in case fire crosses below crew(s) Use direct attack whenever possible; if not possible, the fireline should be completed between anchor points before being fired out. Fireline will not lie in or adjacent to a chute or chimney. Starting point for crew(s) building fireline down from the top is anchored. Bottom of fire will be monitored; if the potential exists for the fire to spread, action will be taken to secure the fire edge. Downhill fireline construction is a hazardous practice when done in steep terrain, fast-burning fuels or rapidly changing weather conditions. Downhill fireline should not be attempted unless there is no tactical alternative. The following requirements WILL BE MET when building downhill fireline.

Types of Hazards: 

Types of Hazards Subjective Hazards: are hazards that we have direct control over. Example: condition of equipment, the decision to turn your back. Objective Hazards: are hazards that we have no control over. Lightning Fire weakened timber Rolling rocks, logs Entrapment by fire

Environmental Hazards: 

Environmental Hazards Heat stress Hypothermia Darkness Carbon monoxide Dust

Biological Hazards: 

Biological Hazards Snakes Insects (bees, ticks, etc.) Animals (bears, moose, etc.) Plants (poison oak, ivy, cactus, etc.) Microorganisms (giardia) Viral infections (colds, influenza, etc.)

Equipment Hazards: 

Equipment Hazards Cuts (saws, tools, etc.) Burns from mufflers (pumps, saws, etc.) Noise (hearing impairment levels) Foreign objects thrown from moving parts Hand tools (pulaski, shovel, etc.) Dozers, tractors/plows, etc.)

Vehicle Hazards: 

Vehicle Hazards Operating around personnel Mechanical failure (I.e. brakes) Shifting cargo Unskilled/inattentive operator

Aircraft (rotor and fixed wing) Hazards: 

Aircraft (rotor and fixed wing) Hazards Retardant drops Bucket drops Sling loads Helicopter rotor wash breaking trees and snags (tops, branches, limbs, etc.) Transport of personnel

Fire Environment Hazards: 

Fire Environment Hazards The actual fire (running, smoldering, creeping) Burns Smoke Unexpected or erratic winds Darkness Falling snags

Human Related Hazards: 

Human Related Hazards Attitude (poor morale, fear, machismo etc.) Physical condition Experience level Training level Fatigue Critical stress Hazardous Materials

Base/Camp Related Hazards: 

Base/Camp Related Hazards Sleeping areas Sanitation Maintaining personal hygiene Food

Hazards Trees and Snags: 

Hazards Trees and Snags Living Dying (still alive, but with little or no chance of recovery) Dead (snags)

Hazard Trees - Living trees: 

Hazard Trees - Living trees Felling operations Aircraft (retardant and bucket drops) Strong winds Mechanized equipment Cat faces and fire scars Branches, limbs and tops (widow makers) Heavy lean Shallow or exposed roots

Hazard Trees - Dying trees: 

Hazard Trees - Dying trees Same hazards listed above, but to a greater degree Mechanical defect, (poor root system because of soils) Evidence of insect activity, disease and decay

Hazard Trees - Snags: 

Hazard Trees - Snags Same hazards as living and dying trees, but to a much greater degree Snags may fall without warning or external disturbance Snags that are burned out at the base or anywhere on the trunk or branches are extremely dangerous!

Safety Procedures: 

Safety Procedures Any hazard or potential hazard should be reported to your immediate supervisor. In the area is unsafe to work in or around, it should be flagged so others are aware of any dangers. There are two options for working in an unsafe area.

Working in Unsafe Areas: 

Working in Unsafe Areas Do not enter the area until it is safe Make the area safe to work in. Fall snags and hazard trees Identify the hazard Provide a safe area Communicate hazards to supervisor and adjoining forces Provided you have received approval from your supervisor and you are qualified.

Firefighter Preparedness: 

Firefighter Preparedness Personal gear Care and maintenance of personal gear Accountability Cleanliness and organization

Weight Limits: 

Weight Limits

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE): 

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Hard hat Eye protection Hearing protection Gloves Flame resistant clothing - Nomex Leather lace up work boots, 8 inch high Socks

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE): 

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Fire shelters are required Canteens are for drinking water Headlamps

Personal Items: 

Personal Items Eyeglasses Jacket or Coat, Sweatshirt Cotton under ware Socks good quality Personal hygienic gear foot powder tooth brush and paste Rain gear

Care and Maintenance: 

Care and Maintenance Hard Hat Keep headband and straps clean Do not modify Do not clean plastic hard hats with solvents. Use soap and water.

Care and Maintenance: 

Care and Maintenance Nomex fire resistant clothing Keep clean Nomex loses its fire retardant capabilities if foreign substances are on or in the fibers. Wash in soap and water separate from other clothing. Replace clothing if ripped or torn.

Care and Maintenance: 

Care and Maintenance Boots 8 inch high tops are required. Keep clean and apply boot grease or manufacturer’s recommended product. Insure boots are in good repair. Including all stitching and soles are in good condition.

Organization Objectives: 

Organization Objectives Explain different types of crew organization used in initial attack and extended attack. Given a diagram of the Incident Command System, name two positions above the crew boss level. Given examples of cultural differences in terms of food, standards of behavior, dress and customs, respect these differences.

Organization (Objectives): 

Organization (Objectives) Given agency social and cultural policies, develop a list of behaviors necessary for fire related situations. As part of an organized crew, develop a list of behaviors to follow while on fire assignments.

Problems associated with large wildfires: 

Problems associated with large wildfires Too many people were reporting to one supervisor Different emergency response structures Lack of any structure for coordinated planning between agencies Unclear lines of authority Terminology differences between agencies Unclear or unspecified incident objectives Inadequate and incompatible communication systems

The Incident Command System: 

The Incident Command System Span of control Standard use of terminology Consolidated use of action plans Integrated communications Predesignated incident facilities Comprehensive resource management

Incident Command System ICS: 

Incident Command System ICS

ICS Operations: 

ICS Operations

Fire Fighter Duties and Responsibilities : 

Fire Fighter Duties and Responsibilities Performs manual and semi-skilled labor. Ensures objectives and instructions are understood. Performs work in a safe manner. Maintains self in the physical condition required to perform the arduous duties of fire suppression.

Fire Fighter Duties and Responsibilities : 

Fire Fighter Duties and Responsibilities Keeps personal clothing and equipment in serviceable condition. Reports accidents or injuries to supervisor. Reports hazardous conditions to supervisor.

Types of Crews: 

Types of Crews Organized Type I and II crews must be 18-20 persons. Hand crews are usually used to construct fire line with cutting tools, scraping tools, smothering tools and chain saws. Hand crews are also used to assist in making hose lays.

Type I Crews: 

Type I Crews Interagency Hotshot/Hotshot Crews 18-20 person smoke jumper crew Are a national resource Funded by fire management and is primary job

Type II Crews: 

Type II Crews Snake River Valley (SRV) Southwest Firefighters (SWFF) Montana Indian Fire fighters (MIFF) Inmates Agency Regulars Alaskan Native Job Corps Emergency Hires (EFF)(CWN)(Blue card)

Engine Crews: 

Engine Crews

Helicopters: 

Helicopters

Cultural Differences: 

Cultural Differences Food Housing Dress Religion

Other social and ethnic considerations: 

Other social and ethnic considerations Language barriers may impede communications Rivalries may exist between groups May require separate facilities Inmates Males/females

Common Problems Associated With Various Fire Crews: 

Common Problems Associated With Various Fire Crews Safety practices and attitudes Lack of training and experience Off-shift showering etc. Tools and equipment left on the fire line Fatigue factors Crew Morale Security

Common Problems Associated With Various Fire Crews: 

Common Problems Associated With Various Fire Crews Alcohol and drugs Physical stamina of some members Need for close supervision High accident rates Inter-crew communications

Use of Tools and Equipment Objectives: 

Use of Tools and Equipment Objectives Given two hand tools, personal protective equipment and proper maintenance tools, check the condition of each item, perform field maintenance and identify those needing replacement

Use of Tools and Equipment Objectives: 

Use of Tools and Equipment Objectives Demonstrate the proper sharpening techniques for commonly used tools Given a description of three fire line jobs and a choice of tools, state which tool you would use for each job Demonstrate the proper methods of carrying and passing tools

Use of Tools and Equipment Objectives: 

Use of Tools and Equipment Objectives Demonstrate the proper spacing when using hand tools Demonstrate the proper placement, near a fire line, of one or more tools when not in use

Cutting Tools-Pulaski: 

Cutting Tools-Pulaski Pulaski terminology/parts Head Cutting edge Grubbing edge Eye Handle Shoulder Butt

Cutting Tools-Pulaski: 

Cutting Tools-Pulaski Wedges Metal Wood Pulaski use Use cutting edge as an ax Use grubbing edge Digging roots Trenching

Cutting Tools-Pulaski: 

Cutting Tools-Pulaski Grip and Stance Hold securely Place feet apart on solid footing Pulaski sharpening Taper cutting edge 2 inches wide with an even bevel on each side Bevel grubbing edge 3/8 wide on a 45 degree angle on one side only

General Inspection - Cutting Tools: 

General Inspection - Cutting Tools Tool head Cracks Damaged cutting head Rust Safety guards Tool handle Smooth Cracks

General Inspection - Cutting Tools: 

General Inspection - Cutting Tools Tool handle Unbroken Aligned Secure With two metal wedges Head should not move at all when tested

General Safety - Cutting Tools: 

General Safety - Cutting Tools Maintain proper clearance 10 feet or more from fellow workers When walking and working Be careful of hazardous underbrush and canopy Know proper carrying procedures Balance point Downhill side

General Safety - Cutting Tools: 

General Safety - Cutting Tools Know proper carrying procedures Cutting edge away from body Inspect periodically Handle Head Secure attachment Cutting edges are sharp and filed correctly Keep your eyes on what you are cutting

General Safety - Cutting Tools: 

General Safety - Cutting Tools Wear safety glasses at all times when using tools Watch cutting angle so it will not cause ricochet Know how to pass persons when walking Never run carrying hand tools Signal calling “Coming Through” Wait to be given the right-of-way

General Safety - Cutting Tools: 

General Safety - Cutting Tools When transferring tools, always pass them handle first The person receiving the tool needs to say “I got it” before the person giving up the tools lets it go When tools are not in use designate a safe area away from foot traffic Lay on the ground, cover with a shovel Lean tool against an object in a safe area so it will stand upright

General Safety - Cutting Tools: 

General Safety - Cutting Tools Do not run with hand tools

General Safety - Cutting Tools Sharpening: 

General Safety - Cutting Tools Sharpening Secure tools Maintain clearance around working area Never leave an untended tool Always use a file handle and guard Always wear gloves and a long sleeve shirt Assure file is in good condition A worn file will slip

General Safety - Cutting Tools Sharpening: 

General Safety - Cutting Tools Sharpening Use palm of hand against the file’s end Do not allow fingers to wrap around Do not run your fingers along the length of the blade when checking for sharpness Make a visual inspection only Do not allow tool to remain in log, stump or vise if you leave the area

General Safety - Cutting Tools Storage: 

General Safety - Cutting Tools Storage Safety guards Boxes Old hose Sheaths Vehicles Secure safety guards properly Placed in proper tool compartment Tools should never be transported in the same compartment as passengers

General Safety - Cutting Tools Storage: 

General Safety - Cutting Tools Storage Bundle tools for helicopter transport Five tools per bundle maximum Edges should be fiber taped and guarded Tools should be securely fastened by helicopter personal in a compartment other than the passenger compartment Tools should never be stored under passenger seats

Tool Use and Equipment Scraping Tools (Objectives): 

Tool Use and Equipment Scraping Tools (Objectives) Given two hand tools and personal protective equipment, check the condition of each item, identify those that need replacement and perform field maintenance Demonstrate the proper sharpening techniques for commonly used tools Given a description of three fire line jobs and a choice of three tools State which tools you would use for each job

Tool Use and Equipment Scraping Tools (Objectives): 

Tool Use and Equipment Scraping Tools (Objectives) Demonstrate the proper method of carrying and passing tools Demonstrate the proper spacing when using hand tools Demonstrate the proper placement near fire line of one or more tools not in use

Tool Use and Equipment Scraping Tools - Shovel: 

Tool Use and Equipment Scraping Tools - Shovel Shovel Terminology Blade Cutting edge Handle Heel Rivets Shank Face Point

Tool Use and Equipment Scraping Tools - Shovel: 

Tool Use and Equipment Scraping Tools - Shovel Shovel Use Digging Scraping Smothering Beating Cutting light fuels Throwing dirt

Tool Use and Equipment Scraping Tools - Shovel: 

Tool Use and Equipment Scraping Tools - Shovel Shovel Grip and Stance Hold securely Place feet apart on solid footing When scraping use your knee for bracing your arm When throwing dirt use the over-the-shoulder method or side swing

Tool Use and Equipment Scraping Tools - Shovel: 

Tool Use and Equipment Scraping Tools - Shovel Shovel Care and Maintenance Inspect tool head Cracks Damaged cutting edge Rust Safety guards Inspect tool handle Smooth Aligned Secure

Tool Use and Equipment Scraping Tools - Shovel: 

Tool Use and Equipment Scraping Tools - Shovel Sharpening procedures Sharpen edge 2 inches from the heel Sharpen to a point

Tool Use and Equipment Scraping Tools - McLeod: 

Tool Use and Equipment Scraping Tools - McLeod McLeod Terminology/parts Head Cutting edge Rake Rivet Shank Handle

Tool Use and Equipment Scraping Tools - McLeod: 

Tool Use and Equipment Scraping Tools - McLeod McLeod - Grip and Stance Keep one hand near the shank Place feet apart on solid footing Use cutting and pulling motion with downward pressure on handle Scrape Use knee for support

Tool Use and Equipment Scraping Tools - McLeod: 

Tool Use and Equipment Scraping Tools - McLeod McLeod - Care and Maintenance Inspection Tool head Cracks Damaged cutting edge Rust Safety guards Tool handle Smooth Aligned Secure

Tool Use and Equipment Scraping Tools - McLeod: 

Tool Use and Equipment Scraping Tools - McLeod McLeod - Sharpening procedures Keep 45 degree cutting edge bevel on outside face Keep cutting edge straight and square

Tool Use and Equipment Scraping Tools - Combi Tool: 

Tool Use and Equipment Scraping Tools - Combi Tool Combi tool terminology/parts Head Pick/grub hoe Blade Hinge/hinge bolt Friction nut Rivet Shank Handle Cutting edge

Tool Use and Equipment Scraping Tools - Combi Tool: 

Tool Use and Equipment Scraping Tools - Combi Tool Place feet apart on solid footing Keep a fire grip When scraping Use your knee for bracing your arm

Tool Use and Equipment Scraping Tools - Combi Tool: 

Tool Use and Equipment Scraping Tools - Combi Tool Care and Maintenance - Tool head Cracks Damaged cutting edge Damaged pick Rust Hinge/Hinge bolt Friction nut

Tool Use and Equipment Scraping Tools - Combi Tool: 

Tool Use and Equipment Scraping Tools - Combi Tool Care and Maintenance - Tool Handle Smooth Aligned Secure

Tool Use and Equipment Scraping Tools - Combi Tool: 

Tool Use and Equipment Scraping Tools - Combi Tool Sharpening Stabilize the tool by sticking the pick end in the ground Sharpen the blade at a 45 degree angle The pick is also sharpened at a 45 degree angle

General Safety - Scraping Tools: 

General Safety - Scraping Tools Maintain proper clearance (10 feet or more if necessary) when either working or walking Be cautious when working in hazardous underbrush and canopy Follow proper carrying procedures Balance Carry tool on downhill side Cutting edge away from body

General Safety - Scraping Tools: 

General Safety - Scraping Tools Do not run with hand tools Follow proper passing procedures Give proper signals for moving around other crew members “coming through” Wait to be given the right-of-way In transferring tools always pass the handle first

General Safety - Scraping Tools: 

General Safety - Scraping Tools Sharpening Immobilize tool Be sure file is in good condition While filing use the palm of the hand on the end of the file Make a visual inspection for sharpness only Be aware of people and objects around you Never leave a tool unattended Always use gloves, file handle and file

General Safety - Scraping Tools: 

General Safety - Scraping Tools Storage Placed in proper tool compartment Never in the same compartment as passengers Safety guards properly placed

General Safety - Scraping Tools: 

General Safety - Scraping Tools Storage Store tools a safe distance from the fire line and traffic Keep tools visible to crew members and others Flag areas where tools are kept Keep sharp cutting edges near the ground Cover tool heads with sheaths or by some other protection Fiber tape cutting edges when not in use

Tool Use and Equipment - Backpack Pump: 

Tool Use and Equipment - Backpack Pump Terminology/parts Five gallon collapsible tank Shoulder straps w/clips Trombone clip Filler cap Flexible hose Suction check valve

Tool Use and Equipment - Backpack Pump: 

Tool Use and Equipment - Backpack Pump Trombone Pump Combination nozzle and washer Handle Adjusting nut Barrel

Tool Use and Equipment - Backpack Pump: 

Tool Use and Equipment - Backpack Pump Backpack pump use Maintain proper body position for carrying on your back Lift with your legs and keep your back straight Maintain good footing and stance Work trombone in and out (priming) Place finger over tip to produce a spray or change nozzle

Tool Use and Equipment - Backpack Pump: 

Tool Use and Equipment - Backpack Pump Backpack pump use Direct streams in a swinging motion parallel to fire perimeter and at base of flame Refill from a water source (use clean water, muddy water will plug water passages)

Tool Use and Equipment - Backpack Pump: 

Tool Use and Equipment - Backpack Pump Backpack pump care and maintenance Check for water in tank Check outlet in bottom for blockage Disconnect hose from tank and pump assembly and check for blockage inside hose Check to ensure that ball in check valve is not stuck in the open or closed position

Tool Use and Equipment - Backpack Pump: 

Tool Use and Equipment - Backpack Pump Backpack pump care and maintenance Never put oil or grease on any nozzles or backpack pump. Use powdered graphite or non-oil based lubricant. Oil and grease will collect dirt and damage unit.

Tool Use and Equipment - Backpack Pump: 

Tool Use and Equipment - Backpack Pump Backpack pump Safety Do not climb over obstacles while wearing backpack pump Do not run with backpack pump Do not use anything but water in a backpack pump Adjust carrying straps Lift properly When full a 5-gallon backpack pump weights 45 pounds

Tools and Equipment - Headlamp Terminology/parts: 

Tools and Equipment - Headlamp Terminology/parts Batteries, dry cell Battery case Elastic adjustable head strap Adjustable lens Two bulbs Lamp Toggle switch Battery case terminals Contact prongs

Tools and Equipment - Headlamp Headlamp Use: 

Tools and Equipment - Headlamp Headlamp Use Batteries, 4 size AA Insert batteries in case Have 2 bulbs 2.2 VO 25 amp Replace bulbs Mount headlamp on helmet and place elastic strap under helmet clips Discard all used batteries in proper receptacle after each operational period

Tools and Equipment Headlamp Care and Maintenance: 

Tools and Equipment Headlamp Care and Maintenance Check batteries and bulb Ensure cardboard is removed from between batteries and contacts Keep electrical contact prongs on inside of case bent slightly outward Check to see that all contacts are clean and free of corrosion and they are tightly screwed on

Tools and Equipment Headlamp Care and Maintenance: 

Tools and Equipment Headlamp Care and Maintenance If batteries are loose and move around inside the case, use paper as shims and place around battery case Check switch for proper operation Keep lens clean

Tools and Equipment Headlamp Care and Maintenance: 

Tools and Equipment Headlamp Care and Maintenance Troubleshooting Batteries inserted in wrong order or worn out Burned out bulb Dirty terminals Loose batteries in case Faulty toggle switch Cardboard between batteries and electrical contacts

Tools and Equipment Headlamp Care and Maintenance: 

Tools and Equipment Headlamp Care and Maintenance Replace batteries every operational shift Carry replacement batteries Use fresh batteries Place used batteries in proper receptacle Do not dispose of batteries on the fire line For night operations have light beam directed toward your work or activity

Tools and Equipment Headlamp Care and Maintenance: 

Tools and Equipment Headlamp Care and Maintenance Place cardboard between batteries and contacts to prevent accidental drain of electricity from batteries

Transportation of Personnel and Tools: 

Transportation of Personnel and Tools Objectives Develop a list of three safety procedures to follow when traveling by each of the following Vehicle Boat Helicopter Fixed-wing aircraft On foot

Transportation of Personnel and Tools: 

Transportation of Personnel and Tools Vehicle Travel Provide one person to control loading Use steps or safety devices Provide lights at night Keep tools boxed Do not overload When traveling stay off running boards, bumpers and steps.

Transportation of Personnel and Tools: 

Transportation of Personnel and Tools Vehicle travel Avoid horseplay Do not distract the driver Keep arms and legs inside Do not throw anything off vehicle Do not smoke Wear seat belts

Transportation of Personnel and Tools: 

Transportation of Personnel and Tools Vehicle unloading Provide one person to control unloading Stay seated until vehicle comes to a stop Move away from the vehicle with all your equipment Movement of equipment and tools is accomplished in an orderly manner

Transportation of Personnel and Tools: 

Transportation of Personnel and Tools Boat travel Wear life preservers Stay seated Do not stand Follow boat crew directions Do not overload Keep arms and legs inside Remain seated Remain still don’t rock the boat Boat unloading Wait for boat to be secured Be careful of footing surfaces may be slippery

Transportation of Personnel and Tools: 

Transportation of Personnel and Tools Boat travel Wear life preservers Stay seated Do not stand Follow boat crew directions Do not overload Keep arms and legs inside Remain seated Remain still don’t rock the boat Boat unloading Wait for boat to be secured Be careful of footing surfaces may be slippery

Transportation of Personnel and Tools: 

Transportation of Personnel and Tools Helicopter Loading Follow instructions of personal responsible for loading Approach helicopter only when directed by the pilot or person responsible for loading Never approach a helicopter from the rear Never approach from ground that is higher than the helicopter

Transportation of Personnel and Tools: 

Transportation of Personnel and Tools Helicopter Loading Fasten hardhat chin strap or hold hardhat firmly in your hand close to your body Walk in crouched position when underneath main rotor Do not run Tools will be loaded by qualified helitack personal Never throw anything from or near the helicopter

Transportation of Personnel and Tools: 

Transportation of Personnel and Tools Helicopter Loading Pack all gear securely and hold it firmly or tie it down Wear eye protection when around helicopters Follow directions of helitack personnel Fasten seat belt Have person responsible for loading or unloading open and close door

Transportation of Personnel and Tools: 

Transportation of Personnel and Tools Helicopter riding Do not smoke or chew tobacco Stay clear of controls Hold gear firmly Never throw anything out of a helicopter Fasten hard hat chin strap or hold hard hat in arm or hand Do not distract pilot

Transportation of Personnel and Tools: 

Transportation of Personnel and Tools Helicopter riding Stay seated Do not unfasten seat belt until directed by helitack personnel Keep hands off controls, doors and windows.

Transportation of Personnel and Tools: 

Transportation of Personnel and Tools Helicopter unloading Wait for signal from pilot Crouch and exit to the front or side as directed by helitack personnel Never go uphill away from the helicopter Use red handles only for emergencies These handles jettison the doors

Transportation of Personnel and Tools Fixed wing aircraft travel: 

Transportation of Personnel and Tools Fixed wing aircraft travel Follow the pilot’s instructions The pilot is in command Never open a door while in flight Do not distract the pilot during take-off or landing No smoking Do not slam door shut Fasten seat belts

Transportation of Personnel and Tools Emergency Landing Procedures: 

Transportation of Personnel and Tools Emergency Landing Procedures Position yourself in the correct crash position depending on which seat you are sitting in. Front facing Rear facing With or without shoulder harness

Transportation of Personnel and Tools Foot Travel: 

Transportation of Personnel and Tools Foot Travel Supervisor will set the pace and select the route of the crew Crew members must stay together. If you are separated, stay on the fire line. Maintain proper spacing between crew members

Transportation of Personnel and Tools Hazards Foot Travel: 

Transportation of Personnel and Tools Hazards Foot Travel Darkness hampers your ability to recognize many objects in time to avoid them Hand tools Falling trees, tree tops hanging loose debris from saws or tractors, fire or disease weakened trees Leaning trees Snags

Transportation of Personnel and Tools Hazards Foot Travel: 

Transportation of Personnel and Tools Hazards Foot Travel Whipping branches Rolling rock or logs Vehicles, tractors and ATV’s Unstable footing Stream or canal crossings Avoid high log crossing Watch the log not the water In swift current face the stream, remove boots, loosen pack

Transportation of Personnel and Tools Hazards Foot Travel: 

Transportation of Personnel and Tools Hazards Foot Travel Stump holes Avoid root holes from upended trees Watch out for burned stumps that may be hidden under ash layer Beware of white ash that may indicate stump hole (test with stick or hand tool) Locate hazards (poisonous insects, snakes or plants; polluted water

Firing Devices Objectives: 

Firing Devices Objectives Describe two hazards to operators when using a fusee Given a fusee demonstrate or simulate how to ignite, use and extinguish

Firing Devices Fusee Terminology : 

Firing Devices Fusee Terminology Safety cap Fusee Wrapper (waxed) Handle (ferrule) Contents (phosphorous) Striker (igniter)

Firing Devices Fusee Features : 

Firing Devices Fusee Features Fusee has a protected ignition surface Fusee is approximately 10 to 18 inches long Fusee burns for 15 to 30 minutes Temperature of flame is approximately 1400 degrees fahrenheit

Firing Devices Fusee Use : 

Firing Devices Fusee Use Grip fusee by handle Remove striker cap by taped end Scratch striker against ignition surface by striking down and away from body. Turn your head to the side when striking Stand upwind of fusee to avoid inhaling fumes

Firing Devices Fusee Use : 

Firing Devices Fusee Use When using, carry fusee in the downward position Devise wooden extension for handle (improvise) or place several fusees together end-to-end Keep fusee on the burn side of the fire line To extinguish, strike burning end sharply on the ground or extinguish the fusee in mineral soil Watch out for burning slag

Firing Devices Fusee Care and Maintenance : 

Firing Devices Fusee Care and Maintenance Dispose of punctured fusees Dispose of fusees that are damaged or the wrapper is worn Keep cap in place, Do not lose or allow to become loose Keep fusee clean, dry and away from water and oil Keep fusee away from heat

Firing Devices Fusee Safety : 

Firing Devices Fusee Safety Keep lit fusee away from body and clothing Insure sleeves are rolled down Do not stare at bright flame Keep lit fusee away from anything you do not want to burn Be extra careful, phosphorous can cause severe burns

Firing Devices Fusee Safety : 

Firing Devices Fusee Safety Do not point fusee at anyone always point it downward and away from your body Do not remove cap until ready to use Avoid breathing fumes and vapors Wear eye protection and gloves Turn your head to the side when striking

Firing Devices Drip Torch Objectives : 

Firing Devices Drip Torch Objectives Describe four hazards to operators when using a drip torch State proper fuel mixture Prepare a drip torch for use and ignite Demonstrate the safe use of the drip torch Extinguish a drip torch and prepare it for storage

Firing Devices Drip Torch Terminology : 

Firing Devices Drip Torch Terminology Drip Torch (orchard torch) Fuel tank with handle Tank vent with breather valve Spout and nozzle Wick and wick holder Tank cover and gasket

Firing Devices Drip Torch Terminology : 

Firing Devices Drip Torch Terminology Tank lock ring (O-ring) Fuel Torch holder and hold-down spring Personal protective equipment

Firing Devices Drip Torch Fuel Mixture : 

Firing Devices Drip Torch Fuel Mixture Mix 2 parts diesel fuel to 1 part solvent Mix 2 parts crankcase oil to 1 part gasoline Mix 3 parts diesel fuel to 1 part gasoline Fill to one-fourth from the top to allow for expansion

Firing Devices Drip Torch Use : 

Firing Devices Drip Torch Use Put on PPE Shake torch to mix fuel Set torch in cleared area Unscrew lock ring Remove and secure flow plug Remove spout from fuel tank Inspect rubber gasket and fuel supply

Firing Devices Drip Torch Use : 

Firing Devices Drip Torch Use Set spout upright on torch in space provided, with wick facing opposite and away from handle Screw lock ring on fuel tank tightly Open air vent 3/4 of the way Wipe off spilled fuel

Firing Devices Drip Torch Use - Lighting : 

Firing Devices Drip Torch Use - Lighting Spread fuel on a small amount of ground litter in a cleared area where the torch will be used Light torch from ground fire Carry torch in upright position until ready to use Tilt torch downward when using Maybe used in a swinging parallel to the direction of travel

Firing Devices Drip Torch Use - Lighting : 

Firing Devices Drip Torch Use - Lighting Be careful of where you spread fire Each droplet of fuel should ignite if fuel is mixed properly

Firing Devices Drip Torch Use - Storage : 

Firing Devices Drip Torch Use - Storage Extinguish or let wick burn dry, set upright and let cool Remove lock ring Reverse spout and put inside tank Replace lock ring securely Replace flow plug Close air breather valve

Firing Devices Drip Torch Use - Care and Maintenance : 

Firing Devices Drip Torch Use - Care and Maintenance Check tank for dents, leaks and damaged threads Check spout, wick, wick holder and flow plug Check gaskets Open air vent

Firing Devices Drip Torch Use - Safety : 

Firing Devices Drip Torch Use - Safety Do not exceed the gasoline mixture Too much gasoline may cause the torch to explode Keep torch away from body and clothing When using torch, burn from the top of the hill downward Keep fuel flowing so wick does not burn out

Firing Devices Drip Torch Use - Safety : 

Firing Devices Drip Torch Use - Safety Extinguish torch when not in use Do not insert spout and wick into fuel can until they are cool Carry torch by handle only Always wear PPE Do not open or fill drip torch near open flames, hot embers, sparks or while smoking

Firing Devices Drip Torch Use - Safety : 

Firing Devices Drip Torch Use - Safety Do not breathe vapors Fuel mixtures are considered hazardous materials follow DOT guidelines Carry on downhill side Have escape routes planned when using torch Wear gloves and sleeves are to be rolled down

Water Use Objectives: 

Water Use Objectives Correctly identify the water use hand signals Correctly identify common hose fittings Identify diameter hose and thread types Couple and uncouple hose and fittings Describe four hose lays Describe four hazards to hose lays

Water Use Objectives: 

Water Use Objectives Describe three protective measures for hose and fittings when in use or being transported Describe a locally used hose lay method Retrieve deployed hose using two methods (watermelon roll, fighters’ carry, figure 8, etc.)

Water Use Objectives: 

Water Use Objectives Given hose and points “a” and “b”in the field, deploy the hose between the points Use a hose clamp and /or field-expedient method to restrict the flow in a charged line Describe a fire situation when the straight and fog spray nozzle water streams would be used Demonstrate each of the nozzle settings listed above

Water Use Fittings and Connections: 

Water Use Fittings and Connections Pressure relief valve Check and bleeder valve Adapters Increase-r Reducer Couplings Caps and plugs

Water Use Fittings and Connections: 

Water Use Fittings and Connections Washer and gaskets In-Line-Tee (with or without shutoff) Wye (with or without shutoff) In-line shut-off (Gizmo) Nozzles

Water Use Fittings and Connections: 

Water Use Fittings and Connections Hose garden high pressure Cotton-Synthetic Jacket, Rubber Lined (CSJRL) Linen or Unlined Suction

Water Use Fittings and Connections: 

Water Use Fittings and Connections Thread types Garden hose (GHT) National Pipe Straight Hose (NPSH) National Hose (NH)

Water Use Fittings and Connections: 

Water Use Fittings and Connections Hose packs on reels in baskets in Packs

Water Use Fittings and Connections: 

Water Use Fittings and Connections Accessories Gravity sock Spanner wrench Hose Clamp Mop-up kits

Water Use Fittings and Connections: 

Water Use Fittings and Connections Safety Equipment Ear Plugs Eye Protection

Water Use Unrolling Hose: 

Water Use Unrolling Hose Explain how hose is stored and shipped locally (with donut roll etc. male end should be protected inside the roll) Remove ties (string, rubber bands etc.) Explain what is done with these items. Unroll so that female end always points toward the water source and the male end points toward the fire

Water Use Unrolling Hose: 

Water Use Unrolling Hose Restricting the water flow If nozzle is used, turn it off Place hose clamp or crimp hose 18 inches from the coupling After hose is clamped off open nozzle to relieve pressure

Water Use Hose Lays: 

Water Use Hose Lays Simple hose lays Progressive hose lays

Water Use Hand Signals: 

Water Use Hand Signals Fire line Handbook appendix 4

Water Use Water Patterns: 

Water Use Water Patterns Straight stream Too hot to get too close The fire is confined to a small area A lot of pressure is needed to reach any distance Targets cannot be reached with fog

Water Use Water Patterns: 

Water Use Water Patterns Fog Needed for close work Fire covers a larger area A smaller volume of water is required to put the fire out Fog patterns may be used when hot spotting, building wet line, direct attack and mop-up Fog patterns provides the most personal protection

Water Use Water Applications: 

Water Use Water Applications If fire is hot use straight steam to knock the flames down (if fog/spray will not work) Direct the fog spray parallel to the edge at the base of the flames Once on the edge continue with a fog pattern Be sure fire is knocked down well before going further

Water Use Water Applications: 

Water Use Water Applications Watch the extinguished edge and behind in case of flare-ups Follow up wet line with hand line as soon as possible, especially in heavy fuels Aim accurately and maintain water stream in a sweeping motion Apply water intermittently Conserves water Determines if more water is needed

Water Use Care of Hose, Fittings and Accessories: 

Water Use Care of Hose, Fittings and Accessories Protect exposed threads of hose and accessories Be sure female ends have correct gasket size Be sure water is drained from hose When retrieving hose use locally accepted method of rolling hose watermelon figure eight

Water Use Hazards to Hose and Accessories: 

Water Use Hazards to Hose and Accessories Fire damage Sharp rocks Vehicle damage in traffic areas Tools Hose reels

Water Use Examples of Defective Hose and Accessories: 

Water Use Examples of Defective Hose and Accessories Damaged threads Inoperative valves Holes in hose Other standards established by agency policy Defective items should be clearly marked to identify a defect or problem

Suppression Objectives: 

Suppression Objectives Name parts of a fire Describe three methods of attack Describe four kinds of fire control line Describe black line concept Describe three methods for breaking the fire triangle

Suppression Objectives: 

Suppression Objectives Describe five fire behavior terms Name four hazards to an existing control line when burning inside the fire line Describe the proper follow-up procedure for a tractor plow fire line for fire line personnel Describe two kinds of coordinated crew techniques used for fire line construction

Suppression Objectives: 

Suppression Objectives Describe safety procedures to follow when in an area where retardant/water drops are being made Describe five safety procedures to follow when working around dozers, tractor plows and engines

Suppression Objectives: 

Suppression Objectives Demonstrate the proper use of appropriate hand tools during fire suppression activities Demonstrate the construction of a cup trench on a steep slope

Suppression Introduction: 

Suppression Introduction

Suppression Parts of a Fire: 

Suppression Parts of a Fire Head Finger Flank Rear Perimeter Island Pocket

Suppression Parts of a Fire: 

Suppression Parts of a Fire Origin Anchor point Spot fires

Suppression Methods of Attack: 

Suppression Methods of Attack Direct attack Indirect attack Parallel attack

Suppression Types of Suppression Techniques: 

Suppression Types of Suppression Techniques Hot-spotting Cold-trailing Scratch-line Fireproofing fuels Burning out Backfire Bone-yard Bump Progressive Leap frog method

Suppression Black-line Concept: 

Suppression Black-line Concept The only safe line is a black line Fuels that remain between the main fire and the control line are burned out, or allowed to burn to the control line This method ensures that fuels and heat remain inside the control line and prevents the fire from making a run at the control line

Suppression Type of Fire Control Line: 

Suppression Type of Fire Control Line Constructed fire line Hand line Machine line Wet line Retardant line Detonation line

Suppression Type of Fire Control Line: 

Suppression Type of Fire Control Line Natural control line Cold fire edge Fuel break Streams, lakes, ponds, rock slides and areas of sparse fuels Previously constructed barriers Roads, canals, etc.

Suppression The Fire Triangle: 

Suppression The Fire Triangle Fuel - any combustible material Oxygen - in the air Heat - a source of ignition

Suppression Methods for Breaking the Fire Triangle: 

Suppression Methods for Breaking the Fire Triangle Fuel - Separate the fuel to prevent combustion or remove fuel during fire line construction Oxygen - Suffocate the fire with dirt or water to rob the fire of oxygen Heat - Cool the fire by applying water, dirt, retardant or a combination

Suppression Fire Line Construction Standards: 

Suppression Fire Line Construction Standards Fuel type Fuel moisture Continuity and arrangement Temperatures Increases in wind

Suppression Fire Line Construction Standards: 

Suppression Fire Line Construction Standards Fuel type Forest Desert Tundra Fuel moisture The lower the fuel moisture the greater the chances for combustion and fire spread

Suppression Fire Line Construction Standards: 

Suppression Fire Line Construction Standards Continuity and arrangement The closer and more continuous the fuels, both horizontally and vertically, the greater the chance for combustion and fire spread (heavy fuel loading, ladder fuels)

Suppression Fire Line Construction Standards: 

Suppression Fire Line Construction Standards Temperatures Will inversely effect the fuel moisture The higher the temperature the lower the fuel moisture As fires burn more intensely, more heat is produced and combustion and fire spread increases

Suppression Fire Line Construction Standards: 

Suppression Fire Line Construction Standards Wind Increases in wind will increase the amount of oxygen available, increasing the chances for combustion, spotting and fire spread

Suppression Fire Behavior Description: 

Suppression Fire Behavior Description Smoldering Creeping Running Spotting Crowning

Suppression Threats to Existing Control Lines: 

Suppression Threats to Existing Control Lines Spotting Rolling debris Creeping Radiant heat

Suppression Tractor Fire Line Procedures: 

Suppression Tractor Fire Line Procedures Clean-up Break-machine pile and berms Fireproof needed areas Prepare and burn out control line Limb up trees Snags that threaten control lines Mop-up interior Patrol control lines

Suppression Coordinated Crew Techniques: 

Suppression Coordinated Crew Techniques Progressive line construction Bump-up One-lick Wedge Reverse wedge Leap frog method

Suppression Retardant/Water Drop Safety Procedures Hazards: 

Suppression Retardant/Water Drop Safety Procedures Hazards Uprooting brush and small trees Breaking the tops or branches out of large trees Moving rocks and debris

Suppression Retardant/Water Drop Safety Procedures: 

Suppression Retardant/Water Drop Safety Procedures Communicate your presence (supervisor responsibility) Move out of the area At least 200 feet perpendicular to the drop zone Remain clear of large, old, snags, etc. Maintain a distance 1 1/2 times the height of the nearest tree Determine when drops are completed

Suppression Retardant/Water Drop Safety Procedures: 

Suppression Retardant/Water Drop Safety Procedures Move back into the area quickly to take advantage of retardant Remember that the area may be slick after retardant drops

Suppression Retardant/Water Drop Safety Procedures: 

Suppression Retardant/Water Drop Safety Procedures Lie down facing oncoming aircraft Helmet on with chinstrap, feet spread, goggles in place Hold hand tool at side Grab something solid Rock Tree Shrub

Suppression Retardant/Water Drop Safety Procedures: 

Suppression Retardant/Water Drop Safety Procedures After initial drop move out of the area until you have received assurance that no more drops are to be made in the area

Suppression Safety Procedures Used Around Fire line Equipment - Engines: 

Suppression Safety Procedures Used Around Fire line Equipment - Engines Be alert when engine is moving Be alert to hazards of a charged hose line Nozzle operators and personnel nearby must wear eye protection Be alert and on the lookout for rolling materials when working uphill or downhill of equipment

Suppression Safety Procedures Used Around Fire line Equipment - Engines: 

Suppression Safety Procedures Used Around Fire line Equipment - Engines Be alert to night operations Take extra precautions when visibility is poor Be alert to hazards when removing stuck vehicles (winch cables, jacks, slipping)

Suppression Safety Procedures Used Around Fire line Equipment - Tractors: 

Suppression Safety Procedures Used Around Fire line Equipment - Tractors Be alert to moving equipment Tractors always have the right-of-way Maintain 50 foot minimum distance Be careful and maintain stable footing when working around winch cables Work a safe distance away depending on fuels and terrain

Suppression Safety Procedures Used Around Fire line Equipment - Tractors: 

Suppression Safety Procedures Used Around Fire line Equipment - Tractors Be alert and on the lookout for rolling materials when working uphill or downhill of equipment Take extra precautions when visibility is poor Be alert to soft spots or bogs

Suppression Safety Procedures Used Around Fire line Equipment - Tractors: 

Suppression Safety Procedures Used Around Fire line Equipment - Tractors Do not assume the operator knows where you are Be alert to night operations Do not sleep on the fire line

Suppression Securing the Control Line Objectives : 

Suppression Securing the Control Line Objectives Describe and demonstrate how to extinguish burning materials by chopping, scraping and mixing the with soil and water Describe precautions to take when applying water to hot materials Demonstrate proper techniques for applying water Describe a systematic method of mop-up

Suppression Securing the Control Line Objectives : 

Suppression Securing the Control Line Objectives Describe how each of the four senses aid in detecting burning materials Discuss the importance of breaking up and dispersing accumulations of fuel adjacent to the fire line Demonstrate the technique of cold-trailing

Suppression Securing the Control Line Objectives : 

Suppression Securing the Control Line Objectives Given a constructed control-line, strengthen the line to facilitate holding by rearranging and fireproofing fuels adjacent to fire-line State three factors that determine the amount of additional work required for a water or retardant line

Suppression Methods of Mop-up : 

Suppression Methods of Mop-up Dry mop-up Scraping Digging Stirring Mixing Separating Turning logs

Suppression Methods of Mop-up : 

Suppression Methods of Mop-up Wet Mop-up (water application) Apply in fine spray Apply from control line towards the inside of the burn Apply from outside the burn area inwards to the center of the burned area Use straight stream to penetrate or reach a target (begin from the base of the tree and work to the top of the tree)

Suppression Methods of Mop-up : 

Suppression Methods of Mop-up Wet Mop-up Use hand tools in combination with soil and water Scraping Digging Stirring Mixing Separating

Suppression Mop-up - Hazards in the General Area : 

Suppression Mop-up - Hazards in the General Area Overhanging trees Snags Leaning trees (leaners) Branches, tree tops, loose tree bark Hanging trees Trees with roots burned away Cat faced trees

Suppression Mop-up - Hazards Associated with Water Use : 

Suppression Mop-up - Hazards Associated with Water Use Hot rocks White ash Fire pits Ground fire Rock and dirt particles Be aware not only of yourself, but for those working around you.

Suppression Systematic Mop-up : 

Suppression Systematic Mop-up Start with the hottest area and progress toward the coolest Plan a beginning and ending point Work inward from the control line Examine the entire assigned area Make sure instructions are clear. Ask questions???

Suppression Using the Four Senses - Mop-up : 

Suppression Using the Four Senses - Mop-up Sight Smoke - Look up as well as down. A treetop may be on fire Heat waves Steam White ash - White ash indicates heat and burning, the ash may be covering hot embers Stump holes

Suppression Using the Four Senses - Mop-up : 

Suppression Using the Four Senses - Mop-up Sight Gnats - Gnats often hover over hot spots Select an advantageous spot to rest to observe for signs of hot spots Look facing into the sun in shaded areas to see small smokes

Suppression Using the Four Senses - Mop-up : 

Suppression Using the Four Senses - Mop-up Touch Do not wear gloves At first, feel about 1 inch away using the back or the hand, then carefully with direct contact

Suppression Using the Four Senses - Mop-up : 

Suppression Using the Four Senses - Mop-up Smell Smoke Burning materials and gases that these materials give off

Suppression Using the Four Senses - Mop-up : 

Suppression Using the Four Senses - Mop-up Hearing - listen for the: Crack and pop of burning materials Hiss when water touches hot materials

Suppression Covered Fuels - Mop-up : 

Suppression Covered Fuels - Mop-up Break -up and disperse Separate fuels and dirt by hand or by machine Remove all unburned fuels and throw outside fire control lines Remove all burning fuels and throw inside the control line Extinguish any burning fuels

Suppression Covered Fuels - Mop-up : 

Suppression Covered Fuels - Mop-up Hazards in fuels that are covered (machine piles) Spring poles, branches that are under tension Unstable footing Hot pockets of coals Night operations. Reduced recognition of hazards and reduced visibility Berm and logs falling on personnel

Suppression Rearranging Fuels - Mop-up : 

Suppression Rearranging Fuels - Mop-up Limb up trees to reduce or eliminate fuel ladder Identify snags inside and outside the control line that may threaten the security of the control line or the safety of personnel Have snags fallen by qualified individuals only

Suppression Rearranging Fuels - Mop-up : 

Suppression Rearranging Fuels - Mop-up Have brush and trees removed that pose a threat to the security of the fire line Break apart stumps, remove burning materials Clear and area to mineral soil and place extinguished materials in that area, mix with mineral soil

Suppression Rearranging Fuels - Mop-up : 

Suppression Rearranging Fuels - Mop-up Dig out and remove burning materials from underground roots and extinguish Remove bark on down logs, stumps and snags Scatter all cut fuels, do not windrow

Suppression Rearranging Fuels - Mop-up : 

Suppression Rearranging Fuels - Mop-up Throw all burned and/or charred materials back into the burn, and/or extinguish the materials Scrape duff and other fuels into the burn and then scatter them

Suppression Trenches - Mop-up : 

Suppression Trenches - Mop-up Be sure that trenches and/or under slung lines are deep and high and composed solely of mineral soil to ensure that no burning materials can cross

Suppression Water bars - Mop-up : 

Suppression Water bars - Mop-up During mop-up, construct or improve existing water bars according to the specifications to reduce erosion

Suppression Trenches and Water bars - Mop-up : 

Suppression Trenches and Water bars - Mop-up Trenches direct rolling materials (burning materials) back into the black Water bars direct water flow into the green

Suppression Mop-up : 

Suppression Mop-up Patrol along control lines to check for spot fires and heat to prevent escaping. Patrol both sides of the control line.

Suppression Reinforce Treated Areas - Mop-up : 

Suppression Reinforce Treated Areas - Mop-up Construct fire line Limb up nearby trees and brush Fireproof fuels outside the control Have snags fallen

Suppression Mop-up Aids: 

Suppression Mop-up Aids Infrared imagery - aircraft FLIR - Forward Looking Infrared Handheld Infrared devices Probeye Thermal scanner Xedar

Map Use Types of Maps: 

Map Use Types of Maps Highway Aeronautical charts Military map USGS topographic map Local maps - GIS

Map Use Legend: 

Map Use Legend North - normally found at the top of the map Scale - One unit on the map represents certain number of units on the ground 1:24,000 - one inch on the map equals 24,000 inches on the ground; or one inch on the map equals 2,000 feet on the ground

Map Use Legend: 

Map Use Legend North - normally found at the top of the map Scale - One unit on the map represents certain number of units on the ground 1:24,000 - one inch on the map equals 24,000 inches on the ground; or one inch on the map equals 2,000 feet on the ground

Map Use Map Features - Colors: 

Map Use Map Features - Colors Black - constructed features Green - vegetation Blue - water Brown - relief features such as contour lines

Map Use Map Features - Symbols: 

Map Use Map Features - Symbols Man made features Water features Vegetation features Elevation features

Map Use Map Features - Contours: 

Map Use Map Features - Contours The contour interval is the vertical distance, or distance in elevation between adjacent contour lines Common contour intervals are 40, 80 and 200 feet. The contour interval can be found on the legend of the map.

Map Use Map Features - Contours: 

Map Use Map Features - Contours The accentuated interval line is heavier than the others and is numbered with the elevation on the line. (called the index contour line) The distance between each index contour is evenly divisible by five to get the contour interval

Map Use Map Features - Contours: 

Map Use Map Features - Contours For example: if the distance between two index contour lines is 200 feet then the contour interval between all contour lines is 40 feet

Map Use Map Features - Contours: 

Map Use Map Features - Contours Each contour line must close upon itself either on or off the map When crossing a stream, contour lines form V’s which point upstream When crossing a ridge, contours form U’s which point down the ridge.

Map Use Map Features - Contours: 

Map Use Map Features - Contours Contours cannot cross or meet, except in unusual cases or waterfalls or overhanging cliffs Closed contours represent either a summit or a depression

Map Use Map Features - Contours: 

Map Use Map Features - Contours Contours tend to parallel streams Rivers have a flatter gradient than intermittent streams Thus, contour lines will more nearly parallel rivers than intermittent streams Contour lines form M’s just above stream junctions

Map Use Map Features - Contours: 

Map Use Map Features - Contours Contours are perpendicular to the direction of maximum slope Uniformly spaced contours represent uniformly sloping ground Irregularly spaced contour lines represent rough, rugged ground Contour lines are not drawn through buildings or other construction objects

Map Use Land Survey System: 

Map Use Land Survey System Metes and bounds East of the Mississippi Public Land Survey system Used by surveyors, land management agencies who need legal land descriptions Township, Range and Section

Map Use Land Survey System: 

Map Use Land Survey System Other methods Latitude and Longitude Local map grid system Military grid Universal grid

Map Use Identifying and Describing Locations on Maps: 

Map Use Identifying and Describing Locations on Maps Descriptive method Road names, geographic features, towns, streams, etc. Latitude and Longitude Measured in degrees, minutes and seconds Latitude lines (parallels of latitude) Imaginary lines that run east and west around the earth parallel to the equator

Map Use Identifying and Describing Locations on Maps: 

Map Use Identifying and Describing Locations on Maps The equator is 0 degrees Lines of latitude are numbered in degrees to show how far they are north or south of the equator

Map Use Identifying and Describing Locations on Maps: 

Map Use Identifying and Describing Locations on Maps Degrees alone are too large for precise locations, so they are subdivided into minutes and seconds One degree of latitude equals 60 minutes or 69 miles One minute of latitude equals 60 seconds or 1.15 miles One second of latitude equals 100 feet

Map Use Identifying and Describing Locations on Maps: 

Map Use Identifying and Describing Locations on Maps Longitude lines Imaginary line that run north and south through the geographic poles Denote the distance in degrees east or west of the prime meridian 0 degrees Greenwich, England All lines intersect at the poles, longitude lines are not parallel and have no set distance value

Map Use Identifying and Describing Locations on Maps: 

Map Use Identifying and Describing Locations on Maps Longitude lines Longitude lines are measured in degrees, minutes and seconds The farther north or south of the equator the smaller the value of degrees in miles between lines of latitude When giving a latitude/longitude, latitude is given first Latitude/longitude lines are posted on the borders of most maps

Map Use Identifying and Describing Locations on Maps: 

Map Use Identifying and Describing Locations on Maps Township and Range

Clouds: 

Clouds

authorStream Live Help