Group Based Interventions : Group Based Interventions Conflict management,
Self-directed work teams,
Large scale interventions,
Virtual teams. Conflict management : Conflict management Conflict : Conflict Conflict is a process that occurs when a person or group believes that others have or will take action that is at odds with their own goals and interests.
Costs of conflict: Disruption of productivity, Negative emotions and stress, Stereotyping, Faulty decision making
Benefits of conflict: Discussion of problems, Basis for change, Increase in motivation and loyalty Slide 4: Conflict management is the process of planning to avoid conflict where possible and organizing to resolve conflict where it does happen, as rapidly and smoothly as possible. What do organizations use conflict management for? : What do organizations use conflict management for? For any organization to be effective and efficient in achieving its goals, the people in the organization need to have a shared vision of what they are striving to achieve, as well as clear objectives for each team / department and individual.
You also need ways of recognizing and resolving conflict amongst people, so that conflict does not become so serious that co-operation is impossible.
All members of any organization need to have ways of keeping conflict to a minimum - and of solving problems caused by conflict, before conflict becomes a major obstacle to your work. Slide 6: Organizational Sources of Conflict Conflict Competition over
Scarce Resources Differences in
Culture Ambiguity over
Identification Slide 7: Interpersonal Causes of Conflict Conflict Competitive
Attribution Facilitating Resolution for Organizational Conflict : Facilitating Resolution for Organizational Conflict Bargaining & Negotiation -- the process in which the parties in dispute make offers and counter offers
Mediation and Arbitration -- third party intervention
Superordinate Goals -- commonality is seen in goals and the solution is greater than either parties’ initial goal Facilitating Resolution for Interpersonal Conflict : Facilitating Resolution for Interpersonal Conflict Changing behavior
Improving communication How to manage and resolve conflict situations : How to manage and resolve conflict situations Collective bargaining
Arbitration Backwards & Forwards : Backwards & Forwards Summing up: Today we examine two approaches to human process intervention: T-groups and third party intervention. In the process of examining third party intervention, we looked at organizational and interpersonal conflict.
Looking ahead: Next time we will continue to examine human process interventions by studying group and organizational level approaches. Dialoging : Dialoging Slide 13: Dialoguing is general communication to establish what is going on. It goes two ways; both the facilitator and client are working on finding out what the subject really is. Slide 14: At first glance, dialoguing looks like just a casual conversation. For that matter, the client might not realize that there is any particular technique being used. But dialoguing is a very focused activity. It is focused towards getting a more and more clear picture of what is there within certain parameters. Dialoguing goes from the general to the specific : Dialoguing goes from the general to the specific Slide 16: We start with a foggy situation. Either we don't know at all what it is, or we don't know enough to know what to do with it. There is a generality there. We are going to dig up some specifics about it.
We are not counting on that it is ONE specific thing that is there. It is rather that we will find out more and more about whatever it is. It might be a complex situation with many details to it. We will find out one detail at a time. Several things might come out of dialoging: : Several things might come out of dialoging: 1) The situation might resolve. We might have found out enough so that there no longer is a problem or anything that needs to be done.
2) We might hit on a specific phenomenon within the general area that calls for one of the more specialized techniques we know. Slide 18: In dialoguing, the facilitator will use questions that will help the client to learn more about the subject and see what it really is. Facilitator and client are working together to find out what it is. It is not just a method of getting the client to talk, the facilitator must be actively interested in finding out too.
There are different methods of questioning that the facilitator can use:
Promoting talking: Asking for thoughts, considerations, feelings, etc. on the subject.
Loosening up: Using Unblocking or Unburdening keys.
Challenging illogic: Fishing for fixed ideas: "Why is that?", "What is behind that?"
Asking for specifics when they are missing, vague, or general.
Echoing: Giving back one's understanding and asking if that is what is meant. Group facilitation : Group facilitation Slide 20: What is Facilitation?
To facilitate is "to free from difficulties or obstacles" "to make easy or easier" or "to carry out a set of functions or activities before, during and after a meeting to help the group achieve its own objectives" Advantages of Group Facilitation : Advantages of Group Facilitation productivity
group motivation, commitment and confidence
better climate for radical change
optimized group dynamics The Role of Facilitator : The Role of Facilitator The facilitator has a role within the group which comes down to the three following headings
FOCUS To provide a focus for the group when the leader fails to fulfill their role.
STIMULATE To encourage constructive debate between group members.
SUPPORT To bring out information from introverted members of the group and to allow new ideas to be submitted.
PARTICIPATE When the group is interacting poorly or in the wrong direction the facilitator must be willing to promote new discussion.
TEAM BUILDING To form a cohesive, interactive and productive team. Slide 23: 2. Referee
REGULATION To maintain order of the group discussion, discouraging participants from talking at the same time, or dominating the floor.
PROTECT MEMBERS To ensure that all contributions to the discussion are treated equally and that no-one is rebuffed for their input.
DEAL WITH PROBLEMS To control problem people within the group allowing everyone to participate freely.
TIMEKEEPER To adhere to the meeting timetable thus ensuring completion of the agenda. Slide 24: 3. Neutral
PRAGMATIC To take a detached look at the discussion viewing each point on its merits.
ENCOURAGE FEEDBACK To promote discussion of each point raised, by all members of the group.
THE FACILITATOR must be a neutral to the discussion, taking a pragmatic view of all points raised. This frees the facilitator to concentrate on the group rather then the content of the discussion and hence they can ask pertinent and stimulating questions. Group learning : Group learning Group learningObjectives : Group learningObjectives Select, plan, and facilitate group learning activities
Create and facilitate a role play
Create and facilitate a case study
Create and facilitate a clinical simulation
Facilitate a brainstorming session
Facilitate a discussion Advantages of Group Learning Activities : Advantages of Group Learning Activities Involve all students
Allow students to interact, ask questions, and learn from one another
Give students opportunities to identify, analyze, and solve problems
Permit students to express their thoughts, opinions, and concerns
Provide opportunities for practice in presenting information to a large group
Help students explore and change attitudes Plan Group Learning Activities Activities should be challenging, interesting and relevant
Make sure the activities support the objectives
Describe the activity on paper, list the supplies you will need and consider the number of students and the space available Facilitating Group Learning Activities : Facilitating Group Learning Activities Describe the activity before dividing the employees into small groups
Explain how the group should record its decisions
Suggest how each group will report back to the larger group
Instructions to the group (orally and on a flipchart, handout or transparency) usually include:
The activity description
What the students will do
Reporting options include:
Oral reports from each group
Responses to questions about the activity
Role plays developed and presented by employees in the small groups
Recommendations from each group Case Study : Case Study A case study is a learning activity that uses realistic scenarios focusing on a specific issue, topic, or problem.
Students typically read, study, and react to the case study individually or in small groups.
Why Case Studies?
Focus on real-life problems or situations
Develop problem-solving and decision-making skills
Strengthen students’ ability to apply information
Clarify and expand students’ knowledge
Explore and change attitudes Slide 30: A role play is a learning activity in which students play out roles in a simulated situation that relates to one or more learning objectives.
Brainstorming: is generating a list of ideas, thoughts, or alternative solutions that focus on a specific topic or problem.
Discussion: A discussion is an opportunity for students to share their ideas, thoughts, questions, and answers in a group setting with a facilitator. Self-directed work teams : Self-directed work teams History : History Came from research of Kurt Lewin 1951
Called by various names- Self managed, self regulating, composite, self directed,work teams Evolution of SDT’s : Evolution of SDT’s Area of management/
Responsibility Area of SDT’s
Responsibility Control model Setting overall goals Designing the SDT’s & their context & process Monitoring & managing work processes Doing the task Self-Directed Work Team : Self-Directed Work Team A highly trained group of 6-18 people
Responsible for turning out finished work
A wide-range of cross functional skills
Access to information to make decisions
Plan, set priorities, organize, coordinate, measure and take corrective action.
Solve problems, schedule and assign work.
Make personnel decisions. Results : Results Xerox -- increased productivity by 30%
Proctor & Gamble -- 30-40% better productivity in team-based plants
General Motors – 20-40% better productivity in team-based plants Slide 36: Approximately 68% of all fortune 1000 companies utilize some form of self-directed work teams
Proctor & Gamble
Lockheed Martin Why SDT succeed / Fail : Why SDT succeed / Fail Will self-direction work here?
What is required to support a self-directed work team? Feasibility : Feasibility Are the work processes compatible with self-direction?
Shared technology, territory, & time
What goods and services are produced?
How are they produced? (automation, interpersonal involvement) Feasibility : Feasibility Are employees willing and able to make self-direction work?
Can each member perform at least 80% of the required tasks, including administrative functions?
Do members have a capacity for problem-solving and interpersonal relationships
Do members have the capacity to manage the ambiguity of the start-up phase? Feasibility : Feasibility Can managers handle the hands-off leadership style required?
Will they permit autonomy and provide the necessary information?
Do they encourage employee involvement now?
Will they support the move to self-directed work teams? Feasibility : Feasibility Is the market healthy or promising enough to support improved productivity without reducing the workforce? Feasibility : Feasibility Will the organization’s policies and culture support the transition to teams?
Beware and “us versus them” mentality or efficiency at the expense of job satisfaction.
The switch to teams requires strong support from corporate or upper management. Feasibility : Feasibility Will the community support the transition to teams?
Teams may clash with values and strong held beliefs.
Employees are members of the community first and teams second.
Family support is critical Stages : Stages Start-up
State of confusion
Tightly formed teams
Self-directed teams Optimism
Reliance on team leader
Fierce loyalty to team
Cooperative self managment Stages : Stages As we move through the stages responsibility gradually shifts from managers to the team. Stages : Stages Managers must be prepared for a long-term process of transferring authority to the team
The organization must be willing to invest in the required training
Planning should include operations, social aspects, and communication. Stages : Stages Prior to implementation, organizations should think through tasks traditionally considered management responsibilities.
New product development Stage One (Start-Up) : Stage One (Start-Up) The goal is preparation, preparing the field for planting. Stage One (Start-Up) : Stage One (Start-Up) Conduct awareness training, what they are and what they aren’t.
Align the method of production with the way people work.
We must establish trust BEFORE we will get “buy-in”. Stage One (Start-Up) : Stage One (Start-Up) Boundaries
Teams have a clear sense of identity
Harmonize team efforts with the organization
Ensure compliance with specification requirements, fiscal, and legal mandates. Stage One (Start-Up) : Stage One (Start-Up) Training for managers
Training for team members
Group process awareness Stage One (Start-Up) : Stage One (Start-Up) Involve the team in the start-up process!
Build a culture of experimentation, measurement, & re-evaluation
Stage one lasts 6-9 months. Stage Two (State of Confusion) : Stage Two (State of Confusion) The goal is regulated growth, building a solid root structure to support later growth. Stage Two (State of Confusion) : Stage Two (State of Confusion) Members will naturally mourn the loss of certain predictable events and expectations, “we have always done it this way”.
Concerns about job security.
Will it really work? Stage Two (State of Confusion) : Stage Two (State of Confusion) Managers need to be visible during stage two.
Encourage reorganization for self-management
Monitor team performance and benchmark
Hand off new responsibilities as soon as the team is ready
Facilitate communication among teams and provide education to others. Stage Two (State of Confusion) : Stage Two (State of Confusion) Hazards of stage two
Managers who won’t let go
Managers who are hoping the team will collapse
Managers who won’t get involved Stage Two (State of Confusion) : Stage Two (State of Confusion) Offer technical assistance
Do the teams have the information they need?
Are procedures in place to support self-direction?
Access to training and consultation
Stage two lasts 6-9 months Stage Three (Leader-Centered Teams) : Stage Three (Leader-Centered Teams) Goal, focus on the outcome and develop an identity. Nurture the plant until it is capable of adapting to its conditions and sustaining its own growth . Stage Three (Leader-Centered Teams : Stage Three (Leader-Centered Teams Members take more of an interest in the quality of their product or service.
Team members may begin to challenge managers.
Teams are assigning work and organizing themselves.
Managers take more of an external role. Stage Three (Leader-Centered Teams) : Stage Three (Leader-Centered Teams) Team leaders may be appointed or elected, team input is critical.
Leadership may rotate
Team leaders must accept the goal of self-direction. Their mission is to guide the team towards autonomy. Stage Three (Leader-Centered Teams : Stage Three (Leader-Centered Teams Build team identity
Promote a vision
Recognition and rewards
Encourage leadership activities among all team members
Stage three lasts 6-12 months. Stage Four (Tightly Formed Teams) : Stage Four (Tightly Formed Teams) Goal, begin to look outward. Pollination and flowering requires relationships with other plants and sustenance from outside sources. Stage Four (Tightly Formed Teams) : Stage Four (Tightly Formed Teams) Teams may turn inward and become self-absorbed
They actively resolve conflicts
They manage their own production
They communicate regarding resources and goals Stage Four (Tightly Formed Teams) : Stage Four (Tightly Formed Teams) Maintain communication with management
Integrate the team with other teams and the rest of the organization
Increase information about performance
Manager to team – not manager to team member
Stage four lasts 6-12 months Stage Five (Self-Direction) : Stage Five (Self-Direction) Goal, link the team’s work directly to the outcome of the organization. Stage Five (Self-Direction) : Stage Five (Self-Direction) Continue to respond to training needs.
Build team-friendly systems
Focus on external customer needs and expectations Stage Five (Self-Direction) : Stage Five (Self-Direction) Focus on the work process, issue, or behavior not on the person.
Maintain the self-confidence and self-esteem of others.
Maintain strong partnerships with internal and external customers
Improve and lead by example Discussion : Discussion What factors might effect the times required in each stage?
What types of training would be required for any self-directed team conversion, regardless of the product?
Can anyone be trained and coached to be an effective team member? Large scale interventions : Large scale interventions Team building : Team building Virtual teams : Virtual teams Slide 74: Virtual teams are teams of people who primarily interact electronically and who may meet face-to-face occasionally.
Example: team of people working at different geographic sites and a project team whose members telecommute. Slide 75: What is a virtual team and how does it work? Definition of virtual team : Definition of virtual team A virtual team is a group of people that relies primarily or exclusively on electronic forms of communication to work together in accomplishing its goals. Similar terms for virtual : Similar terms for virtual Other terms used instead of virtual are:
Online Slide 78: A virtual team is. . .
Individuals. . .
Interacting. . . Another view of virtual teams : Another view of virtual teams Clear purpose
Premium on early face-to-face
Solid groupware platform
Meta language Virtual Teamwork Formula : Virtual Teamwork Formula 10 percent technology
90 percent people
100 % success Face-to-face sessions : Face-to-face sessions Preferred means for teams to build trust and relationships with each other.
Set up systems for teamwork
Make decisions What are the virtual team tools? Audio Conference Calls : Audio Conference Calls Telephone—mah-h-velous! for people to get to know each other
Make decisions Email : Email It is the communication tool you love to hate but cannot live without these days.
Easy to use
One to many Intranet and Desktop Computer Tools : Intranet and Desktop Computer Tools Intranet websites
Collaborative calendars Gearing Up : Gearing Up Identify strengths and OFI’s
Target your learning to what you can begin using immediately. Gearing Up : Gearing Up Remember the virtual teams formula:
90% people + 10% technology =
100% success Benefits of Virtual Teams for Organizations : Benefits of Virtual Teams for Organizations Greater flexibility
Saves time and costs
Increases communication and learning across organization
Encourages appreciation of diversity Benefits of Virtual Teams for Workers : Benefits of Virtual Teams for Workers Schedule and geographic flexibility
Increased number and types of learning opportunities
Much improved access to valuable information
More opportunity to network, meet, and become friends with colleagues A team : A team A team is a small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable. Technology Supporting Virtual Teams : Technology Supporting Virtual Teams Virtual teams are supported by both hardware and software.
Hardware : Telephones, PCs, modems or public and local area networks.
Software : Groupware products such as electronic mail, meeting facilitation software, and group time management systems. Benefits of Virtual Teams : Benefits of Virtual Teams People can work from anywhere at anytime.
People can be recruited for their competencies, not just physical location.
Many physical handicaps are not a problem.
Expenses associated with travel, lodging, parking, and leasing or owning a building may be reduced and sometimes eliminated.
There is no commute time Virtual teams = teams + electronic links + groupware : Virtual teams = teams + electronic links + groupware Reasons for virtual teams center around the differences in time and space for team members. : Reasons for virtual teams center around the differences in time and space for team members. Team members may not be physically collocated.
It may not be practical to travel to meet face-to-face.
Team members may work different shifts Slide 94: Benefits of Virtual Teams for Organizations Greater flexibility
Saves time and costs
Increases communication and learning across organization
Encourages appreciation of diversity Slide 95: Benefits of Virtual Teams for Workers Schedule and geographic flexibility
Increased number and types of learning opportunities
Much improved access to valuable information
More opportunity to network, meet, and become friends with colleagues