9 group based interventions

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Group Based Interventions : 

Group Based Interventions Conflict management, Dialoging, Group facilitation, Group learning, Self-directed work teams, Large scale interventions, Team building, Virtual teams.

Conflict management : 

Conflict management

Conflict : 

Conflict Conflict is a process that occurs when a person or group believes that others have or will take action that is at odds with their own goals and interests. Costs of conflict: Disruption of productivity, Negative emotions and stress, Stereotyping, Faulty decision making Benefits of conflict: Discussion of problems, Basis for change, Increase in motivation and loyalty

Slide 4: 

Conflict management is the process of planning to avoid conflict where possible and organizing to resolve conflict where it does happen, as rapidly and smoothly as possible.

What do organizations use conflict management for? : 

What do organizations use conflict management for? For any organization to be effective and efficient in achieving its goals, the people in the organization need to have a shared vision of what they are striving to achieve, as well as clear objectives for each team / department and individual. You also need ways of recognizing and resolving conflict amongst people, so that conflict does not become so serious that co-operation is impossible. All members of any organization need to have ways of keeping conflict to a minimum - and of solving problems caused by conflict, before conflict becomes a major obstacle to your work.

Slide 6: 

Organizational Sources of Conflict Conflict Competition over Scarce Resources Differences in Power, Status, Culture Ambiguity over Jurisdiction Group Identification

Slide 7: 

Interpersonal Causes of Conflict Conflict Competitive Reward Systems Faulty Communication Personal Characteristics Faulty Attribution

Facilitating Resolution for Organizational Conflict : 

Facilitating Resolution for Organizational Conflict Bargaining & Negotiation -- the process in which the parties in dispute make offers and counter offers Mediation and Arbitration -- third party intervention Superordinate Goals -- commonality is seen in goals and the solution is greater than either parties’ initial goal

Facilitating Resolution for Interpersonal Conflict : 

Facilitating Resolution for Interpersonal Conflict Changing behavior Enforcing rules, Separation Coping strategies Changing attitudes Changing attributions Improving communication

How to manage and resolve conflict situations : 

How to manage and resolve conflict situations Collective bargaining Conciliation Negotiation, Mediation, and Arbitration

Backwards & Forwards : 

Backwards & Forwards Summing up: Today we examine two approaches to human process intervention: T-groups and third party intervention. In the process of examining third party intervention, we looked at organizational and interpersonal conflict. Looking ahead: Next time we will continue to examine human process interventions by studying group and organizational level approaches.

Dialoging : 


Slide 13: 

Dialoguing is general communication to establish what is going on. It goes two ways; both the facilitator and client are working on finding out what the subject really is.

Slide 14: 

At first glance, dialoguing looks like just a casual conversation. For that matter, the client might not realize that there is any particular technique being used. But dialoguing is a very focused activity. It is focused towards getting a more and more clear picture of what is there within certain parameters.

Dialoguing goes from the general to the specific : 

Dialoguing goes from the general to the specific

Slide 16: 

We start with a foggy situation. Either we don't know at all what it is, or we don't know enough to know what to do with it. There is a generality there. We are going to dig up some specifics about it. We are not counting on that it is ONE specific thing that is there. It is rather that we will find out more and more about whatever it is. It might be a complex situation with many details to it. We will find out one detail at a time.

Several things might come out of dialoging: : 

Several things might come out of dialoging: 1) The situation might resolve. We might have found out enough so that there no longer is a problem or anything that needs to be done. 2) We might hit on a specific phenomenon within the general area that calls for one of the more specialized techniques we know.

Slide 18: 

In dialoguing, the facilitator will use questions that will help the client to learn more about the subject and see what it really is. Facilitator and client are working together to find out what it is. It is not just a method of getting the client to talk, the facilitator must be actively interested in finding out too. There are different methods of questioning that the facilitator can use: Promoting talking: Asking for thoughts, considerations, feelings, etc. on the subject. Loosening up: Using Unblocking or Unburdening keys. Challenging illogic: Fishing for fixed ideas: "Why is that?", "What is behind that?" Asking for specifics when they are missing, vague, or general. Echoing: Giving back one's understanding and asking if that is what is meant.

Group facilitation : 

Group facilitation

Slide 20: 

What is Facilitation? To facilitate is "to free from difficulties or obstacles" "to make easy or easier" or "to carry out a set of functions or activities before, during and after a meeting to help the group achieve its own objectives"

Advantages of Group Facilitation : 

Advantages of Group Facilitation productivity group motivation, commitment and confidence better climate for radical change optimized group dynamics

The Role of Facilitator : 

The Role of Facilitator The facilitator has a role within the group which comes down to the three following headings 1. Leadership FOCUS To provide a focus for the group when the leader fails to fulfill their role. STIMULATE To encourage constructive debate between group members. SUPPORT To bring out information from introverted members of the group and to allow new ideas to be submitted. PARTICIPATE When the group is interacting poorly or in the wrong direction the facilitator must be willing to promote new discussion. TEAM BUILDING To form a cohesive, interactive and productive team.

Slide 23: 

2. Referee REGULATION To maintain order of the group discussion, discouraging participants from talking at the same time, or dominating the floor. PROTECT MEMBERS To ensure that all contributions to the discussion are treated equally and that no-one is rebuffed for their input. DEAL WITH PROBLEMS To control problem people within the group allowing everyone to participate freely. TIMEKEEPER To adhere to the meeting timetable thus ensuring completion of the agenda.

Slide 24: 

3. Neutral PRAGMATIC To take a detached look at the discussion viewing each point on its merits. ENCOURAGE FEEDBACK To promote discussion of each point raised, by all members of the group. THE FACILITATOR must be a neutral to the discussion, taking a pragmatic view of all points raised. This frees the facilitator to concentrate on the group rather then the content of the discussion and hence they can ask pertinent and stimulating questions.

Group learning : 

Group learning

Group learningObjectives : 

Group learningObjectives Select, plan, and facilitate group learning activities Create and facilitate a role play Create and facilitate a case study Create and facilitate a clinical simulation Facilitate a brainstorming session Facilitate a discussion

Advantages of Group Learning Activities : 

Advantages of Group Learning Activities Involve all students Allow students to interact, ask questions, and learn from one another Give students opportunities to identify, analyze, and solve problems Permit students to express their thoughts, opinions, and concerns Provide opportunities for practice in presenting information to a large group Help students explore and change attitudes Plan Group Learning Activities Activities should be challenging, interesting and relevant Make sure the activities support the objectives Describe the activity on paper, list the supplies you will need and consider the number of students and the space available

Facilitating Group Learning Activities : 

Facilitating Group Learning Activities Describe the activity before dividing the employees into small groups Explain how the group should record its decisions Suggest how each group will report back to the larger group Instructions to the group (orally and on a flipchart, handout or transparency) usually include: The activity description What the students will do Time limit Reporting options include: Oral reports from each group Responses to questions about the activity Role plays developed and presented by employees in the small groups Recommendations from each group

Case Study : 

Case Study A case study is a learning activity that uses realistic scenarios focusing on a specific issue, topic, or problem. Students typically read, study, and react to the case study individually or in small groups. Why Case Studies? Focus on real-life problems or situations Develop problem-solving and decision-making skills Strengthen students’ ability to apply information Clarify and expand students’ knowledge Explore and change attitudes

Slide 30: 

A role play is a learning activity in which students play out roles in a simulated situation that relates to one or more learning objectives. Brainstorming: is generating a list of ideas, thoughts, or alternative solutions that focus on a specific topic or problem. Discussion: A discussion is an opportunity for students to share their ideas, thoughts, questions, and answers in a group setting with a facilitator.

Self-directed work teams : 

Self-directed work teams

History : 

History Came from research of Kurt Lewin 1951 Called by various names- Self managed, self regulating, composite, self directed,work teams

Evolution of SDT’s : 

Evolution of SDT’s Area of management/ leadership Responsibility Area of SDT’s Responsibility Control model Setting overall goals Designing the SDT’s & their context & process Monitoring & managing work processes Doing the task

Self-Directed Work Team : 

Self-Directed Work Team A highly trained group of 6-18 people Responsible for turning out finished work A wide-range of cross functional skills Access to information to make decisions Plan, set priorities, organize, coordinate, measure and take corrective action. Solve problems, schedule and assign work. Make personnel decisions.

Results : 

Results Xerox -- increased productivity by 30% Proctor & Gamble -- 30-40% better productivity in team-based plants General Motors – 20-40% better productivity in team-based plants

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Approximately 68% of all fortune 1000 companies utilize some form of self-directed work teams Ford Proctor & Gamble Federal Express Lockheed Martin

Why SDT succeed / Fail : 

Why SDT succeed / Fail Will self-direction work here? What is required to support a self-directed work team?

Feasibility : 

Feasibility Are the work processes compatible with self-direction? Shared technology, territory, & time What goods and services are produced? How are they produced? (automation, interpersonal involvement)

Feasibility : 

Feasibility Are employees willing and able to make self-direction work? Can each member perform at least 80% of the required tasks, including administrative functions? Do members have a capacity for problem-solving and interpersonal relationships Do members have the capacity to manage the ambiguity of the start-up phase?

Feasibility : 

Feasibility Can managers handle the hands-off leadership style required? Will they permit autonomy and provide the necessary information? Do they encourage employee involvement now? Will they support the move to self-directed work teams?

Feasibility : 

Feasibility Is the market healthy or promising enough to support improved productivity without reducing the workforce?

Feasibility : 

Feasibility Will the organization’s policies and culture support the transition to teams? Beware and “us versus them” mentality or efficiency at the expense of job satisfaction. Multi-level communication The switch to teams requires strong support from corporate or upper management.

Feasibility : 

Feasibility Will the community support the transition to teams? Teams may clash with values and strong held beliefs. Employees are members of the community first and teams second. Family support is critical

Stages : 

Stages Start-up State of confusion Leader-centered team Tightly formed teams Self-directed teams Optimism Role upheaval Reliance on team leader Fierce loyalty to team Cooperative self managment

Stages : 

Stages As we move through the stages responsibility gradually shifts from managers to the team.

Stages : 

Stages Managers must be prepared for a long-term process of transferring authority to the team The organization must be willing to invest in the required training Planning should include operations, social aspects, and communication.

Stages : 

Stages Prior to implementation, organizations should think through tasks traditionally considered management responsibilities. Compensation Performance review Planning New product development

Stage One (Start-Up) : 

Stage One (Start-Up) The goal is preparation, preparing the field for planting.

Stage One (Start-Up) : 

Stage One (Start-Up) Conduct awareness training, what they are and what they aren’t. Select members Align the method of production with the way people work. We must establish trust BEFORE we will get “buy-in”.

Stage One (Start-Up) : 

Stage One (Start-Up) Boundaries Teams have a clear sense of identity Harmonize team efforts with the organization Ensure accountability Ensure compliance with specification requirements, fiscal, and legal mandates.

Stage One (Start-Up) : 

Stage One (Start-Up) Training for managers Training for team members Technical skills Administrative skills Interpersonal skills Group process awareness

Stage One (Start-Up) : 

Stage One (Start-Up) Involve the team in the start-up process! Build a culture of experimentation, measurement, & re-evaluation Stage one lasts 6-9 months.

Stage Two (State of Confusion) : 

Stage Two (State of Confusion) The goal is regulated growth, building a solid root structure to support later growth.

Stage Two (State of Confusion) : 

Stage Two (State of Confusion) Members will naturally mourn the loss of certain predictable events and expectations, “we have always done it this way”. Concerns about job security. Will it really work?

Stage Two (State of Confusion) : 

Stage Two (State of Confusion) Managers need to be visible during stage two. Encourage reorganization for self-management Monitor team performance and benchmark Hand off new responsibilities as soon as the team is ready Facilitate communication among teams and provide education to others.

Stage Two (State of Confusion) : 

Stage Two (State of Confusion) Hazards of stage two Managers who won’t let go Managers who are hoping the team will collapse Managers who won’t get involved

Stage Two (State of Confusion) : 

Stage Two (State of Confusion) Offer technical assistance Positive feedback Do the teams have the information they need? Are procedures in place to support self-direction? Access to training and consultation Stage two lasts 6-9 months

Stage Three (Leader-Centered Teams) : 

Stage Three (Leader-Centered Teams) Goal, focus on the outcome and develop an identity. Nurture the plant until it is capable of adapting to its conditions and sustaining its own growth .

Stage Three (Leader-Centered Teams : 

Stage Three (Leader-Centered Teams Members take more of an interest in the quality of their product or service. Team members may begin to challenge managers. Teams are assigning work and organizing themselves. Managers take more of an external role.

Stage Three (Leader-Centered Teams) : 

Stage Three (Leader-Centered Teams) Team leaders may be appointed or elected, team input is critical. Leadership may rotate Team leaders must accept the goal of self-direction. Their mission is to guide the team towards autonomy.

Stage Three (Leader-Centered Teams : 

Stage Three (Leader-Centered Teams Build team identity Promote a vision Recognition and rewards Encourage leadership activities among all team members Stage three lasts 6-12 months.

Stage Four (Tightly Formed Teams) : 

Stage Four (Tightly Formed Teams) Goal, begin to look outward. Pollination and flowering requires relationships with other plants and sustenance from outside sources.

Stage Four (Tightly Formed Teams) : 

Stage Four (Tightly Formed Teams) Teams may turn inward and become self-absorbed They actively resolve conflicts They manage their own production They communicate regarding resources and goals

Stage Four (Tightly Formed Teams) : 

Stage Four (Tightly Formed Teams) Maintain communication with management Integrate the team with other teams and the rest of the organization Increase information about performance Manager to team – not manager to team member Stage four lasts 6-12 months

Stage Five (Self-Direction) : 

Stage Five (Self-Direction) Goal, link the team’s work directly to the outcome of the organization.

Stage Five (Self-Direction) : 

Stage Five (Self-Direction) Continue to respond to training needs. Build team-friendly systems Focus on external customer needs and expectations

Stage Five (Self-Direction) : 

Stage Five (Self-Direction) Focus on the work process, issue, or behavior not on the person. Maintain the self-confidence and self-esteem of others. Maintain strong partnerships with internal and external customers Improve and lead by example

Discussion : 

Discussion What factors might effect the times required in each stage? What types of training would be required for any self-directed team conversion, regardless of the product? Can anyone be trained and coached to be an effective team member?

Large scale interventions : 

Large scale interventions

Team building : 

Team building

Virtual teams : 

Virtual teams

Slide 74: 

Virtual teams are teams of people who primarily interact electronically and who may meet face-to-face occasionally. Example: team of people working at different geographic sites and a project team whose members telecommute.

Slide 75: 

What is a virtual team and how does it work?

Definition of virtual team : 

Definition of virtual team A virtual team is a group of people that relies primarily or exclusively on electronic forms of communication to work together in accomplishing its goals.

Similar terms for virtual : 

Similar terms for virtual Other terms used instead of virtual are: Cyberspace Dispersed Long-distance Distributed Online

Slide 78: 

A virtual team is. . .   Individuals. . .             Interacting. . .

Another view of virtual teams : 

Another view of virtual teams Clear purpose Goals Trust Premium on early face-to-face Solid groupware platform Meta language

Virtual Teamwork Formula : 

Virtual Teamwork Formula 10 percent technology And 90 percent people = 100 % success

Face-to-face sessions : 

Face-to-face sessions Preferred means for teams to build trust and relationships with each other. Set up systems for teamwork Make decisions What are the virtual team tools?

Audio Conference Calls : 

Audio Conference Calls Telephone—mah-h-velous! for people to get to know each other Share information Brainstorm Make decisions

Email : 

Email It is the communication tool you love to hate but cannot live without these days. Cost-effective Easy to use One to many

Intranet and Desktop Computer Tools : 

Intranet and Desktop Computer Tools Intranet websites Windows Collaborative calendars

Gearing Up : 

Gearing Up Identify strengths and OFI’s Teams Technology Target your learning to what you can begin using immediately.

Gearing Up : 

Gearing Up Remember the virtual teams formula: 90% people + 10% technology = 100% success

Benefits of Virtual Teams for Organizations : 

Benefits of Virtual Teams for Organizations Greater flexibility Saves time and costs Increases communication and learning across organization Encourages appreciation of diversity

Benefits of Virtual Teams for Workers : 

Benefits of Virtual Teams for Workers Schedule and geographic flexibility Increased number and types of learning opportunities Much improved access to valuable information More opportunity to network, meet, and become friends with colleagues

A team : 

A team A team is a small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable.

Technology Supporting Virtual Teams : 

Technology Supporting Virtual Teams Virtual teams are supported by both hardware and software. Hardware : Telephones, PCs, modems or public and local area networks. Software : Groupware products such as electronic mail, meeting facilitation software, and group time management systems.

Benefits of Virtual Teams : 

Benefits of Virtual Teams People can work from anywhere at anytime. People can be recruited for their competencies, not just physical location. Many physical handicaps are not a problem. Expenses associated with travel, lodging, parking, and leasing or owning a building may be reduced and sometimes eliminated. There is no commute time

Virtual teams = teams + electronic links + groupware : 

Virtual teams = teams + electronic links + groupware

Reasons for virtual teams center around the differences in time and space for team members. : 

Reasons for virtual teams center around the differences in time and space for team members. Team members may not be physically collocated. It may not be practical to travel to meet face-to-face. Team members may work different shifts

Slide 94: 

Benefits of Virtual Teams for Organizations Greater flexibility Saves time and costs Increases communication and learning across organization Encourages appreciation of diversity

Slide 95: 

Benefits of Virtual Teams for Workers Schedule and geographic flexibility Increased number and types of learning opportunities Much improved access to valuable information More opportunity to network, meet, and become friends with colleagues

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