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See all Premium member Presentation Transcript Slide 1: OD Process Learning objectives : Learning objectives Components of OD process Diagnosis of the whole system The action i.e. Nature of OD interventions & analyzing discrepancies Phases of OD program Components of OD process : Diagnosis Action Program Management Components of OD process Slide 4: The diagnostic component represents a continuous collection of data about the total system, its subunits, its processes, & its culture. Diagnosis Focus of clients major concerns : Focus of clients major concerns What are strengths? Its problem areas? Its unrealized opportunities? Is there any discrepancy between the vision of desired future & the current situation? (Diagnosis identifies strengths, opportunities & problem areas) Slide 6: Action plans are developed to correct problems seize opportunities & maintain areas of strength. Action Focuses on………… : Consists of fact finding about the results of the actions. Program Management Focuses on………… Did the action have desired effects? Is the problem solved or the opportunities achieved? Slide 8: COMPONENTS OF OD PROCESS Slide 9: DIAGNOSIS Slide 10: Diagnosis Defined Diagnosis is a collaborative process between organizational members and the OD consultant to collect pertinent information, analyze it, and draw conclusions for action planning and intervention. Slide 12: Major methods forcollecting data • Questionnaires • Interviews • Observations • Unobtrusive methods Slide 13: Questionnaires • One of the most efficient ways of collecting data • Contain fixed-response questions about various features • Administered to large numbers of people simultaneously • Can be analyzed quickly • Permit quantitative comparison and evaluation • Data can easily be fed back to employees Slide 14: Questionnaires • Major advantages – Responses can be quantified and summarized – Large samples and large quantities of data – Relatively inexpensive • Major potential problems – Predetermined questions - no chance to change – Over interpretation of data possible – Response biases possible Interviews : Interviews Interviews may be highly structured • resembling questionnaires Interviews may be highly unstructured • starting with general questions that allow the respondent to lead the way Slide 16: Interviews • Major advantages – Adaptive - allows customization – Source of `rich’ data – Process builds rapport with subjects • Major potential problems – Relatively expensive – Bias in interviewer responses – Coding and interpretation can be difficult – Self-report bias possible Observations : • A more direct way of collecting data • Observe organisational behaviors in their functional settings Observations Slide 18: Observations • Major advantages – Collect data on actual behaviour, rather than reports of behaviour – Real time, not retrospective – Adaptive • Major potential problems – Coding and interpretation difficulties – Observer bias and questionable reliability – Can be expensive Slide 19: Unobtrusive measures • Data is not collected directly from respondents but from secondary sources • Use records of absenteeism or tardiness, grievances, quantity and quality of production or service, financial performance and correspondence with key customers, suppliers or governmental agencies • Helpful in diagnosing the organisation, group and individual outputs Slide 20: Unobtrusive measures • Major advantages – Non-reactive, no response bias – High face validity – Easily quantified • Major potential problems – Access and retrieval difficulties – Validity concerns – Coding and interpretation difficulties Diagnostic activities- Activities designed to provide an account of things as they are needed for 2 reasons : Diagnostic activities- Activities designed to provide an account of things as they are needed for 2 reasons First- To know the state of things Second- To know the effects & consequences of actions. Diagnosing the System : Diagnosing the System Slide 23: Diagnosing the System Slide 24: Diagnosing the System (MBO) is a process of agreeing upon objectives within an organization so that management and employees agree to the objectives and understand what they are in the organization. The Confrontation Meeting : The Confrontation Meeting What is a “confrontation meeting?” One day meeting of entire management of an organization in which they take a reading of their own organizational health Slide 26: Process Climate setting 45-60 min. Information Collecting 60 min. Information Sharing 60 min Priority setting and group action planning 75 min. Action Planning 60-120 minutes Immediate follow-up by top team 60-180 min. (Four-six weeks later) Progress review 120 minutes Slide 27: When is it appropriate to conduct a confrontation meeting? Need for the total management group to examine its own workings Very limited time available for the activity Top management wishes to improve conditions quickly Real commitment by top management to resolve the issue Organization is experiencing , or has recently experienced, some major change Organizational Mirroring : Organizational Mirroring Set of activities in which host group receives feedback about how it is perceived and regarded from reps across organization Intended to improve inter-group relationships Slide 29: Process Host group asks key reps from interface group to meet and provide feedback Pre- and post interviews by consultant to magnitude of issue(s), prepare participants and answer their questions At the actual session: Opening remarks by manager of host group to set tone Guests use fishbowl discussion to maintain natural flow; hosts listen Hosts fishbowl discuss, ask for clarification from guests Subgroups of guests and hosts form to address most important changes host group needs to make Reconvene in large group to hear summaries of each sub group and form master task list Action planning, tasks, responsible parties, completion dates established and agreed, concluding mirroring session Follow-up meeting to assess and review progress Slide 31: The Fishbowl Technique What to observe: communication power & influence roles conflict norms decision making problem solving leadership goal clarity task/maintenance Slide 32: Diagnosing the Process Slide 33: Diagnosing the Process Diagnosis – : Diagnosis – The Marvin Weisbord Six-Box Model identifies six critical areas where things must go right if organisation is to be successful. According to him, the consultant must attend to both formal and informal aspects of each box. This model is still widely used by OD practitioners Six-Box Organizational Model : Six-Box Organizational Model Purposes: What Business Are we in? Leadership Helpful Mechanisms: Do we have adequate technologies? Rewards: Do all needed tasks have incentives? Structure: How do we divide up the work? Relationships: How Do we manage conflict Among people? With technologies? Environment Third wave consulting : Third wave consulting First wave refers to AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION Second wave refers to INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION Third wave refers to the INFORMATION & TECHNOLOGICAL REVOLUTION Weisbord identifies 4 “useful practices" for the third wave consultant : Weisbord identifies 4 “useful practices" for the third wave consultant Assess the potential for action (look for situations with committed leadership, good business opportunities, & energized people) Get the whole system in the room Focus on the future Structure tasks that people can do themselves ACTION COMPONENT : ACTION COMPONENT Action Component : Action Component Action plans are OD interventions specifically tailored to address issues at individual, group, inter-group, or organizational levels as well as issues related to selected processes. Actions : Actions Interventions are the actions taken to produce desired changes. Four conditions that give rise to the need for OD interventions: The organisation has a problem ( corrective action – to fix it) Organization sees an unrealized opportunity ( enabling action – to seize the opportunity) Features of organization are out of alignment ( alignment action – to get things back ‘in sync’) Yesterday’s vision is no longer good enough ( action for new vision – actions to build necessary structures, processes and culture to make new vision a reality) The nature of OD interventions : The nature of OD interventions OD interventions focus on real problems rather than hypothetical problems. Real set of individuals involved in the group & the group are the problem solvers. Planning actions, executing actions & evaluating the consequences of actions of actions are integral to OD. The interventions activities have 2 goals An educational goal An accomplishing goal OD problem solving interventions tend to focus on real problems central to the organizational needs. OD interventions use several learning models not just one Slide 42: Intervention strategies are based on results of the diagnostic process and the specified goals of the client system. Slide 43: Interventions Human process interventions Individual Group based Inter-group based Techno structural interventions Balance score card BPR Outsourcing downsizing Slide 44: Example: Team Building (Group based) Special teams Diagnostic meetings Team building focused on goal setting, decision making, problem solving etc. Building & mainitaining effective interpersonal relationships Team building focused on task accomplishment Role negotiation Analyzing discrepancies (gaps) : Analyzing discrepancies (gaps) What is happening Where one is Where one wants to be What should be happening The Program Management : The Program Management Phases of OD program : Phases of OD program Entry Contracting Diagnosis Feedback Evaluation Intervention Planning change WARNER BURKE A model for Managing Change : Program Management Cummings and Worley identified 5 sets of activities required for effective change management: A model for Managing Change Slide 49: Motivating Change Managing the Transition Developing Political Support Creating a Vision Sustaining Momentum Effective Change Management Program Management Contd.. : Program Management Contd.. John P. Kotter Kotter’s 8-stage process for managing organizational change: Establishing a sense of urgency Creating a guiding coalition Developing a vision and strategy Communicating the change vision Empowering a broad base of people to take action Generating short term wins Consolidating gains and producing even more change Anchoring (institutionalizing) the new approaches into the culture 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 HBR, Mar-Apr 1995, p.61 Parallel Learning Structures : Parallel Learning Structures A structure (specific division and coordination of labor) is created that operates side-by-side with the formal hierarchy and structure with the goal of increasing organization’s learning. These are the devices for introducing & managing change in large bureaucratic organizations Slide 52: Parallel learning structures are useful when the organization needs to: Develop and implement organization-wide innovations Foster innovation and creativity within a bureaucratic system Capture the organization’s collective expertise Support the exchange of knowledge and expertise among performers. Slide 54: Phase 1: Initial definition of purpose & scope Phase 2:Formation of steering committee Phase 3:Communicating to organization members Phase 4:Formation & development of study groups Phase 5: The inquiry process. Phase 6:Identifying potential changes Phase 7:Experimental implementation of proposed changes Phase 8:Systemwide diffusion & evaluation You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.