3 Foundations of OD

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Participation Empowerment & Employee participation is defined as ‘a process of employee involvement designed to provide employees with the opportunity to influence and where appropriate, take part in decision making on matters which affect them’. Participation

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It is a belief that increased participation will lead to better solutions Rule of thumb- “Involve all those who are part of the problem or part of the solution & have decisions made by those who are closest to the problem”

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OD interventions are deliberately designed to increase involvement & participation by organization leaders & members Ex: Autonomous work groups, quality circles, Quality Circle is a volunteer group composed of workers, usually under the leadership of their supervisor, who are trained to identify, analyze and solve work-related problems and present their solutions to management in order to improve the performance of the organization An autonomous work group is a group encouraged to manage its own work and working practices. The concept of an autonomous work group was developed by Eric Trist at the Tavistock Institute in London after the end of World War II

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Empower is to give someone power which is done by giving individuals the authority to make decisions, to contribute their ideas, to exert influence, & to be responsible. In other words, empowerment is the process of passing authority & responsibility to individuals at different levels in the organisational hierarchy Empowerment

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Kouze & Posner have identified 5 leadership practices & 10 behavioral commitments exhibited by successful , empowering leaders. Challenging the process Search for opportunities Experiment & take risk 2. Inspiring a shared vision Envision the future Enlist others

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3. Enabling others to act Foster collaboration Strengthen others 4. Modeling the way Set the example Plan small wins 5. Encouraging the heart Encouraging individual contribution Celebrate accomplishments

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Empowerment is an important ingredient in high- performance organizations. “Open Book Management” pioneered by Michael Phillips in San Francisco in the late '60's and early '70s successfully adopted by Jack Stack president & CEO of spring field remanufacturing company tells about encouraging every employee of a company to think like an owner of the business & then start to act like one. The open book management rests on several simple principles 1. Every employee in an open book company sees & learns to understand the company’s financials along with all the other numbers that are critical to tracking the business performance 2. Employees assume that whatever else they do part of their job is to move those numbers in the right direction 3. Employees have a direct stake in the company’s success

Teams & Teamwork:

Teams & Teamwork Work teams are the building blocks of any organization. Teams must manage their culture , processes, systems & relationships if they have to be effective

Why teams are important…………?:

Why teams are important…………? Many tasks are complex & they cannot be solved by individuals; people must work together to accomplish them. Teams create synergy; i.e. sum of the efforts of team members is far greater than the sum of the individual efforts of people wowing alone Teams satisfy people’s needs for social interaction, status, recognition & respect – nurture human nature

OD interventions designed for team performance:

OD interventions designed for team performance Team building Inter-group team building Process consultation ‘Quality circles Parallel learning structures Socio-technical systems programs Grid OD Role negotiation Responsibility charting

Parallel learning Structures:

Parallel learning Structures

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Dale & Zand introduced this concept for the first timer 1974 under the label “collateral organizations” Defined as “ a supplemental organization coexisting with usual, formal organization formed to deal with ill-structured problems, the formal organization is unable to resolve

Definition:

Definition Parallel learning structures are a mechanism to facilitate innovation in large bureaucratic organizations where the forces of inertia, hierarchical communication patterns, & standard ways of addressing problems inhibit learning, innovation & change

Parallel learning structure is:

Parallel learning structure is Is a structure created Operating parallel with the formal hierarchy & structure Has a purpose of increasing an organizational learning

What are they??????:

What are they?????? Temporary groups that cut across traditional organizational boundaries. Formed to address a specific issue or need. Bring creative approaches to problems that have challenged traditional decision making. Result in bringing organization to a new level of awareness.

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Organization Parallel Structure

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To develop and implement organization-wide innovations. To foster innovation and creativity within a bureaucratic system. To support the exchange of knowledge and expertise among performers. WHEN TO USE IT ?

HOW TO USE IT:

HOW TO USE IT Look for existing, informal exchanges that naturally occur among staff members. Have interested parties convene and develop a mission statement or list the outcomes. Determine what support (e.g., time, facilities, and technology) would facilitate the information exchange and learning. Publicize when and where the exchanges take place. Establish a process for organizing and recording the corporate knowledge.

A Normative re-educative Strategy of Changing:

A Normative re-educative Strategy of Changing

Applied Behavioral Science:

Applied Behavioral Science Applied Behavioral Science OD is an application of behavioral science Pure/ Basic Science Applied Science Generating knowledge to Solve practical problems Practice Theory : Diagnosing the situation, then selecting and implementing treatments based on diagnosis, and finally evaluating the effects of the treatments. What helps me solve this problem? What helps me solve real problems? Applied Behavioral Science Practice Research Practice Theory Behavioral Science Research Behavioral Science Theory Pure/ basic science Applied Science

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Action Research Types Diagnostic Participant Empirical Experimental Researcher enters a problem situation, diagnoses it and make recommendations for remedial treatment ( recommendations may not be put into effect by client group ) People who are to take action are involved in the entire process from the beginning ( involvement increases the likelihood of carrying out the actions once decided upon ) Researcher keeps the systematic, extensive record of what he/ she did and what effects it had ( may encounter situations too divergent from one another, which may not permit generalizations ) It is controlled research on the relative effectiveness of various techniques ( is difficult to do when client wants immediate answers ) Diagnostic Participant Empirical Experimental Data Collection Feedback of data to client system members Action planning based on the data Taking action Evaluating results of actions

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