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Premium member Presentation Transcript Medieval Arts and Literature: Medieval Arts and LiteratureMusic: Music Gregorian Chant (Plainchant) Established by Pope Gregory I Method of enhancing worship Monophonic (single, unaccompanied melody line) Sung in unison One note for each syllable Highly conjunct (transitions) Subjects: Psalms or other scriptures Accompany the massThe Mass – Presentation Order: The Mass – Presentation Order Proper (changed daily) Introit Collect Epistle Gradual Alleluia (or Tract) Evangelium Offertory Secret Preface Canon Communion Post-Communion Ordinary (fixed) Kyrie Gloria Credo Sanctus Agnus Dei Ite missa estBeyond Plainchant: Beyond Plainchant Melisma (about 800 AD) Featured voices More than one note per syllable Monophonic Organum (about 1000 AD) Polyphonic (multiple melody lines) Cantus Firmus Same text (chants) Flourished at Notre Dame Perotin Motet (about 1200 AD) Non-religious Addition of words to music 2 or more melodies with their own texts (derivatives of chants) Ars Nova (about 1300 AD) Complexity in rhythm with each part having a melody and rhythm Guillame de MachautMusic Notation: Music Notation Guido d'Arezzo 10th Century Squares on a 4-line staff Treble and bass clef Music terminology Crescendo, forte, etc. Notes a to g Solimation (do, re, mi, etc) Ut, re, mi, fa, so, la Taken from a hymn to John the BaptistTroubadour Poetry: Troubadour Poetry Trobar: “to sing poetry” Influenced by Arabs of Spain Began in 12th-13th Century Audiences were nobles Subject was usually love Accompanied by lyre or lute Established a non-religious music traditionArt in the Late Middle Ages : Art in the Late Middle Ages Representational Depicted from God’s point of view 2-dimensional Depicted God’s power and authority God can see all therefore in art everything was obvious and openArt in the Late Middle Ages: Art in the Late Middle Ages Very little non-religious art Crucifixion and Madonna paintings Icons Doorway to approach God Special reverence themselves Art in the Late Middle Ages: Art in the Late Middle Ages Mosaics of Ravenna Frescos Decorated ManuscriptsArt in the Late Middle Ages: Art in the Late Middle Ages Giotto (1267-1337) Beginning of Realism Emotions represented Scene presented as it actually might have occurred Still much symbolism and very little perspective LamentationArt in the Late Middle Ages: Art in the Late Middle Ages Use of realism Beginnings of portraits and landscapes Problems for church leaders Pagan themes Nudity Medieval Literature: Medieval Literature Arthurian legend Lived in England in 5th C Writings: Geoffrey of Monmouth (1135) Crétien de Troyes (1135-1183) Mallory (1469) Other knight epics German knights (Die Nibelungenlied) Siegfried Brunhilde Lohengrin, Tristan and Isolde Courtly Love: Courtly Love Books were entertaining Instructions for proper behavior Pure love of a knight for a lady Note the relationship to Platonic love Rules: Marriage is no excuse for not loving Made public, love rarely endures Jealously increases the feeling of loveDante Alighieri: Dante Alighieri Life in Florence Politics Dante’s family was exiled Returned when their party returned to power Guelphs and Ghibilenes Blacks and Whites Well educated Intrigued by astronomy, mathematics, numerology Deeply spiritual Dante Alighieri: Dante Alighieri Relationship with Beatrice Fell in love at age 9 Married other people by arrangement Beatrice died in her early 20’s Book of poems was dedicated to Beatrice Dante’s family Married his promised wife 4 children Wife did not accompany when exiled Close to his daughter AntoniaDante Alighieri: Dante Alighieri Dante’s life in exile Tried to find ways to regain position in Florence Traveled through Italy Court intellectual Taught and wrote Died in Ravenna Florence’s reaction Ravenna tomb Florence "tomb"Divine Comedy: Divine Comedy Dante’s travel through the afterlife Comedy means it starts sad and ends happy Divine means perfection Epic poem Solidified the Italian language Combined several writing styles and topics Assumed Catholic church was the only truth Divided into: Prologue Inferno Purgatory ParadiseDivine Comedy: Divine Comedy Dante lost in the forest Spiritual crisis Mid-life Hell (inferno) Worst of the world Guided by Virgil Upper hell (Vestibule and 5 circles) Sins of incontinence Several sub-levels Lower hell (4 circles) Sins of intent and violence Several sub-levels Exit by going down to the center of the earthInferno: Inferno Upper Hell (Incontinence) Region Sinners Punishments Vestibule Neutrals Run after banners Circle I Limbo Virtuous pagans – melancholy Circle II Lustful Blown forever by storm winds Circle III Gluttons Discomfort, all senses punished Circle IV Hoarders and wasters Push great rocks against others Circle V Wrathful/sullen Immersed in slime Lower Hell, Malice (Violence and Fraud) Circle VI Heretics In burning tombs Circle VII Violent Lake of boiling blood, turned into trees (suicides) Circle VIII Fraud (10 levels) Tormented by demons, in excrement, etc. Circle IX Treason Buried in lake of iceThe Circle of Lust: The Circle of Lust Love, which permits no loved one not to love, took me so strongly with delight in him that we are one in Hell, as we were above. Love led us to one death. In the depths of Hell Caina waits for him who took our lives. This was the piteous tale they stopped to tell… That book, and he who wrote it, was a pander. That day we read no further.Divine Comedy: Divine Comedy Purgatory Repentance process has begun Transitory place Guided by Virgil/Cato Mountain opposite Jerusalem – closer to heaven Participation in cleansing 10 levels—antechamber, terraces 7 deadly sins "p" for peccatoDivine Comedy: Divine Comedy Purgatory Pilgrim moves up the mountain Practices virtues to overcome sins At each level a “p” disappears Learns how to live a virtue The climb gets easier River of forgetfulness Beatrice becomes his guide Garden Cannot understand all thingsDivine Comedy: Divine Comedy Paradise Best of all worlds 10 spheres 7 correspond to heavenly orbits Beatrice represents Christ Final guide is Bernard of Clairvaux (Crusader for truth) Love of humanity moves the sun, moon, etc Rise to meet God in the empyrean (by Gustave Doré)Structure of Divine Comedy: Structure of Divine Comedy Hell The Anteroom of the Neutrals Circle 1: virtuous pagans Circle 2: lascivious (lustful) Circle 3: gluttonous Circle 4: greedy and wasteful Circle 5: wrathful Circle 6: heretics Circle 7: violent against others, self, God Circle 8: fraudulent (ten classes) Circle 9: treacherous (Satan at center) Purgatory Ante-Purgatory: excommunicated, lazy Terraces 1: proud 2: envious 3: wrathful 4: slothful 5: avaricious 6: gluttonous 7: lascivious Paradise 1: Moon (Inconstant Faithful) 2: Mercury (Service marred by ambition) 3: Venus (Love marred by lust) 4: Sun (Theologians) 5: Mars (Just Warriors) 6: Jupiter (Great Rulers) 7: Saturn (Contemplatives) 8: Fixed stars (Church Triumphant) 9: Primum Mobile (Angels) 10: Empyrean Heavens (Holy Trinity)Numerical Intricacies: Numerical Intricacies Rhyming pattern (ABA/BCB/CDC) Cantos (groups of verses) Vertical and horizontal reading Rationale for numerology Memory Made more meaningful Intricacies of God Other Medieval authors using numerology Numerical Intricacies: Numerical Intricacies 1= unity 2= duality of nature 3= trinity 4= material universe 5=wounds of Christ, books of Moses, wise virgins 6= completion 7= rest, deadly sins, sacraments 8= resurrection, baptisms 9= angelic order, trinity x itself 10= perfection 12= tribes, trinity x the world 13= evil 30= Christ started preaching 33= Christ’s completion age 35= apex of life 40= days between resurrection and ascension, days in wilderness, elder of Israel 100= super perfectionNumerical Intricacies: Numerical Intricacies Organization of Divine Comedy Overall: Year 1300 when Dante was 35 (apex of life) Sectional: Hell= 9 circles + vestibule = 10 (perfection) Purgatory= ante purgatory + 7 terraces + shore of purgatory + after purgatory= 10 Paradise = 10 heavens Cantos: 1 Intro + 33 hell + 33 purgatory + 33 paradise=100 total (super perfection) Tercets—3 lines per unit of verse x 10 verses = 33 syllables Divine Comedy – Between sections: Divine Comedy – Between sections Inferno 1 = water (evil) 6 = politics of Florence 33 = stars Purgatory 1 = water (good) 6 = politics of Italy 33 = stars Paradise 1 = water (heavenly) 6 = politics in Europe 33 = starsNumerical Intricacies: Numerical Intricacies Micro organizations Beatrice introduced in Canto 30 (10 x 3=10) having 145 verses (72+1+72=145) in verse 73 (7 + 3=10) In Canto 64 (6 + 4 = 10) she states her purpose 63 before + 1 + 36 after 6 + 3 + 1 = 10 1 + 3 + 6 = 10 “I am that I am Beatrice” Vergil born in 70 BC Announces birth in the 70th verse Central canto of entire work emphasizes AMOR (anagram of ROMA)Discussion of Divine Comedy: Discussion of Divine Comedy Dante’s journey is like other epics Current and universal application Political We are all like Dante Truth is absolute Knowledge get us only so far Making choices determines our life eternally (consequences)Discussion of Divine Comedy: Discussion of Divine Comedy People are what they do Personal responsibility for action Models Vergil, Beatrice, Bernard of Clairvaux Discovered exile was a blessing Purpose of the book Crusader for truth Others could learn from his experiencesFrancesco Petrarch1304-1374: Francesco Petrarch 1304-1374 Secular writer Founder of the renaissance Multi-talented— “Renaissance man” Self-taught Successor to Dante Wrote love poems to Laura Became widely known and respected in his own timeFrancesco Petrarch: Francesco Petrarch Collaborated with Boccaccio (Fiammetta) Promoted the classics Return to the glory of the past Coined the terms “Dark Ages” and “Gothic” Strong Christian beliefs (but also accepted pagan writers) Humanism Looked to the Classical past because of the emphasis on humans and their interactions Inspired people to be better Supported a liberal (liberating) educationHumanism and thinking: Humanism and thinking “I do not feel obliged to believe that the same God who has endowed us with sense, reason, and intellect has intended us to forgo their use.” -Galileo Galilei (Said many years later but typical of the ideas of the Humanists)Solidifying Middle English: Solidifying Middle English Chaucer was the key personThe Development of theEnglish Language: The Development of the English Language Old English (Old Anglo-Saxon) Germanic language (Dutch similarities) Kenning and word endings (not word order) Zustershelpvereniging (relief society) Avondsmaalsvergadering (sacrament meeting) Alliteration for rhyming When to the sessions of sweet silent thought, I summon up remembrance of things past (Shakespeare) The fickle finger of fate (Laugh-In) Short words with strong consonants Latin-based words tend to be polysyllabic and use soft vowels Nordic influence from about 800AD Enriched vocabulary The Development of theEnglish Language: The Development of the English Language Middle English (strong French influence) French-speaking royalty from 1066 French language integrated gradually into English but often referred to royal-related terms Eventually (about 1300) several rule changes became accepted which created Middle English Middle English: Middle English Why Middle English occurred when it did (1300) England was more interactive with Europe (hundred years war, trade, etc) Peasant revolt awakened the royalty to the need to interact more with the peasants and so a common language was needed English became the language of the court and the peasants adopted the words for prestige and economic reasonsSlide39: “...The English language has three characteristics that can be counted as assets in its world state. First of all, unlike all other European languages, the gender of every noun in modern English is determined by meaning, and does not require a masculine, feminine or neuter article...The second practical quality of English is that it has a grammar of great simplicity and flexibility. Nouns and adjectives have highly simplified word-endings. Nouns can become verbs and verbs nouns in a way that is impossible in other languages... Above all, the great quality of English is its teeming vocabulary, 80 percent of which is foreign-born.” McCrum, et al, The History of EnglishMiddle English: Middle English English (German Origin) House (Haus) Cow (Kuh) Calf (Kalb) Swine (Schwein) Stool (Stuhl) End (Enden) English (French Origin) Mansion (Maison) Beef (Boeuf) Veal (Veau) Pork (Porc) Chair (Chaise) Cease (Cesser) Added words from other languages (especially from French) (Words entered because of class superiority)Tri-lingual English: Tri-lingual English Just as the second estate (nobility) added to English, so too did the third estate (clergy) The nobility added French words The clergy added Latin words Example: In the marriage ceremony, the husband and wife were asked to Love (Anglo-Saxon) Honor (Latin) Cherish (French) All three words meant the same thingMiddle English: Middle English Norman used hard “c” Castle Cattle Cap Parisian used “ch” Chateau Chattel Chapeau Sound of language changed in part because of the addition of Parisian French Words in English (Richness of Dialect) Norman used “w” Warden Wiley War Parisian used “gu” Guardian Guile GuerreMiddle English: Middle English The interactions of the languages stimulated changes in grammar These changes were toward simplicity rather than preservation of purityMiddle Englishand Old English: Middle English and Old English Similarities Alliteration rhyming Short words with strong consonants Differences Eliminated linguistic gender Eliminated declining nouns and adjectives Added words from other languages rather than making up words (i.e. kenning) Sound of the language changed A language of word order Middle English: Middle English German Example Der Wagen (the car) Das Auto (the auto) French Example La maison (house) Le château (castle) English Eliminated Linguistic GenderMiddle English: Middle English Nominative Case The father (der Vater) is old. The child (das Kind) is small. Dative Case He gives the father (dem Vater) a book. Give the child (dem Kinde) a book. English Declining of Nouns and Adjectives Examples from German (like Old English)Words for special domains: Words for special domains Religious (French/Latin-derived) Sacrament, prophet, saint, miracle, paradise Courtly (French-derived) Prince, game, poor, rich, master, court, prison, prove Lifestyle (French-derived) Castle versus timberhall (note kenning) Chivalry (from French for horse)Common words versus richness of language: Common words versus richness of language Anglo-Saxon words are the most common But French-derived words add richness In some important domains of interest such as law and politics, the French words are criticalSlide49: “Computer analysis of the language has shown that the 100 most common words in English are all of Anglo-Saxon origin. These roots are important. Anyone who speaks or writes English in the late twentieth century is using accents, words, and grammar which, with several dramatic modifications, go all the way back to the Old English of the Anglo-Saxons. There is an unbroken continuity from here to there. When, in 1940, Winston Churchill wished to appeal to the hearts and minds of the English-speaking people it is probably no accident that he did so with the plain bareness for which Old English is noted: ‘We shall fight on the beaches; we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills; we shall never surrender.’ In this celebrated passage, only surrender is foreign – Norman-French.” McCrum, et al, The Story of EnglishSlide50: The bandage was wound around the wound. The farm was used to produce produce. The dump was so full that it had to refuse more refuse. We must polish the Polish furniture. The soldier decided to desert his dessert in the desert. Since there is no time like the present, he thought it was time to present the present. The buck does funny things when the does are present. English is easy??English is a crazy language: English is a crazy language There is no egg in an eggplant nor ham in hamburger; neither apple nor pine in pineapple. Sweetmeats are candies, while sweetbreads, which aren't sweet, are meat. Quicksand works slowly. Boxing rings are square. You park in the driveway but you drive on the parkway. You ship by truck and send cargo by ship. Your house can burn up as it burns down. You fill in a form by filling it out. An alarm goes off by going on. When the stars are out they are visible but when a light is out it is invisible. To shut down your computer you have to hit Start.Language psychology: Language psychology French, German and Spanish view their language as pure and not to be adulterated When new words are needed, they are invented from previous French, German or Spanish words This practice is like kenning in Old English English views its language as something to be used and whatever communicates best, regardless of origin, is the preferred wordGeoffrey Chaucer: Geoffrey Chaucer Life Son of London merchant Good education Involved in court life Capture and ransomed during 100 years war Traveled widely Expert in physics, medicine, astronomy, Latin Wrote poetry Used classical allusions (only known to the upper class and royalty)Geoffrey Chaucer Canterbury Tales: Geoffrey Chaucer Canterbury Tales Written in Middle English Innovative but risky because he wrote for a French-speaking class Legitimized Middle English Similar to how the Bible and Shakespeare legitimized Modern English Used many dialects Rhymed and metered (pentameter) Wide vocabulary clever phrases Basis for other writersGeoffrey Chaucer Canterbury Tales: Geoffrey Chaucer Canterbury Tales The General Prologue Reading in Middle English gives a feeling for the language Literary beauty (form) Wide angle view of nature Moves to specifics of plants Then moves to specifics of peopleSlide56: Here bygynneth the Book of the Tales of Caunterbury Whan that Aprill, with his shoures soote The droghte of March hath perced to the roote And bathed every veyne in swich licour, Of which vertu engendred is the flour; Whan Zephirus eek with his sweete breeth Inspired hath in every holt and heeth The tendre croppes, and the yonge sonne Hath in the Ram his halfe cours yronne, And smale foweles maken melodye, That slepen al the nyght with open eye – (So priketh hem Nature in hir corages); Than longen folk to goon on pilgrimages And palmeres for to seken straunge strondes Top ferne halwes, kowthe in sondry londes; And specially from every shires ende Of Engelond, to Caunterbury they wende, The hooly blisful martir for the seke That hem hath holpen, whan that they were seeke.Slide57: Here begins the Book of the Tales of Canterbury When April with his showers sweet with fruit The drought of March has pierced unto the root And bathed each vein with liquor that has power To generate therein and sire the flower; When Zephyr also has, with his sweet breath, Quickened again, in every holt and heath, The tender shoots and buds, and the young sun Into the Ram one half his course has run, And many little birds make melody That sleep through all the night with open eye (So Nature pricks them on to ramp and rage) – Then do folk long to go on pilgrimage, And palmers to go seeking out strange strands, To distant shrines well known in sundry lands. And specially from every shire's end Of England they to Canterbury wend, The holy blessed martyr there to seek Who helped them when they lay so ill and weak.Geoffrey Chaucer Canterbury Tales: Geoffrey Chaucer Canterbury Tales Why Chaucer used French terms Meter Rhyme Meaning Dialect Gave flowery and elevated feeling Part of the language by thenGeoffrey Chaucer Canterbury Tales: Geoffrey Chaucer Canterbury Tales The story 30 pilgrims on their way to Canterbury Tell tales to pass the time (contest) Insights into Medieval life Tales related to the person telling the tale Knight—chivalrous romance Miller—wife cheating on her husband Wife of bath—husbands trying to squelch wives Prioress—wants to impress people Reeve—administrative agent, “simpleton” Canon Yeoman–deceptionThank You: Thank You You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.