energy efficient buildings international benchmark

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Programme de Recherche et d’expérimentation sur l’Energie dans le Bâtiment (PREBAT) French Energy Efficient Building Research Programme ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS INTERNATIONAL BENCHMARK: 

Programme de Recherche et d’expérimentation sur l’Energie dans le Bâtiment (PREBAT) French Energy Efficient Building Research Programme ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS INTERNATIONAL BENCHMARK Programme de Recherche et d’expérimentation sur l’Energie dans le Bâtiment (PREBAT) ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS INTERNATIONAL BENCHMARK Jean Carassus Centre Scientifique et Technique du Bâtiment Director of the Economics and Human Sciences Department jean.carassus@cstb.fr, International benchmark, CSTB, France

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1/ The project 2/ A socio-eco-technical methodology 3/ France: recent initiatives 4/ Energy efficient building programmes: Germany, United States, Japan, Switzerland, Spain 5/ Components and equipment, Northern Europe, and photovoltaic in Japan 6/ R&D programmes in Austria and the Netherlands 7/ Three energy efficient buildings concepts 8/ Ten lessons for Europe jean.carassus@cstb.fr, International benchmark, CSTB, France

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1/ The project In the framework of the French Research Programme dedicated to Energy Efficient Buildings (PREBAT), the International Benchmark project is monitored by the Scientific and Technical Building Centre (CSTB) and funded by the French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME) and the French Urban Construction Architecture Plan (PUCA). The project deals with: - Energy efficient building programmes in Germany, Switzerland, Spain, Denmark, USA, and Japan. - Innovative components: high performance walls, high thermal performance windows, double flow heat recovery ventilation, photovoltaic systems, energy storage, decentralized energy production, micro cogeneration, thermal solar, lighting, low energy air-conditioning. R&D programmes in Austria, the Netherlands, and Finland. It is not an exhaustive survey, the project is focused on a limited number of significant experiences. The interim report of the project is available at www.prebat.net (in French, with a short executive summary in English). The final report will be completed next October. jean.carassus@cstb.fr, International benchmark, CSTB, France

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The project mobilizes 45 engineers, economists and sociologists from 11 different countries JC Hadorn Mansi Jasuja Massachusetts Institute of Technology jean.carassus@cstb.fr, International benchmark, CSTB, France

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2/ A socio-eco-technical methodology Step 1 - Background: national and local background, origin of the initiative or the innovation Step 2 – Content of the initiative or innovation, type of building concerned, new construction, refurbishment, techniques used Step 3 – Implementation: dynamics of those involved, funding, incentives, investment and operation costs Step 4 - Evaluation: real performances, real costs, users’ view, impact of the initiative or innovation Step 5 – Critical reflection (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) Step 6 – Transposition conditions in France jean.carassus@cstb.fr, International benchmark, CSTB, France

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3/ France: recent initiatives A governmental objective of decreasing of 75 % (factor 4) the emissions of GHG between 1990 and 2050. A State Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Planning and Development. A new Research Programme dedicated to Energy Efficient Buildings (PREBAT). Several hundreds of High Environmental Quality (HQE®) buildings - Many regional initiatives for promoting low consumption buildings - An interregional association, Effinergie, inspired by Switzerland’s Minergie® experience, launched the first low energy label. - Municipal energy policies specifically within the Energie-Cités network. - A private research foundation created by Arcelor, EDF, Gaz de France and Lafarge is funding R&D projects for energy renovation of private homes, office buildings and buildings stocks - Specific loans and financial arrangements made by banks. In short, a proliferation of initiatives, with a strong regional dimension. But for the moment very much behind countries like Germany, Switzerland and the Scandinavian countries. jean.carassus@cstb.fr, International benchmark, CSTB, France

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4/ Energy efficient building programmes As you know, the Germans (who are branching out in Austria, Switzerland, Belgium and France) know how to construct new buildings with practically no heating, with an investment of 5 to 12% more than usual. A house bearing the Passivhaus label must have: - heat consumption of 15 KWh/m²/year of primary energy, - total primary energy consumption of less than 120 KWh/m²/year, maximum airtightness of 0.6 volume/hour. The five most common characteristics of these houses are: over-insulation from the outside with triple-glazed windows, double-flow ventilation with heat recovery, passive solar gains, low-consumption household appliances, the use of renewable energies. jean.carassus@cstb.fr, International benchmark, CSTB, France

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Passivhaus is only one of Germany’s programmes: passive houses (40KWhm²/year with water heating) assisted by the KfW 40 system; more than 6,000 houses completed “three litre” houses (60KWhm²/year with water heating) assisted by the KfW 60 system; more than 12,000 houses completed the EnSan programme, for demonstration projects concerning existing stock; the low consumption in existing stock programme, with operations that are closer to the market; the Solarbau programme, for solar energy in the non-residential sector jean.carassus@cstb.fr, International benchmark, CSTB, France

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Building America: a public-private partnership More than 30,000 houses have been built through this programme. jean.carassus@cstb.fr, International benchmark, CSTB, France

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A typical energy-efficient house entering the “Building America” programme is a wood-framed house with: - a thicker structural frame, with a damp-proof membrane on the outside; - well-insulated attic space; - low-emission double-glazed windows; - mechanical ventilation; - a high-efficiency boiler and short networks; compact fluorescent lamps. When the house is striving to be a “Zero Energy Home”, the system is completed by thermal solar energy and a photovoltaic system. jean.carassus@cstb.fr, International benchmark, CSTB, France

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The American label, LEED™ (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design), is a tertiary High Environmental Quality label with six objectives (sustainable site, water, energy, materials, comfort, innovation) and four performance benchmarks (certified, silver, gold, platinum). Energy performance of 30%. Approximately 400 buildings labelled, 3,000 applications in progress. - A typical low-consumption Japanese house is a prefabricated house, in which everything is electric, with slightly reinforced insulation, double-glazed windows, mechanical ventilation, heat pump, and local production through photovoltaic models integrated in the model. 58,000 houses use photovoltaic. jean.carassus@cstb.fr, International benchmark, CSTB, France

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The Swiss Minergie® label jean.carassus@cstb.fr, International benchmark, CSTB, France

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Minergie: trade fairs, partners networks, “How to” manuals, advertisements jean.carassus@cstb.fr, International benchmark, CSTB, France

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The thermal solar energy order in Barcelona jean.carassus@cstb.fr, International benchmark, CSTB, France

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1999 In Barcelona, since 1999, all buildings that are new, being renovated, or that change purpose must cover 60% of the demand for: - domestic hot water - heating the water of covered temperature-controlled pools - hot water used in industrial processes with thermal solar energy 2001 Publication of a standard order that can be used by all municipalities 2005 Standard order adopted by 60 municipalities 2006 Requirement throughout Spain to install thermal solar energy and photovoltaic The eco district of Vestrebo (Copenhagen) will be analysed in the final report. jean.carassus@cstb.fr, International benchmark, CSTB, France

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Innovation becomes radical* Innovation and market * “A radical or disruptive innovation can be defined as an innovation that has a significant impact on a market and on the economic activity of firms in that market” (Oslo Manual, OECD, European Commission, 2005, page 58) jean.carassus@cstb.fr, International benchmark, CSTB, France

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5/ Components and equipment, Northern Europe, and photovoltaic in Japan The three techniques for controlling energy consumption in a building are: . a very airtight, low-loss building envelope; . low energy impact facilities; . integration of renewable energies. The first two components analyzed, dealing with opaque and transparent high energy performance shell, are included in the first category, The two types of equipment, double-flow ventilation and compact ventilation systems for heating and hot water, are part of the second category, Photovoltaic integrated in building falls into the third category. jean.carassus@cstb.fr, International benchmark, CSTB, France

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Opaque high thermal performance walls can be transposed to other countries, as long as proper implementation conditions are created, allowing for proper air tightness. Innovation is disseminated through a break with the practice of internal insulation and adopting external insulation for new and renovated buildings. - The markets for transparent high thermal performance walls (triple-glazed glass), double-flow ventilation with heat recovery, compact heating – ventilation – hot water systems, are related to the development of very low consumption buildings, for the climates of the northern and eastern parts of the continent, in particular. - Photovoltaic, which in Japan and the United States is supported by a proactive public, requires ongoing political and fiscal support. Six other components and types of equipment will be analysed in the final report. jean.carassus@cstb.fr, International benchmark, CSTB, France

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6/ R&D programmes in Austria and the Netherlands The “Haus der Zukunft” Austrian programme, is interesting in terms of its connection between technical and socio-economic research and the emphasis placed on sustainable renovation. - For the “Compass” and “Energy Onderzoek Subsidie” (EOS) Dutch programmes, the cooperation with economic players (following a centralized approach to the programme which resulted in failure) and the “system” approach to building, preferred to the component-specific approach, are choices that can be transposed to other countries. Finland’s R&D programmes will be discussed in the final report. jean.carassus@cstb.fr, International benchmark, CSTB, France

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7/ Three energy efficient buildings concepts 1/ “Major energy conservation”. The emphasis is placed on lower consumption in over-insulated buildings. The “German alternative” (Passivhaus) is more demanding than the “Swiss alternative” (Minergie) 2/ “Consumption and production of energy”. Buildings, especially individual houses, are insulated to a certain extent; photovoltaics is responsible for electricity production. “American alternative” houses are more insulated and less industrialized than “Japanese alternative” houses 3/ “Energy and environment”. The American label, LEED™, for the tertiary sector is an example of this strategy. The condition is that energy must be a strong objective, articulated to other objectives (integration into the site, comfort, materials, waste, etc.). jean.carassus@cstb.fr, International benchmark, CSTB, France

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8/ Ten lessons for Europe 1 – Facilitating, in partnership with local authorities, an interregional dynamic of capitalization and fertilization of experience (buildings markets are local) 2 – Facilitating increased skills and training of the construction sector actors, in partnership with them and in a decentralized manner (buildings actors are local) 3 – Giving preference to a system approach of buildings preferred to the component-specific one 4 – Creating dual technological innovation: short term dissemination and medium/long term prototypes 5 – Promoting labels for high-performance buildings and products 6 – Attaching great importance to commercial, economic, financial and fiscal instruments 7 – Integrating users’ motivational, use and behavioural dimensions  8 - Linking R&D, innovation and future technical regulations 9 – Linking energy and the environment, building and urbanism 10 – Integrating R&D into an Energy and Building action plan, prioritizing energy renovation of the existing stock jean.carassus@cstb.fr, International benchmark, CSTB, France

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Thank you for your attention jean.carassus@cstb.fr, International benchmark, CSTB, France