historical perspective

Category: Sports

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Good curriculum planning can truly guide the instructional activities of physical education A dull curriculum perceived by students as boring and irrelevant, will fail, even it is taught very effectively An exciting and relevant curriculum can also fail if it is taught ineffectively

A meaningful curriculum…: 

A meaningful curriculum… That is delivered effectively through appropriate instructional strategies will succeed. Organizational arrangement such as block scheduling, persisting groups, learning communities, use of nonattached school time for extra programming And links to community programs Can all strengthen and invigorate the curriculum

The good in physical education: 

The good in physical education Building a curriculum begins with making value decisions about what is most important. The good in physical education is always about a particular group of students, who live in particular circumstances, and at a particular time, when society values some goals more than others

Historical overview of physical education and sport: 

Historical overview of physical education and sport


Designer’s Center community, school and learners Physical education curricular models Value orientation Historical and philosophical perspectives Education and physical education trends Mission statement Program goals Unit plans including evaluation procedures Scope and sequence Learning experience Foundations for curriculum decisions You are here to determine Evaluate and revise

Purpose of this overview: 

Purpose of this overview To understand the present better through the study of the past. To help us learn from the past and plan for the future. Because the nature of physical education and sport in the United States today has been influenced by the contributions of many different cultures.

Time Period: 

Time Period Primary purpose: the goals of physical activity, physical education, and sport in society during this time period People: significant leader or leaders Events: served to promote the growth of physical education and sport Highlighted activities

Time Period: Gold age in ancient Greece (2500 BC. - 200 BC.): 

Time Period: Gold age in ancient Greece (2500 BC. - 200 BC.) Primary purpose: help to build strong military establishments. Stress the beauty of physique People:Plato, Aristotle, and Antisthenes Events:The first ancient Olympic Games were held in 776 BC. Highlighted activities: gymnastics (for the body and music (for the soul). Swimming, running, fight, wrestling, boxing, ball games, horsemanship, archery, discus, javelin, field marches, and military skills.

Time Period: Renaissance (14th -16th century): 

Time Period: Renaissance (14th -16th century) Primary purpose: enjoyment of the present and the development of the body. The body and the soul are indivisible so that learning could be promoted through good physical health. People:Vittorino da Feltra Events: began childhood physical education classes in 1420. Highlighted activities:Earliest reference to golf (Scotland) in 1457. Dancing, wrestling, running, fencing, climbing, hunting, shooting and playing ball.

Time Period: Germany (18th -19th century): 

Time Period: Germany (18th -19th century) Primary purpose: Molding German youth into strong and hardy citizens (Jahn) People:Friedrich Ludwig Jahn and Johann Bernhard Basedow Events:Jahn was arrested - As a result all Turnen (gymnastics) is banned in Germany Highlighted activities: gymnastics

Time Period: Sweden (18th -19th Century): 

Time Period: Sweden (18th -19th Century) Primary purpose: to enable the body to function in a nearly optimum capacity. Physical education was needed for weak and strong persons (Ling) People:Pehr (Per) Ling Events:a law was passed in 1820 requiring a physical education course on the secondary level. Highlighted activities:educational gymnastics

Great Britain : 

Great Britain Primary purpose: the objective of physical education should take into consideration that health is more important than strength; physical exercise is essential to optimum growth and development; physical education should be an essential part of any school curriculum. People:Archibald Maclaren (1820-1884) Events:Home of outdoor sports Highlighted activities: hunting, rowing, skating, tennis, soccer, golf, cricket, hockey, etc.

Time Period: US National period (1784 -1861): 

Time Period: US National period (1784 -1861) Primary purpose: promote a healthy change from the mental phases of school life People:Charles Beck Events:In 1823, Beck introduced Jahn’s idea of German gymnastics to the US. In 1828 a planned program of physical education was incorporated by Catherine E. Beecher in the Hartford Female Seminary in Connecticut. Highlighted activities: games and sports as after-school activity. German gymnastics, Swedish calisthenics.

Time Period: US Civil War period until 1900: 

Time Period: US Civil War period until 1900 Primary purpose: Dr. Dio Lewis’ program aimed at developing agility, grace of movement, flexibility, and improving general health and posture. People:Diocletian (Dio) Lewis Events:Timeline of the events Highlighted activities: 41% of German type of gymnastics and 29% Swedish; 1900’s English sport model sweeping the country.

Time Period: US. Early 20th century (1900 - 1939): 

Time Period: US. Early 20th century (1900 - 1939) Primary purpose: discover the physical needs of individual, and establish the basis for maintaining a healthy lifestyle. Events:Many states passed mandatory physical education law. By 1921, PE required in 28 states. Highlighted activities:team games, individual sports and fundamental skills of running, jumping, climbing, carrying, throwing, and leaping.

Time Period: US. Mid 20th century (1940-1970): 

Time Period: US. Mid 20th century (1940-1970) Primary purpose: conditioning the children and youth of the United States for the national emergency that existed. Events:1957 AAHPER Youth Fitness Test established. In 1961 President Kennedy reforms the the Council on Youth Fitness started by Eisenhower and it ultimately becomes the President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports. Highlighted activities:Fitness tests

Significant recent development (1970 - 2000): 

Significant recent development (1970 - 2000) Physical education and sport programs have expanded from serving school and college age populations to serving people of all age Events: Title IX of the Educational Amendments Act in 1972 has greatly enhanced girls and women participation in sports and physical education

Survey data by National Federation of State High School Associations: 

Survey data by National Federation of State High School Associations In physical education, no discrimination could occur in program offerings, quality of teachers, and availability and quality of facilities and equipment. Physical education classes must be organized on a coeducational basis.

Programs for individual with disabilities: 

Programs for individual with disabilities The Education of All Handicapped Children Act of 1975 (P. L. 94-142) provided for mainstreaming of some children with disabilities into the schools. In 1990, a landmark law, the Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) was passed. This law mandates that all facilities including recreational and sport facilities, must provide equal access and equal services to individuals with disabilities.

Culturally Responsive Pedagogy: 

Culturally Responsive Pedagogy Teaching that considers cultural differences Ethnic minorities account for over 20% percent of the school age population Teachers must be sensitive to the cultural characteristics of learners and respect the culture differences


Reference: Wuest, D. A. & Bucher, C. A (1995) Foundations of Physical Education and Sport. Mosby: St. Louis http://schools.eastnet.ecu.edu/pitt/ayden/hist/history.html http://schools.eastnet.ecu.edu/pitt/ayden/hist/history.html Shape of Iowa and sample of the project in room 104


In ancient Greece, boys and men participated in the nude, which motivated development of the “body beautiful.” back

Vittorino da Feltra (1378 - 1446): 

Vittorino da Feltra (1378 - 1446) The first teacher to combine physical and mental training in a school situation. He incorporated daily exercises in the curriculum, which included dancing, riding, fencing, swimming, wrestling, running, jumping, archery, hunting, and fishing. He believed that physical education was good for discipline the body, for preparation for war, and for rest and recreation. back

Pehr (Per) Ling 1776-1839: 

Pehr (Per) Ling 1776-1839 “Father of Swedish Gymnastics” His system was based upon anatomy and physiology. He developed numerous pieces of gymnastics apparatus, including the Swedish box and stall bars. Back

Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi 1746-1827 : 

Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi 1746-1827 the founder of free arm exercises or calisthenics a staunch believer in educating through the “natural laws” his programs included the natural activities of running, climbing, jumping and self-discovery.

Johann Bernhard Basedow 1723-1790 : 

Johann Bernhard Basedow 1723-1790 One of the first men to recognize the importance of exercise included gymnastics as part of the daily curriculum devoting up to three hours per day required a specific uniform for his students so they could have unrestricted movement Back

Friedrich Ludwig Jahn 1778-1852 : 

Friedrich Ludwig Jahn 1778-1852 Known as "Turnvater Jahn" the "Father of Gymnastics" opposed to anything foreign and refused to use the word gymnastics chose to use the word Turnen from which he derived many forms including Turners (gymnasts), Turnplatz (gymnastics grounds) Back

Charles Beck 1798-1866 : 

Charles Beck 1798-1866 Became the first official Physical Education teacher in America in 1825. Back

Catherine Esther Beecher 1800-1878 : 

Catherine Esther Beecher 1800-1878 the first woman of note to establish any kind of physical education for women In 1823, she established a female seminary in Hartford, Conn., where she pioneered calisthenics for girls. Her system utilized "light exercises" and sometimes those exercises were performed with the use of light weight. Back

Diocletian (Dio) Lewis (1823-1886) : 

Diocletian (Dio) Lewis (1823-1886) did more to promote physical education in American than any other single individual His system included exercises for women opened the Normal Institute of Physical Education in Boston His inventions included bean bags and wooden dumbbells He also used music to enhance his exercises Back


1860 Bean Bags invented by Dio Lewis 1861 The Normal Institute of Physical Education is founded in Boston 1866 California becomes first state to pass physical education legislation. 1869 First professional baseball team - the Cincinnati Red Stockings 1874 W.C. Wingfield invents lawn tennis 1879 National Association of Amateur Athletes of America is formed ( forerunner of the AAU) 1885 American Association for the Advancement of Physical Education founded (AAAPE) 1887 Invention of Softball 1891 James Naismith invents Basketball 1892 Ohio passes mandatory physical education law 1895 Volleyball is invented by William George Morgan originally called "mintonette” 1896 First modern Olympics held in Athens 1897 Wisconsin passes mandatory physical education law 1899 North Dakota passes mandatory physical education law 1900 American League of Baseball formed Back

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