12 Damn Good Reasons

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As you might have noticed on the previous page, the motto of the Coos County Sheriff’s Search and Rescue team is: WHENEVER WHEREVER In keeping with that, my PowerPoint presentations are free for exhibit, training, copying and distribution WHENEVER or WHEREVER they may be useful to SAR members. Though it would be a simple matter to lock these shows, I have not. Recognizing the different needs of SAR units in Oregon, I have left the ability to alter them open to the counties and groups where they may be used. Joe Doman SAR PowerPoint presentations -- Author Coos County Sheriff.com -- Webmaster OSSA Manual Online – Webmaster Coos County Search and Rescue team ---Training Officer OSSA@cooscountysheriff.com


12 Damn Good Reasons To Wear Insect Repellant. ©Joe Doman To be distributed freely to Search and Rescue members

Insect Vectors: 

Insect Vectors Skeeters* Malaria West Nile virus Arboviral encephalitis *AKA - Mosquitoes in genteel circles.


Malaria is characterized by fever and influenza-like symptoms, including chills, headache, myalgias, and malaise; these symptoms can occur at intervals. Malaria may be associated with anemia and jaundice, and P. falciparum infections can cause seizures, mental confusion, kidney failure, coma, and death. We’ve all heard of Malaria ravaging tropical countries. How many of the trainees think Malaria can be contracted in Oregon? Raise your hand if you think Oregon is free of Malaria.


There have been 205 reported cases of Malaria in Oregon during the latest ten year reporting period.


West Nile Virus first appeared in North America in 1999. Oregon was the last mainland state to have the virus appear. Most West Nile Virus infected humans have no symptoms. A small proportion develops mild symptoms that include fever, headache, body aches, skin rash and swollen lymph glands. Less than 1% of infected people develop more severe illness that includes meningitis (inflammation of one of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord) or encephalitis. The symptoms of these illnesses can include headache, high fever, neck stiffness, stupor, disorientation, coma, tremors, convulsions, muscle weakness, and paralysis. Of the few people that develop encephalitis, a small proportion die but, overall, this is estimated to occur in less than 1 out of 1000 infections.

Arboviral Encephalitis : 

Arboviral Encephalitis There are four main virus agents of encephalitis in the United States: eastern equine encephalitis (EEE), western equine encephalitis (WEE), St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) and La Crosse (LAC) encephalitis, all of which are transmitted by mosquitoes. Another virus, Powassan, is a minor cause of encephalitis in the northern United States, and is transmitted by ticks. Most cases of arboviral encephalitis occur from June through September, when arthropods are most active. The majority of human infections are asymptomatic or may result in a nonspecific flu-like syndrome with fever, headache, myalgias, malaise and occasionally prostration. Infection may, however, lead to encephalitis, with a fatal outcome or permanent neurologic sequelae. Fortunately, only a small proportion of infected persons progress to frank encephalitis. There have never been any confirmed cases of Arboviral Encephalitis in Oregon.


Insect Vectors Ticks Colorado Tick Fever Lyme Disease Q fever Relapsing Fever Rocky Mountain spotted fever Tularemia

Colorado Tick Fever : 

Colorado Tick Fever Patients infected with CTF virus often develop a two-staged fever and illness following an average incubation period of 4 days (range of 1-19 days) after a tick bite. Initial symptoms may include sudden onset of fever, chills, headache, pain behind the eyes, light sensitivity, muscle pain, and generalized malaise. Abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting may occur during the course of the illness in addition to a rash. Flat or pimply rashes may occur. The acute illness lasts 5 to 10 days, and in half of the cases, a first phase, with fever lasting 2 to 3 days is followed by a period without fever of 24 to 72 hours with anorexia and malaise. A second phase consisting of a return of fever and an increase in symptoms lasts for about 48 hours. CTF can be a severe illness, especially in children under 10 and older adults. Hospitalization may occur in 20% of CTF cases. In Oregon, 296 cases of CTF were reported from 1950 through 1983 With 82 (28%) residing in Harney County and 77 (26%) residing in Deschutes County.


In the Pacific coastal United States, the disease is spread by the western blacklegged tick (Ixodes pacificus). The blacklegged tick is shown in the top row of the chart. Lyme Disease Left to right are an adult female, an adult male, a nymph, and a larva. The tiny 1/8” nymphs are responsible for most disease spread. They are the size of a poppy seed.


There have been 151 reported cases of Lyme Disease in Oregon in the latest ten years of Record keeping.

Q Fever: 

Q Fever Q Fever is most often transmitted from birthing animals to humans in the barn yard. Q Fever, though nasty in itself, is not often transmitted through tick bites.

Tick Borne Relapsing Fever (TBRF): 

Tick Borne Relapsing Fever (TBRF) Tick Borne Relapsing fever is an infection transmitted by a louse or tick. It is characterized by repeated episodes of fever. It is somewhat like the New Carissa. No matter what you do, it just keeps on coming back. Within 2 weeks of infection, affected people develop sudden-onset high fever. Multiple episodes of fever occur and each may last up to 3 days. Individuals may be free of fever for up to 2 weeks prior to a relapse. The fever episode may end in "crisis," which consists of shaking chills, followed by intense sweating, falling temperature, and low blood pressure -- this stage may result in death in up to 10% of individuals. After several cycles of fever, some people may develop dramatic central nervous system signs such as seizures, stupor, and coma. The infection may also invade heart and liver tissues, causing inflammation of the heart muscle (myocarditis) and inflammation of the liver (hepatitis). Diffuse bleeding and pneumonia are other complications of this illness.


In Oregon, 77 cases of TBRF were reported from 1954 through 1989 with 22 (29%) residing in Deschutes County. Cases were reported throughout the year with peak occurrence during the months of June and July. It is thought that the risk of infection from soft ticks exists largely in the eastern counties. One of two notable outbreaks in the Pacific Northwest in 1968 occurred in Oregon in Wheeler County. It involved 5 cases in 2 families, and was associated with sleeping with ticks in a log cabin. The other involved 11 cases among Boy Scouts staying in two rodent-infested log cabins near Spokane, Washington. In the U.S., TBRF usually occurs west off the Mississippi River, particularly in the mountainous West and the high deserts and plains of the Southwest. In the mountains of California, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, Oregon, Washington, infections are usually caused by ticks and are often acquired in cabins in forests.

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever : 

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Rocky Mountain spotted fever is the most severe and most frequently reported rickettsial illness in the United States. It also occurs in Mexico and in Central and South America. The disease is caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, a species of bacteria that is spread to humans by hard sided ticks. Initial signs and symptoms of the disease include sudden onset of fever, headache, and muscle pain, followed by development of rash. The disease can be difficult to diagnose in the early stages, and without prompt and appropriate treatment it can be fatal. There have been 8 reported cases of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in Oregon in the latest ten years of record keeping.

Tularemia (Rabbit Fever): 

Tularemia (Rabbit Fever) People can get tularemia many different ways: being bitten by an infected tick, deerfly or other insect handling infected animal carcasses eating or drinking contaminated food or water breathing in the bacteria, F. tularensis There have been 21 cases of Tularemia In Oregon in the latest ten years of record keeping.

Insect Vectors: 

Insect Vectors Flea Plague Who can tell us what the Bubonic (Black) Plague is?

Bubonic Plague: 

Bubonic Plague People usually get plague from being bitten by a rodent flea that is carrying the plague bacterium or by handling an infected animal. Millions of people in Europe died from plague in the Middle Ages. Today, modern antibiotics are effective against plague, but if an infected person is not treated promptly, the disease is likely to cause illness or death. Wild rodents in certain areas around the world are infected with plague. Outbreaks in people still occur in rural communities or in cities. They are usually associated with infected rats and rat fleas that live in the home. In the United States, the last urban plague epidemic occurred in Los Angeles in 1924-25. Since then, human plague in the United States has occurred as mostly scattered cases in rural areas (an average of 10 to 15 persons each year). Globally, the World Health Organization reports 1,000 to 3,000 cases of plague every year. In North America, plague is found in certain animals and their fleas from the Pacific Coast to the Great Plains, and from southwestern Canada to Mexico. Most human cases in the United States occur in two regions: 1) northern New Mexico, northern Arizona, and southern Colorado; and 2) California, Southern Oregon, and far western Nevada.


Biting Flies Stable Fly Deer Fly Black Fly Horse Fly Sand Fly While all biting flies can carry disease, it is rare that they do. Bites from the biting flies are itchy and painful. They should be treated like any wound to prevent infection. Antihistamine lotions and antibiotic ointments are helpful in reducing discomforts from fly bites


Chiggers Probably no creature on earth can cause as much torment for its size than the tiny chigger. Tiny six-legged chigger larvae attack warm blooded beings. Chiggers do not suck blood but ingest liquefied skin. Their bites produce small, reddish welts on the skin accompanied by intense itching as irritating as acute cases of poison ivory or poison sumac. Chigger mites are about 1/20 inch long, usually bright red, have hairy bodies, and travel rapidly. The larval stage has three pairs of legs while the nymph and adult have four pairs of legs.


Chigger larvae pierce the skin and inject a salivary secretion containing powerful, digestive enzymes that break down skin cells that are ingested (tissues become liquefied and sucked up). Also, this digestive fluid causes surrounding tissues to harden, forming a straw-like feeding tube of hardened flesh (stylostome) from which further, partially-digested skin cells may be sucked out. After a larva is fully fed in four days, it drops from the host, leaving a red welt with a white, hard central area on the skin that itches severely and may later develop into dermatitis. Any welts, swelling, itching, or fever will usually develop three to six hours after exposure and may continue a week or longer. If nothing is done to relieve itching, symptoms may continue a week or more. Scratching a bite may break the skin, resulting in secondary infections. However, chiggers are not known to transmit any disease in this country. Treat with benzocaine, hydrocortisone, calamine lotion, Vaseline or baby oil


Prevention Deet based products Skin-So-Soft Catnip Netting Leggings

Deet based products: 

Deet based products Quote from the Environmental Protection Agency: DEET is far less toxic than many people believe. Adverse effects, though documented, are infrequent and are generally associated with gross overuse of the product. The risk of DEET-related adverse effects pales in comparison with the risk of acquiring a vector-borne infection. Concentrated DEET formulations ( 35 percent) may be appropriate for those who are exposed for many hours to numerous black flies or mosquitoes or who work in tick-infested areas. Less concentrated products might be used where more transient protection is desired. Although the susceptibility of children to DEET-related toxic effects remains uncertain, the use of a relatively dilute product might be prudent. DEET does irritate mucous membranes. 50% or higher is a waste of money.

Skin So Soft: 

Skin So Soft Consumer Reports (1993) found it ineffective. University of Florida said it failed tests New England Journal of Medicine --- thumbs down Consumer Reports (2003) found no improvement The Webmaster’s personal experience in Alaska was that the stuff seemed to make them angry. Avon has added a non-Deet repellent to the product. It doesn’t seem to make the product any better.

Catnip I: 

Catnip I Catnip, which mysteriously creates euphoria in cats, is an effective insect repellent, according to Iowa State University scientists. In a paper presented to the American Chemical Society meeting in Chicago recently, entomologists Chris Peterson and Joel Coats said they have sought a patent for the use of the catnip oil nepetalactone as a repellent for bothersome pests such as mosquitoes and cockroaches. Nepetalactone, which gives catnip its odor, was found to be 10 times more effective than the popular insect repellent diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET). In experiments at their Ames, Iowa, laboratory, the scientists found a greater percentage of mosquitoes were repelled by the catnip extract than by DEET. For those inclined to experiment: 5ml of catnip oil is $19.80 at The Essential Oil Co. http://www.essentialoil.com/catalog/default.php?cPath=21_40

Catnip II: 

Catnip II Erect perennial, 3-5 ft. tall. Erect square branching stem is hairy and soft. Leaves, pointed, opposite, oblong or cordate with scalloped edges. Has a long leaf stalk with top being green and grayish green, whitish hairs underneath. Flowers, in whorled spikes of two-lipped, white or blue, spotted with lavender clusters. A native of Europe, now found throughout the U.S. in fields, on dry banks waste places and chalky or gravely soil. Let us know if you find that wild catnip works as an Insect repellent. OSSA@cooscountysheriff.com

Head Netting: 

Head Netting $4.00 plus S&H Available at Campmor.com http://www.campmor.com/webapp/wcs/stores/servlet/ProductDisplay? productId=1061&memberId=12500226 Kinda nerdy looking but very effective in the right location. Guaranteed 60 feet or 60 seconds ---- whichever comes first in our rainforest woods along the coast.


Leggings Available at Omaha’s Original GI Surplus http://www.omahas.com/catalog/advanced_search _result.php?search_in_description=1&keywords=leggings&x=24&y=6 $9.00 plus S&H $14.00 plus S&H One cut above duct tape and several cuts below the $89 sportsman styles.


And now for a final word on the subject.


An Itch for All Seasons

The Good, The Bad and The Ugly: 

The Good, The Bad and The Ugly We have Three Good News about Poisonous Plants. We have one Bad News about Poisonous Plants.

The 1st Good News: 

The 1st Good News Poison Ivy isn’t native to Oregon!

The 2nd Good News : 

The 2nd Good News Poison Sumac isn’t native to Oregon

Now The Bad News: 

Now The Bad News Poison Oak thrives in Oregon.

Which One is Our Bane?: 

Which One is Our Bane? Remember: Leaves of Three – Let it Be

Poison Oak is : 

Poison Oak is Always there, lurking…. Biding its time…. Waiting for it’s next victim.

In Spring…: 

In Spring… In the Spring, the leaves are light, bright green with whitish green flowers clustered on the stems.

In Summer : 

In Summer In the Summer, Poison Oak has yellow-green, pink, or reddish colors on some of the leaves, with small white or tan berries after the flowers of Spring.

In Autumn: 

In Autumn In the Fall, The fruit becomes darker, the leaves turn bright red or russet brown.

In Winter: 

In Winter Now the insidiousness of this evil weed is laid bare. The leaves and seeds fall, leaving sticks or whip-like stems or climbing vines.

This Evil Weed Can Grow Anywhere: 

This Evil Weed Can Grow Anywhere

On The Ground: 

On The Ground

It Can Grow Up A Tree: 

It Can Grow Up A Tree

It Can Hang Down From A Tree: 

It Can Hang Down From A Tree

And It Can Be Nasty : 

And It Can Be Nasty

It Can Be Nasty While Flowering: 

It Can Be Nasty While Flowering

It Is Nasty, Nasty Stuff : 

It Is Nasty, Nasty Stuff

It Can Be Nasty In The Spring: 

It Can Be Nasty In The Spring

It Is Just Plain Nasty: 

It Is Just Plain Nasty

It Can Be Nasty In The Fall: 

It Can Be Nasty In The Fall

It’ll Do The Nasty : 

It’ll Do The Nasty

The Inside Story: 

The Inside Story The cause of the rash, blisters, and infamous itch is urushiol (pronounced oo-roo-shee-ohl), a chemical in the sap of poison oak. Because urushiol is inside the plant, brushing against an intact plant will not cause a reaction. But undamaged plants are rare. "Poison oak is a very fragile plant," says William L. Epstein, M.D., professor of dermatology, University of California, San Francisco. Stems or leaves broken by the wind or animals, and even the tiny holes made by chewing insects, can release urushiol.

Any Questions?: 

Any Questions? Ah Yes! The Third Good News.

Help is Available: 

Help is Available Tecnu works by neutralizing urushiol


ASAP Use within a few hours of exposure to help remove poison oak oil (urushiol) before rash begins. .

It’s Never Too Late: 

It’s Never Too Late Once the rash has started, wash with Tecnu to help remove oils on skin allowing the healing process to begin without recontamination


TOOLS: Urushiol oils clinging to tools and equipment can cause rash. Clean equipment with a cloth saturated with Tecnu (check an inconspicuous corner of the equipment for possible surface damage before use). Wash thoroughly with soap and water.


CLOTHING: Saturate contaminated, unwetted clothing with Tecnu in a bucket or dishpan (First check for color fastness by testing a concealed corner of the fabric). Let soak for several minutes. Launder clothing by itself as usual with detergent and hot water


PETS: Dogs, cats, horses and other furry pets can become contaminated by urushiol oil and can transfer poison oil to owners without being affected themselves. Saturate a cloth with Tecnu and wipe down the pet’s coat. Then follow with a pet shampoo and water bath.

Where to Buy: 

Where to Buy RiteAid Tecnu Poison Ivy Skin Cleanser 4 oz. Price: $6.24

On A Search : 

On A Search If you are exposed to Poison Oak See your TAC Officer Or your Team Leader

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