ge390 ch2 origins cities

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Origins and Growth of Cities: 

Origins and Growth of Cities Chapter 2

Introduction: 

Introduction Chapter traces origin of cities 5,500 years ago through the Industrial revolution 5 regions credited with the origin of cities: Mesopotamia Egypt The Indus Valley Northern China and Mesoamerica From here – spread to other areas Early cities developed independently in regions where the transition to agricultural food production had taken place

Defining a City: 

Defining a City No single definition for all cities Some agreed upon definitions: Wheatley – captures social and political changes surrounding the emergence of cities (see def. on Text pg. 22) Sjoberg – Definition highlights physical and economic highlights to define a city (ibid) Childe – Identifies distinctive features - size, structure of pop., public capital, governance, trade Uses urban civilization to define the city – urbanization and civilization historically linked!

Theories/Explanations why Cities originated: 

Theories/Explanations why Cities originated 1. Agricultural Surplus 2. Hydrological factors 3. Population pressures 4. trading requirements 5. Defense needs 6. Religious causes None of all 6 offers sufficient explanation, but a combination of these factors

1. Agricultural Surplus: 

1. Agricultural Surplus Roots in archaeology – G. Childe, L. Woolley Production of more food than was needed, created necessity for centralized structures to administer New social institutions needed to assign rights over resources Created greater degree of occupational specialization in non-agricultural activities Organization needed an urban setting Critique: Too simplistic – agr. Surplus not enough to trigger off all these societal changes Cause-and-effect – not straight forward – which preceded the other surplus or social org.

2. Hydrological factors: 

2. Hydrological factors Karl Wittfogel - Early cities emerged in areas of irrigated agri. Elaborate irrigation practices required new divisions of labor, large scale cooperation, and more cultivation Led to occupational specialization, then centralized social organization Hence urban development Critique: A complex social organization structure not necessary for irrigation Not all early cities depended on massive irrigation

3. Population Pressures: 

3. Population Pressures Esther Boserup – Attributes cities to increasing population densities and growing scarcity of wild food =transition to agricultural production, and urban life Critique: Relationship unclear: Did food production and urban life cause or were a result of increased population densities?

4. Trading Requirements: 

4. Trading Requirements Emergence of cities – a function of long-distance trade Need for a system to administer large-scale exchange of goods – promoted development of centralized structures Increasing occupational specialization would encourage urban development Theory supported by the many urban centers around marketplaces Critique: Again, cause-and-effect issue: between trade and urban development!

5. Defense needs: 

5. Defense needs Max Weber and others Cities a function of need for people to gather together for protection Cities located on strategic places (hills) where could spot enemy at distance Wittfogel – argued that valuable irrigation systems need protection from attack Evidence: Most cities had walls (fortified) Critique: Not all early cities had defenses

6. Religious Causes: 

6. Religious Causes Sjoberg and others Control of Alter offerings by the religious elite – gave them economic and political power Power was used to influence social organization – initiated urban dev. Critique:

Can the origin of cities be attributed solely to any one of the above 6 factors? : 

Can the origin of cities be attributed solely to any one of the above 6 factors? Capital NO! Wheatley: No single autonomous causative factor has been (or will be) identified. None of all 6 offers sufficient explanation, but a combination of these factors Has seen a gradual transformation involving caused incremental change over time rather than an abrupt urban evolution

URBAN ORIGINS: REGIONS : 

URBAN ORIGINS: REGIONS 5 Regions credited with the earliest development of cities: Mesopotamia, Egypt, The Indus Valley, Northern China, and Mesoamerica 1. Mesopotamia

Urban Origins: 

Urban Origins 1. Mesopotamia – Land between the Rivers Tigris and Euphrates – area of modern day Iraq! Earliest evidence for urbanization – approx. 3500BC The Fertile Crescent City States 2. Egypt - Along Nile valley Around 3100 BC Agriculture - Irrigation Short lifespan for cities Cities usually abandoned after the death of a Pharaoh – leader 2000-1400BC – founding of Capital Cities – Thebes, Tanis, etc

Cont.: 

Cont. 3. Indus Valley – 2500BC Modern day Pakistan Agriculture and trade 4. Northern China – Along the fertile plains of R. Huang He – 1800BC Supported by irrigated agriculture 5. Mesoamerica – 500BC Based on agriculture Mayan civilization Modern day Mexico

Slide15: 

REGIONS OF URBAN ORIGIN

Internal Structure of Early Cities: 

Internal Structure of Early Cities Internal Structure=Lay out within the city – land use, streets, transportation, etc Two ways to examine internal lay out: 1. Organic growth –cities that evolved in an unplanned process Eg. Mesopotamia 2. Planned – cities that were laid out in a predetermined way based on some planned approach, eg – gridiron street pattern, eg London Planned lay out of streets could signify the presence of central control Internal structure – never static – evolves – some cities – changed from organic to planned and vice versa eg. London - planned to organic

Slide17: 

INTERNAL STRUCTURE (ORGANIC) OF UR, MESOPOTAMIA – Fig. 2.3

Slide18: 

PLANNED CITY GROWTH OF MOHENJO-DARO, INDUS VALLEY (see gridiron plan)– Fig. 2.4

INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF EARLY CITIES IN MESOPOTAMIA: 

INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF EARLY CITIES IN MESOPOTAMIA Were City states – means were political entities on their own with a sovereign govt Featured an organic growth process Prominent features (eg. Ur, Mesopotamia): 1. Walled City, appr. 35,000 people 2. Religious and administrative core area – reserved for priests and royal household 3. Outer city or suburbs – remainder of the city state – houses, farms (200,000 people

URBAN EXPANSION FROM THE REGIONS OF ORIGIN: 

URBAN EXPANSION FROM THE REGIONS OF ORIGIN Spread of urbanization from areas of origin-involved uneven development Some urbanized civilizations became rural in the process, were later revived, and recolonized Spread associated with long-distance trade Ex. the silk road – an ancient trade network that extended across central Asia Produced an extensive system of cities

Slide21: 

URBAN EXPANSION FROM THE REGIONS OF ORIGIN

Slide22: 

THE SILK ROAD: LONG DISTANCE TRADE AND URBAN EXPANSION – Fig. 2.6

EUROPEAN URBAN EXPANSION: 

EUROPEAN URBAN EXPANSION THE GREEKS – idea of cities introduced from the Fertile Crescent Evolved as City states - ex. Sparta, Athens Served 4 functions: religious, commerce, administrative, and defense Street systems – gridiron pattern Mainly along coastlines – reflecting the importance of long distance sea trade Pressure on farmland –etc – drove overseas colonization – developed cities elsewhere as far as Spain Democratic government – elections, etc

Slide24: 

GENERAL PLAN OF A TYPICAL GREEK CITY STATE – Fig. 2.7

Slide25: 

GREEK CITY STATES IN THE MEDITERRANEAN (Note cities Located along coastlines) – Fig. 2.8

ROMAN CITIES: 

ROMAN CITIES Greeks loose independence – 338BC Greek civilization displaced by the expanding Roman empire By AD 200 – Romans had established towns in Southern Europe Laid foundation for Western European urban system Cities connected to one another and to Rome by a system or roads Health improvements Cities also fortresses – built around military grounds

Slide27: 

CITIES OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE AD 200 – Fig. 2.9 (A well integrated urban system and transportation network)

Slide28: 

GENERAL PLAN OF A TYPICAL ROMAN CITY – Fig. 2.10

THE DARK AGES and the URBAN REVIVAL : 

THE DARK AGES and the URBAN REVIVAL Rome falls in the 5th C – Dark ages a period of stagnation – saw a decline in city life Meanwhile, cities thrived elsewhere – Arab world – Mecca, Medina, Baghdad, etc Transition from feudalism – saw increased trade Medieval period - 11th C – a revival of cities around trade 14th and 18th C – Renaissance – (protestant reformation and scientific revolution – saw significant change in social, pol., and economic organization

Urban Expansion and Consolidation During the Renaissance and Baroque Periods : 

Urban Expansion and Consolidation During the Renaissance and Baroque Periods 14th-18th C – aggressive European colonization Need to connect colonies to European urban and economic systems Spanish and Portuguese started with colonial cities – Latin America Mainly Administrative and military centers Extension of trading networks worldwide – required establishment of gateway cities Gateway cities established as links and control centers eg. North America

Urbanization and the Industrial Revolution : 

Urbanization and the Industrial Revolution Industrialization began in England Industrialization and cities grew hand-in-hand. Cities as production centers Manchester UK – shock city of European industrialization in the 19th C 15,000 (1750); 70,000 (1801); ½ a million (1961); and 2.3 million (1911). Industrial City; also a World city Industrialization and urbanization spread to other parts of Europe

Review: 

Review Origin of cities – theories Earliest cities and their internal structure The spread of urbanization Greek cities Roman cities European cities and spread American cities Rest of the World

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