je gleditsch jordan

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Slide1: 

Resource and Environmental Conflict (E586) Nils Petter Gleditsch The Jordan River Basin & the Israeli-Arab Conflict Jérôme Lacourrège

Slide2: 

Importance of the Jordan River Basin Evolution of the conflict Conflict & Cooperation

Importance of the Jordan River Basin: 

Importance of the Jordan River Basin MAIN WATER SOURCES Coastal aquifer Mountain aquifer (West Bank) Lake Tiberius (Sea of Gallilee) More than 95% of available water resources are used! Consequences Decrease of quality & quanitiy Increase of salinity Possibility of total destruction of the aquifers

Evolution of the Conflict: 

Evolution of the Conflict The National Water Carrier Transport water from Lake Tiberius to the south Planning started immediately after independance Hostile reaction from Jordan

Slide5: 

National Water Carrier

Evolution of the Conflict: 

Evolution of the Conflict The Johnston Plan US initiative to resolve conflicts Negotiations between Israel & Jordan Plan accepted in 1955 “Essentially, the Plan specified water shares for the riparian parties, demarcated storage reservoirs, and called for international supervision of the implementation.”

Evolution of the Conflict: 

Evolution of the Conflict All-Arab Diversion Johnson Plan never ratified, Israel continues NWC Arab League decides to divert Jordan River headwaters Israel would loose 35% of water resources 1967: SIX DAYS WAR!

Evolution of the Conflict: 

Evolution of the Conflict After the Six Days War Occupation (Gaza, West Bank, Golan Heights) Destruction of the All-Arab diversion ISR in control of 2 of 3 main Jordan headwaters improvement of hydropolitical situation PLO vs. ISR Unequal water distribution (West Bank) Raids against Israeli water infrastructure Lebanon (1978/82)

Evolution of the Conflict: 

Evolution of the Conflict Oslo Accords (1993) Palestinian Authority - Israel Joint Water Committee (Oslo II, 1995) limited success ISR consumption won’t be reduced ISR has Veto-Right

Evolution of the Conflict: 

Evolution of the Conflict Israel-Jordan Treaty of Peace (1994) Jordan River Jordan: 50MCM/year from Israel Joint development of water resources and reservoirs Mutual help in years of drought Yarmouk River Jordan: control over ¾ of the river

Evolution of the Conflict: 

Evolution of the Conflict Present situation still very difficult! increase of population since the end of the Cold War water consumption increases no real agreement on water issues between ISR & PAL

Areas of conflict & cooperation: 

Areas of conflict & cooperation Water scarcity ... … as the main factor? … due to improper water use? … as an incentive for cooperation? … isn’t that important at all? Projects

Areas of conflict & cooperation: 

Areas of conflict & cooperation ... as the main factor? water used as a weapon unequal distribution (West Bank) zero sum game no solution foreseeable … due to improper water use? outdated infrastructure as the main problem prices are too low (-> higher prices would decrease demand)

Areas of conflict & cooperation: 

Areas of conflict & cooperation ... as an incentive for cooperation? no zero sum game at all! importance of the international law bi/multilateral treaties & conferences share data & information … isn’t that important at all? water is a commodity as any other, no need to fight for it “(…) if we could transfer money from the arms race to the production of water. For the cost of a single F-15 fighter jet we could desalinate 17MCM of seawater”

Areas of conflict & cooperation: 

Areas of conflict & cooperation Projects Jordan / Syria Unity Dam (Yarmouk River) ISR fears disastrous consequences for the Jordan River Israel improve infrastructure desalinization power plants salt resistant seed

Areas of conflict & cooperation: 

Areas of conflict & cooperation Dead Sea Power Project power & water for 20 million people restore Dead Sea water level provide water to restore the Jordan River basin Alternative: Red Sea – Dead Sea Channel / Tunnel

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