summarizing

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Summary : 

Summary

What is summary? : 

What is summary? To summarize means to condense a text to its main idea and essential information Summarizing differs from paraphrasing in that summary leaves out details and terms

Beginning a summary : 

Beginning a summary When you need to summarize a text, begin by reading carefully and with a pencil Immediately after reading, write a one-sentence main idea in your own words Expand that sentence and draft a summary of three to four sentences

Revising a summary : 

Revising a summary Identify the name of the author(s), the title of the text, and the date and place of publication If possible, include the author’s credentials and/or context for the piece Make sure that you discuss only the main idea and most important points; do not get too detailed in a summary Use direct quotations sparingly and only when they are critical to an effective summary If you do quote, then cite Do not incorporate opinion or commentary; keep the summary objective

Revising a summary : 

Revising a summary As you finish, check for: Wordiness that you can condense Repetition that you can delete Confusing or unclear sentences that you can revise Finally, make sure the summary is in your own words.

Example : 

Example This is an example of a summary: In her article “College tuition has ups and downs,” published in the May 2007 issue of College Times, business writer Jane Smith claims that tuition levels at U.S. colleges and universities follow trends of increasing and decreasing based on the schools’ financial needs. Smith argues that tuition levels should instead follow a consistent and predictable pattern of increasing and decreasing based on specific economic factors such as cost of living data and the unemployment rate in America. According to Smith, “Such a system would allow parents and students to estimate what tuition might be for them simply by following major indicators in the U.S. economy” (4). The author uses many forms of support for her ideas, including quotations from experts, statistics, and clear explanations of financial concepts.

What needs revision? : 

What needs revision? Read this example and see what the student needs to revise: Do you see the author’s name, and publication date and place? This summary needs more basic information In an article “College tuition has ups and downs” a business writer claims that tuition levels at U.S. colleges and universities follow trends of increasing and decreasing based on the schools’ financial needs. She argues that tuition levels should instead follow a consistent and predictable pattern of increasing and decreasing based on specific economic factors such as cost of living data and the unemployment rate in America.

What needs revision? : 

Read this example and see what the student needs to revise: Can you identify the opinion and commentary? This summary needs to be more objective What needs revision? In an article “College tuition has ups and downs” a business writer mistakenly claims that tuition levels at U.S. colleges and universities follow trends of increasing and decreasing based on the schools’ financial needs. Her argument that tuition levels should instead follow a consistent and predictable pattern of increasing and decreasing based on specific economic factors such as cost of living data and the unemployment rate in America seems ridiculous. According to Smith, “Such a system would allow parents and students to estimate what tuition might be for them simply by following major indicators in the U.S. economy” (4). The author uses quotations from experts, statistics, and clear explanations of financial concepts to support her ideas but I didn’t agree with any of the evidence.

What needs revision? : 

Read this example and see what the student needs to revise: You have to look at the two previous examples to see the error in this example. Look closely and you will notice that the writer uses Smith’s exact words yet does not enclose those words in quotation marks. Remember that summaries, like paraphrases, must be in your own words What needs revision? In her article “College tuition has ups and downs,” published in the May 2007 issue of College Times, business writer Jane Smith claims that tuition levels at U.S. colleges and universities follow trends of increasing and decreasing based on the schools’ financial needs. Smith argues that such a system would allow parents and students to estimate what tuition might be for them simply by following major indicators in the U.S. economy. The author uses many forms of support for her ideas, including quotations from experts, statistics, and clear explanations of financial concepts.