GCSE Russia 1914 41

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Russia, 1914-41: 

Russia, 1914-41

The February Revolutions: 

The February Revolutions Nicholas II – personality and government Growth of opposition groups, e.g. Bolsheviks Russian society World War One Rasputin and the Tsarina Alexandra Strikes / demonstrations

The October Revolution: 

The October Revolution Dual Government Broken promises Kerensky’s mistakes Lenin’s ‘April Thesis’ July Days / Kornilov Revolt Storming of Winter Palace

Consolidation of Power, 1918: 

Consolidation of Power, 1918 Decree on Land Decree on Worker’s Control Treaty of Brest Litovsk Dissolution of Constituent assembly Cheka

War Communism, 1918-21: 

War Communism, 1918-21 Linked to Civil War Grain requisitioning Nationalisation of industry Result= Agricultural production fell by 50% Industrial production fell by 80% 5m died due to famine

Civil War, 1918-20: 

Civil War, 1918-20 Reds’ strengths: Controlled central Russia Controlled industries and cities Controlled railway lines Led by Trotsky White’s weaknesses: Lacked a common aim / competing interests Received foreign aid – appeared unpatriotic Lacked strong leadership

Civil War, 1918-20: 

Civil War, 1918-20 Other enemies: Greens – Georgians / Ukranians Britain, USA, France, Japan Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia, Poland

Red Terror: 

Red Terror Felix Dzerzhinsky Cheka, later called GPU and then NKVD Executed Romanovs at Ekateringburg Class warfare

Red Army: 

Red Army Trotsky created highly skilled force Enlisted ex-Tsarist officers Death sentence for desertion Enforced conscription Prisoners used for back-breaking labour Elite of working class troops

Kronstadt Rising: 

Kronstadt Rising Had been loyal supporters Objected to War Communism and other Bolshevik policies Red Army sent to hunt them down Afterwards, Lenin was convinced to abandon War Communism.

New Economic Policy (NEP), 1921-28: 

New Economic Policy (NEP), 1921-28 Designed to meet urgent need for food ‘Force replaced by persuasion’ ‘Temporary concession’ Requisitioning replaced by tax-in-kind and profit motive re-introduced Production in industry and agriculture and wage levels all at least doubled by 1926

Lenin’s Succession: 

Lenin’s Succession Stalin’s jobs in the Party Trotsky’s personality Lenin’s funeral and ‘cult of Lenin’ Lenin’s Testament Debate over NEP Socialism in One Country vs Permanent Revolution Political posturing (defeat of ‘Left’ then ‘Right’)

Collectivisation, 1927: 

Collectivisation, 1927

Collectivisation, 1927: 

Collectivisation, 1927 Successes Helped poorer peasants Supported industrialisation Production rose after 1933 Aided foreign trade Removed Kulaks Aims achieved by 1940 Failures Resistance – destruction of property NKVD killed 6.5m Famine killed 3m Farms slow to collectivise Most experienced farmers lost 1929-33 production fell 1913 figures not reached until 1940

Industrialisation, 1928: 

Industrialisation, 1928 Aims: Gosplan – 5 Year Plans Self sufficiency Modernisation Compete with West Prepare for war

Industrialisation, 1928: 

Industrialisation, 1928 Successes By 1941 leading industrial power Enthusiasm amongst young workers Alexei Stukanov West experienced Depression Magnetogorsk / Sverdlorst Canals / oilfields Coal x2 / Steel x3 / Electricity x5 Failures Living working conditions very harsh Harsh punishments Relied upon Gulags Production figures were forged to meet targets Sub-standard produce Poorly trained workers Accidents / inefficiency

Purges, 1934: 

Purges, 1934 Sergei Kirov Purge of the Party – Show Trials Purge of the Amy Purge of the People Millions died by 1941


Totalitarianism ‘Cult of Stalin’ 1936 Constitution Control of Education ‘Russification’