trafficking nk refugees

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Trafficking of North Korean Refugees in China: 

Donna M. Hughes, PhD Professor & Carlson Endowed Chair Women’s Studies Program University of Rhode Island Trafficking of North Korean Refugees in China Conference on Criminal Trafficking & Slavery University of Illinois – Urbana Champaign Feb 23-25, 2006

Satellite Image of North and South Korea: 

Satellite Image of North and South Korea North Korea - the “Hermit Kingdom” Ideology called “Juche” Hereditary Stalinist dictatorship – Kim Il Sung, now his son Kim Jong Il, next son?

Starvation in North Korea: 

Starvation in North Korea   Images from North Korea Holocaust Exhibit, November 2004

North Korean Refugees/Migrants in China: 

North Korean Refugees/Migrants in China Estimated 200,000 North Koreans in China They leave North Korea by crossing the Tumen River

North Korean Refugees/Defectors in China: 

North Korean Refugees/Defectors in China To search for food or resources To flee detention camps or prisons To flee political or religious persecution  

Chinese Police Forcibly Repatriate Refugees: 

Chinese Police Forcibly Repatriate Refugees In support of North Korean regime In violation of UN treaty on treatment of refugees Special units to hunt down refugees Bounties are paid for turning in refugees   65 Refugees, 2 Rescue Workers Seized in China October 26, 2004 Chinese government raided two NK refugee hide-out places in the Tong Chow section of Beijing on October 26th, and arrested (65) NK refugees who were waiting to be rescued and (2) SK human rights workers. Among them were (11) teenage children and (1) senior man aged over 70. Thirty policemen came and arrested the refugees who did not even resist.

Chinese Police Forcibly Repatriate Refugees: 

Chinese Police Forcibly Repatriate Refugees  

Refugees Returned to North Korea: 

Refugees Returned to North Korea Returning North Koreans are beaten, imprisoned, tortured   August 17, 2005, China-North Korean border, Free North Korea Broadcasting

Refugees Returned to North Korea: 

Refugees Returned to North Korea Execution of someone accused of being a “trafficker”   March 1, 2005, Yusunnodong District in Huiryeong, North Hamkyoung Province, North Korea

North Korean Refugees in Northeast China: 

North Korean Refugees in Northeast China Majority are women and teens Many are abducted and sold Informal wives or concubines China’s one child policy resulted in deficit of young women Karaoke clubs for prostitution

North Korean Refugees in Northeast China: 

North Korean Refugees in Northeast China Women and teen girls are raped by kidnappers, buyers and sellers Once recognized as North Koreans, they are powerless Any protest or lack of obedience results in being resold or turned over to the Chinese police for repatriation

North Korean Refugees in Northeast China: 

North Korean Refugees in Northeast China Hide in the mountains in dugouts or small shelters

North Korean Women in China: 

North Korean Women in China Korean Chinese men hunt for women and girls in the forests and mountains Rape them and force them to “marry” Sell them to club owners 80 to 90% of women refugees are trafficked –- leader of the Underground Railroad Chinese police are corrupt and collaborate with traffickers

Plea for Help from NK Women in China: 

Plea for Help from NK Women in China “Please help us. Please save us from this darkness full of danger. We are currently living in China risking danger every day. It is not just me alone, but my mother, elder sister, and my elder sister’s 3-year-old daughter. The only crime we have is coming here to find something to eat because we were hungry. What is worse than being hungry is the constant worry and fear that at any moment we might get caught.” - May 2005

Underground Railroad: 

Underground Railroad Get refugees out of China to another country (Mongolia, Thailand, Vietnam) Then to South Korea, although that’s limited 50% of attempts fail Pastor Chun Ki-won arrested in China, spent 200 days in jail, banned from entering China Pastor Chun Ki-won Durihana Seoul, Korea “Women are treated like animals. They have no rights. Whoever finds them first can sleep with them. Then he sells them later.” – Chun Ki-won

Trafficking of North Korean Women: 

Trafficking of North Korean Women Women and teen girls are trafficked from North Korea to China by traffickers Many reports of women and teen girls “selling themselves” to men in China to survive March 1999 – 26 year old in detention was executed for “selling herself” in China She “fell under the influence of capitalism and sold herself for money.” Executed in public as a lesson to others

Strategy for Action: 

Strategy for Action Coalition - American religious groups, human rights, security, social, and civil rights leaders Trafficking Victims Protection Act 2000 Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act 2003 Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act 2005 North Korea Freedom Act 2003 North Korea Human Rights Act 2004 Statement of Principles Aim: To put pressure on China to stop violating the treatment of refugees according to international law

Strategy for Action: Pressure China: 

Strategy for Action: Pressure China China pressured to: Halt all efforts to forcibly return North Koreans in violation of international human rights and refugee protection obligations Grant international humanitarian organizations, NGOs, access to border areas Ensure no public official is complicit in the trafficking of NK women

Strategy for Action: “Scoop Jackson” Bill: 

Strategy for Action: “Scoop Jackson” Bill Grant all NKs in China an indefinite humanitarian status to protect them from harassment, extortion, trafficking or forced repatriation to North Korea Bill is called the “Scoop Jackson National Security and Freedom Act of 2005” Mode of action: “limit the total annual value of primary imports from China into the U.S.” if China continues to violate obligations under international law concerning refugees

Letter from North Korean Woman in China: 

Letter from North Korean Woman in China “I want to live like a human being for one day. I am a human being. How can I be sold like this? I need freedom.”

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