logging in or signing up intro into nervous system Bakerbeast Download Post to : URL : Related Presentations : Let's Connect Share Add to Flag Embed Email Send to Blogs and Networks Add to Channel Copy embed code: Embed: Flash iPad Dynamic Copy Does not support media & animations Automatically changes to Flash or non-Flash embed WordPress Embed Customize Embed URL: Copy Thumbnail: Copy The presentation is successfully added In Your Favorites. Views: 328 Category: Education License: All Rights Reserved Like it (1) Dislike it (0) Added: February 16, 2011 This Presentation is Public Favorites: 1 Presentation Description No description available. Comments Posting comment... By: jiajamal (36 month(s) ago) please allow me to download it. i wud b very thankful Saving..... Post Reply Close Saving..... Edit Comment Close By: nashrah (37 month(s) ago) hi...its a very nice introduction to nervous system.it provides such a simplified explanation of a highly complicated system.i would love to download it.kindly allow me. Saving..... Post Reply Close Saving..... Edit Comment Close Premium member Presentation Transcript The Nervous System : The Nervous System Major division - Central vs. Peripheral Central or CNS- brain and spinal cord Peripheral- nerves connecting CNS to muscles and organs Central Nervous System Peripheral Nervous SystemPeripheral Nervous System: Peripheral Nervous System 3 kinds of neurons connect CNS to the body sensory motor interneurons Motor - CNS to muscles and organs Sensory - sensory receptors to CNS Interneurons: Connections Within CNS Spinal Cord Brain NervesPeripheral Nervous System: Peripheral Nervous System S k e l e t a l S o m a t i c S y m p a t h e t i c P a r a s y m p a t h e t i c A u t o n o m i c P e r i p h e r a l N e r v o u s S y s t e mSomatic System: Somatic System Nerves to/from spinal cord control muscle movements somatosensory inputs Both Voluntary and reflex movements Skeletal Reflexes simplest is spinal reflex arc Muscle Motor Neuron Interneuron Skin receptors Sensory Neuron BrainAutonomic System: Autonomic System Two divisions: sympathetic parasympathetic Control involuntary functions heartbeat blood pressure respiration perspiration digestion Can be influenced by thought and emotionSympathetic: Sympathetic “ Fight or flight” response Release adrenaline and noradrenaline Increases heart rate and blood pressure Increases blood flow to skeletal muscles Inhibits digestive functions CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM Brain Spinal cord SYMPATHETIC Dilates pupil Decreases salivation Relaxes bronchi Accelerates heartbeat Inhibits activity Stimulates glucose Secretion of adrenaline, nonadrenaline Relaxes bladder Stimulates ejaculation in male Sympathetic ganglia Salivary glands Lungs Heart Stomach Pancreas Liver Adrenal gland KidneyParasympathetic: Parasympathetic “ Rest and digest ” system Calms body to conserve and maintain energy Lowers heartbeat, breathing rate, blood pressure CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM Brain PARASYMPATHETIC Spinal cord Stimulates salivation Constricts bronchi Slows heartbeat Stimulates activity Contracts bladder Stimulates erection of sex organs Stimulates gallbladder Gallbladder Contracts pupilSummary of autonomic differences: Summary of autonomic differences Autonomic nervous system controls physiological arousal Sympathetic division (arousing) Parasympathetic division (calming) Pupils dilate EYES Pupils contract Decreases SALIVATION Increases Perspires SKIN Dries Increases RESP I RATION Decreases Accelerates HEART Slows Inhibits DIGESTION Activates Secrete stress hormones ADRENAL GLANDS Decrease secretion of stress hormonesCentral Nervous System: Central Nervous System Brain and Spinal Cord Spinal Cord BrainBrain has 2 Hemispheres: Left & Right sides are separate Corpus Callosum : major pathway between hemispheres Some functions are ‘lateralized’ L: Language, logic, math R: Spatial abilities, face recognition, visual imagery, music Lateralization is never 100% Brain has 2 Hemispheres Left Hemisphere Corpus Callosum Right HemisphereEach hemisphere is divided into 4 lobes : Each hemisphere is divided into 4 lobes Frontal Parietal Occipital TemporalSensory Information sent to opposite hemisphere: Sensory Information sent to opposite hemisphere Principle is Contralateral Organization Sensory data crosses over in pathways leading to the cortex Visual Crossover left visual field to right hemisphere right field to left Other senses similar Left visual field Right visual field Optic nerves Corpus Callosum Left Visual Cortex Right Visual CortexContralateral Motor Control: Contralateral Motor Control Movements controlled by motor area Right hemisphere controls left side of body Left hemisphere controls right side Motor nerves cross sides in spinal cord Somatosensory Cortex Motor CortexCorpus Callosum: Corpus Callosum Major (but not only) pathway between sides Connects comparable structures on each side Permits data received on one side to be processed in both hemispheres Aids motor coordination of left and right side Corpus Callosum Medial surface of right hemisphereCorpus Callosum: Corpus Callosum What happens when the corpus callosum is cut? Sensory inputs are still crossed Motor outputs are still crossed Hemispheres can’t exchange dataThe ‘Split Brain’ studies: The ‘Split Brain’ studies Surgery for epilepsy : cut the corpus callosum Roger Sperry, 1960’s Special apparatus picture input to just one side of brain screen blocks objects on table from view Nonverbal right hemisphere Verbal left hemisphereThe ‘Split Brain’ studies: Nonverbal right hemisphere Verbal left hemisphere ?? “What did you see?” Picture to left brain can name the object left hand cannot identify by touch Picture to right brain can’t name the object left hand can identify by touch “Using your left hand, Pick up what you saw.” The ‘Split Brain’ studies I saw an apple. “What did you see?” Nonverbal right hemisphere Verbal left hemisphereLocalization of function : Localization of function Frontal Parietal Occipital TemporalOccipital Lobe: Occipital Lobe Input from optic nerve Contains primary visual cortex most is on surface inside central fissure Outputs to parietal and temporal lobes Occipital Lobe Visual LobeTemporal Lobe: Temporal Lobe Inputs are auditory, visual patterns speech recognition face recognition word recognition memory formation Outputs to limbic system, basal ganglia, and brainstem Contains primary auditory cortex Temporal Lobe Temporal Lobe Auditory CortexParietal Lobe: Parietal Lobe Somatosensory Cortex Parietal Lobe Inputs from multiple senses contains primary somatosensory cortex borders visual & auditory cortex Outputs to Frontal lobe hand-eye coordination eye movements attentionFrontal Lobe: Frontal Lobe Frontal Lobe Contains primary motor cortex Motor Cortex Motor Cortex Broca’s Area Motor Cortex Working Memory No direct sensory input Important planning and sequencing areas Broca’s area for speech Prefrontal area for working memoryFrontal Lobe Disorders: Frontal Lobe Disorders Broca’s area productive aphasia Prefrontal area lose track of ongoing context fail to inhibit inappropriate responses Often measured with the Wisconsin Card Sorting TaskWisconsin Card Sorting Task: Wisconsin Card Sorting Task Patient is given a deck of 64 different cards Told to place each card under the one it best matches Told correct or incorrect after each card Row of 4 example cards set out Must deduce what the underlying rule is. Correct!Wisconsin Card Sorting Task: Wisconsin Card Sorting TaskWisconsin Card Sorting Task: Wisconsin Card Sorting TaskWisconsin Card Sorting Task: Wisconsin Card Sorting TaskWisconsin Card Sorting Task: Wisconsin Card Sorting TaskWisconsin Card Sorting Task: Wisconsin Card Sorting TaskThe Nervous System: Summary : The Nervous System: Summary Major structures of the nervous system CNS, PNS, Somatic, Autonomic Two hemispheres & 4 lobes Organization contralateral input & output primary sensory areas motor areas Commissure Localization of functions Central Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.