Respiratory physiology

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Respiratory System PHYSIOLOGY

Respiratory systems are the organs that exchange gases with the environment. :

Respiratory systems are the organs that exchange gases with the environment.

Parts  Structure.:

Parts  Structure. Upper respiratory system. Composed of the nose, the pharynx, and the larynx, the organs of the upper respiratory tract are located outside the chest cavity. Lower respiratory system. Composed of the trachea, the lungs, and all segments of the bronchial tree (including the alveoli), the organs of the lower respiratory tract are located inside the chest cavity.

The four processes of respiration :

The four processes of respiration They are: BREATHING  or ventilation EXTERNAL RESPIRATION , which is the exchange of gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) between inhaled air and the blood. INTERNAL RESPIRATION , which is the exchange of gases between the blood and tissue fluids. CELLULAR RESPIRATION In addition to these main processes, the respiratory system serves for: REGULATION OF BLOOD pH , which occurs in coordination with the kidneys, and as a ' DEFENSE AGAINST MICROBES Control of body temperature  due to loss of evaporate during expiration

Respiratory System :

Respiratory System Consists of the Respiratory Zone and C onducting zones

Conducting zone: :

Conducting zone: Channels for air to reach the sites of gas exchange Includes all other respiratory structures (e.g., nose, nasal cavity, pharynx, trachea) Respiratory muscles – diaphragm and other muscles that promote ventilation

Respiratory zone: :

Respiratory zone: Site of gas exchange Consists of bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveoli

Functions of Respiratory Tract :

Functions of Respiratory Tract Filtration Nose or mouth  air is "filtered" through natural lines of defense that protect against illness and irritation of the respiratory tract . Nasal hairs at the nostrils trap large particles of dust that might otherwise be inhaled .

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Humidification Inhaled air is moistened, warmed, and cleansed by the nasal epithelium , which covers the turbinate bones in the nasal cavity The nasal epithelium has increased blood flow that helps to warm the inhaled air

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Protection or Defense The pharynx , guards the lymphatic tissues against infection by releasing white blood cells (T and B lymphocytes).

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Allow you to speak. Passage of air from the atmosphere to the lungs and reverse direction. Smell.

General Functions:

General Functions Supply of O2 to the tissues. Removal of CO2 from the body. Regulation of body pH and acid balance.

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Control the movements The epiglottis  prevents food or liquid from entering the lower respiratory tract while swallowing.

Process:

Process Inspiration Expiration Organs of RS Nose/Nasal cavity Paranasal sinus Pharynx Larynx Trachea Lungs Diaphragm Brochi Bronchioles Alveoli

How breathing happens?:

How breathing happens?

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P rocess of moving air into and out of the lungs to facilitate gas exchange. Pulmonary ventilation D epends on a difference between the atmospheric air pressure and the pressure in the alveoli.

External & internal :

External & internal It is the exchange of gases between the lungs and the blood in pulmonary capillaries.  External Blood gains O2 and loses CO2. it is the exchange of gases between the blood and tissue cell. Blood loses O2 and gains CO2 .

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Inhalation (also known as inspiration ) is the flow of air into an organism. It is a vital process for all human life . In humans it is the movement of air from the external environment, through the airways, and into the alveoli . . Inhalation

What happens in??:

What happens in??

Exhalation:

Exhalation In exhalation, the reverse occurs. Diaphragm relaxes, dome curves up into chest cavity, intercostal muscles relax and bring the ribs down and inward. The reduced size of the chest cavity increases the pressure in the lungs, thereby forcing out the air

Lung volumes & Capacities:

Lung volumes & Capacities Lung  volumes  and  lung capacities  refer to the  volume  of air associated with different phases of the respiratory cycle. Lung volumes are directly measured; Lung capacities are indirect from lung volumes . The average total lung capacity of an adult human male is about 6  litres  of  air , but only a small amount of this capacity is used during normal  breathing . Spirometer & Spirogram

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T idal volume  it is defined as amount of air inspired and expired during normal respiration  500ml Inspiratory reserve volume ( IRV )  Max Amount of air that is forcibly inhaled beyond a tidal volume by deep inspiration  (3000ml-M , 2000ml-F ) ERV  Max Amount of air that is forcibly expired beyond a tidal volume by deep Expiration  ( 1200ml-M,700ml-F ) Residual volume  Amount of air remaining in lungs after a forceful expiration.( 1200ml)

Lung capacities:

Lung capacities Inspiratory capacity  max amount of air that can be inspired by a deep inspiration IC = IRV +TV =3000+500= 3500ml Functional Residual Capacity  it is defined as amount of air that remaining inside the lungs at the end of a normal expiration. FRC = RV+ERV =1200+1100 =2300ml.

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Vital capacity  max amount of air that can expired out by a forceful expiration after a deep inspiration VC = IRV +TV+ERV

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Exchange of gases Based on Dalton’s law & Henry’s law The main function of the  respiratory system  is gaseous exchange. This refers to the process of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide moving between the lungs and  blood .

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Diffusion occurs when molecules move from an area of high concentration (of that molecule) to an area of low concentration. This occurs during gaseous exchange as the blood in the  capillaries surrounding the alveoli has a lower oxygen concentration of Oxygen than the air in the alveoli which has just been inhaled. Both alveoli and capillaries have walls which are only one cell thick and allow gases to diffuse across them.

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The same happens with Carbon Dioxide (CO2). The blood in the surrounding capillaries has a higher concentration of CO2 than the inspired air due to it being a waste product of energy production. Therefore CO2 diffuses the other way, from the capillaries, into the alveoli where it can then be exhaled.

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