Introduction to Anatomy and cell biology

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INTRODUCTION ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY (2 BRANCHES OF SCIENCE) Ana up Tomy  process of cutting Physionature Logystudy of Structure of the body often reflects its function

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Anatomy – the structure of body parts (also called Morphology ) Physiology – the function of the body parts, what they do and how they do it


Subdivisions Gross anatomy Large structures Easily observable

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Microscopic Anatomy Very small structures Can only be viewed with a microscope

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Radiological Anatomy Surface Anatomy Histology

Basic Anatomical Terminology:

Basic Anatomical Terminology Body positions Directional terms Regional names Body cavities Planes

Anatomical Position:

Anatomical Position

Body Positions:

Body Positions Lithotomy

Directional Terms:

Directional Terms

Directional Terms:

Directional Terms Superior : The part is above another or closer to head (cranial ). Vs. Inferior: The part is below another or towards the feet (caudal).

Directional Terms:

Directional Terms Anterior : towards the front (the eyes are anterior to the brain ) (ventral) Vs . Posterior : means toward the back (the pharynx is posterior to the oral cavity)(dorsal)

Directional Terms:

Directional Terms Medial : imaginary midline dividing the body into equal right and left halves (the nose is medial to the eyes). Vs . Lateral: means towards the side with respect to the imaginary midline (the ears are lateral to the eyes).

Directional Terms:

Directional Terms Proximal : part that is closer to the trunk of the body Eg : Elbow Vs . Distal: it means that a particular body part is farther from the trunk Eg : fingers are distal

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Ipsilateral Contralateral Evagination Invagination Superficial Deep Peripheral Visceral

Regional Names:

Regional Names Head Neck Trunk Upper limbs & lower.

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BODY CAVITIES! Spaces within the body that helps, separates and support internal organs .




V entral Thoracic A bdominal P elvic Abdominopelvic BODY CAVITIES!


Dorsal V ertebral Cranial BODY CAVITIES!

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Median (Midsagittal) Plane:

Median (Midsagittal) Plane Divides body into equal right & left halves.

Transverse Plane:

Transverse Plane Divides body into upper & lower portions.

Levels of structural organization:

Levels of structural organization The structure of the human body consists of 6 structural levels of organization From the more simple chemical level to the more complex organismal level Organism Organ System Organ Tissue Cellular Molecules Atom

Levels of structural organization:

Levels of structural organization Atom  Smallest part of an element Atoms Molecule

2. Molecules form cells:

2. Molecules form cells Molecules Cell

3. Cells form tissues:

3. Cells form tissues Similar cells with a common function form tissues There are 4 basic tissue types: Epithelial Nervous Muscular Connective

4. Tissues form organs:

4 . Tissues form organs An organ is a structure that performs a specific function for the body

5. Organs form Organ Systems:

5. Organs form Organ Systems A group of organs which work together for a common purpose.

All of the organ systems form the organism:

All of the organ systems form the organism

In summary!:

In summary!

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THE CELL Made of organelles Basic unit of structure & function LIVING


Cells The basic unit of structure and function in the human body Though all cells perform the processes that keep humans alive, they also have specialized functions as well. Examples may be nerve cells (neurons), blood cells, and bone cells.

Animal Cell:

Animal Cell

Plasma membrane:

Plasma membrane The outer most part covered by cell membrane. separates the cell from extracellular substances Thin and delicate membrane Thickness – 6 -10 mm Functions Maintains the integrity of the cell semipermeable membrane is involved in endocytosis (Phagocytosis) and exocytosis . It bears specific receptors like hormones , enzymes . Serves as identification tags


Cytoplasm Fluid portion contains water, dissolved solutes and suspended particles. It consist of all cellular contents between the plasma membrane and the nucleus. 2 types of cytoplasmic bodies: Organelles Inclusions


Organelles Cell Membrane Nucleus Cytoplasm Ribosomes Endoplasmic Reticulum Golgi Apparatus Mitochondria Lysosomes Centrosome

Endoplasmic Reticulum:

Endoplasmic Reticulum Structure: a system of membranous tubules and sacs Function: intercellular highway (a path along which molecules move from one part of the cell to another) Two types: Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum( proteins) Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum(lipid) Ribosomes

Golgi Apparatus:

Golgi Apparatus Structure: stacked flat sacs Function: receives proteins from the rER and distributes them to other organelles or out of the cell (receiving, processing, packaging, and shipping)

Mitochondria: Power house of the cell:

Mitochondria: Power house of the cell Structure: folded membrane within an outer membrane (sausage) The folds of the inner membrane are called cristae Function: -converts energy stored in food into usable energy for work cellular respiration

Lysosomes- Suicide bags:

Lysosomes- Suicide bags Structure: spherical organelles that contain hydrolytic enzymes within single membranes Function: breaks down food particles, invading objects, or worn out cell parts


Centrioles Structure: composed of nine sets of triplet microtubules arranged in a ring Exist in pairs Function: centrioles play a major role in cell division (mitosis ) Microtubules: they are tubular structure(protein) Maintains cell shape Direct the movements of chromosome




Nucleus Structure: the nucleus is a sphere that contains another sphere called a nucleolus Function: -storage center of cell’s DNA -manages cell functions


Tissues A group of specialized cells that work together to perform the same function . Four types of tissue Epithelial = covering Connective = support Muscle = movement Nervous = control

Epithelia (plural):

Epithelia (plural) Epithelium: sheet of cells that covers a body surface or lines a body cavity; also form most of the body’s glands Roles: as interfaces and as boundaries Functions: Protection Absorption Sensory reception Ion transport Secretion Filtration Formation of slippery surfaces for movement

Classes of Epithelia :

Classes of Epithelia Simple: just one layer or cell shape Stratified: multiple layers and cell shapes Human Anatomy, Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D. Epithelial Tissue Locations: Covers the body Lines the cavities, tubes, ducts and blood vessels inside the body Covers the organs inside body cavities

Simple Epithelia:

Simple Epithelia Pseudostratified non ciliated (Ex –Auditory tube, Male urethra (membranous and penile part) Pseudostratified ciliated (ex-URT -Trachea and large bronchi)

Connective Tissue:

Connective Tissue Originate from embryonic tissue called mesenchyme Most diverse and abundant type of tissue Many subclasses Function: to protect, support and bind together other tissues Bones, ligaments, tendons Areolar cushions; adipose insulates and is food source Blood cells replenished; body tissues repaired Cells separated from one another by large amount of nonliving extracellular matrix

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Classes of Connective Tissue *

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Loose Connective tissue

Dense connective tissue - Cartilage:

Dense connective tissue - Cartilage Embryo More prevalent than in adult Skeleton initially mostly cartilage Bone replaces cartilage in fetal and childhood periods

“Cartilage and Bone”:

“Cartilage and Bone”


Cartilage Embryo More prevalent than in adult Skeleton initially mostly cartilage Bone replaces cartilage in fetal and childhood periods

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Hyaline cartilage


Bones Functions Support Movement: muscles attach by tendons and use bones as levers to move body Protection Skull – brain Vertebrae – spinal cord Rib cage – thoracic organs Mineral storage Calcium and phosphorus Released as ions into blood as needed Blood cell formation and energy storage Bone marrow: red makes blood, yellow stores fat

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