Pesticide Residue Degredation Through Micro Organism

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Organic farming:

Organic farming Management of Pesticidal residue through use of microorganisms Prepared by: Subash Devkota Mukti Chalise Megha Raj Poudel Sugam Devkota Kumar Shreatha Balkrishna Maharjan

Organic farming:

Growing crops without the application of synthetic chemicals like pesticides and fertilizers Maintains sustainable soil productivity, fertility and pest management under conditions of sustainable natural resources and healthy environment Organic farming

Pesticide and its effects:

Any substance, used to kill organisms known as pests to us ideal pesticide should have the ability to destroy target pest quickly and should be able to degrade to non-toxic substances as quickly as possible Approximately 90% of agricultural pesticide application never reaches its target organisms dispersed through the air, soil, and water Pesticide and its effects

Pesticide and its effects …continued:

Effects of pesticides in natural habitat Alterations in ecological balance of the soil microflora continued application of large quantities of pesticides may cause ever lasting changes in the soil microflora Adverse effect on soil fertility and crop productivity Inhibition of N2 fixing soil microorganisms such as Rhizobium , Azotobacter , Azospirillum etc. and cellulolytic and phosphate solubilizing microorganisms Pesticide and its effects …continued

Pesticide and its effects …continued:

Suppression of nitrifying bacteria, Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter by soil fumigants ethylene bromide, Telone , and vapam have also been reported Alterations in nitrogen balance of the soil Interference with ammonification in soil Adverse effect on mycorrhizal symbioses in plants and nodulation in legumes Alterations in the rhizosphere microflora , both quantitatively and qualitatively Pesticide and its effects …continued

Pesticide residue and its problems:

Pesticides that may remain on or in food after they are applied to food crops Some chemicals are persistent(BHC, DDT, Endrin , Aldrin ) in nature and cause bio-magnification Categorization of effects examples, Problems: Poision may reside into root crops, tuber crops and are consumed Bioacumulation : After application run off-H 2 0 sources-infested by fish-human, big fish consumption- poision multiplication-high degree Biomagnification : Pesticide residue and its problems

Microorganisms & their role in biodegradation of pesticides:

Pesticides residues of soil-acted upon by several forces. Microbial- major process Microorganisms play imp. role in the degradation of pesticides Degradation of pesticides and conversion into non-toxic compounds by microorganisms is known as “biodegradation”. Fungi and bacteria secrete enzymes. All groups of pesticides are degraded by different pathways Microorganisms & their role in biodegradation of pesticides

Microorganisms & their role in biodegradation of pesticides …continued:

Various chemical reactions leading to biodegradation of pesticides: Detoxification: Conversion of the pesticide molecule to a non-toxic compound Degradation: breaking down or transformation of a complex substrate into simpler products e.g. Thiram degraded by Pseudomonas Conjugation: organism makes the substrate more complex or combines the pesticide with cell metabolites Microorganisms & their role in biodegradation of pesticides …continued

Microorganisms & their role in biodegradation of pesticides …continued:

Activation: of non-toxic substrate into a toxic molecule Changing the spectrum of toxicity: Some fungicides or pesticides, designed to control one particular group of organisms or pests, but are metabolized to yield products inhibitory to entirely dissimilar groups of organisms Microorganisms & their role in biodegradation of pesticides …continued

Factors affecting biodegradation of pesticides or herbicides :

Soil moisture Soil temperature Soil p H Organic matter content in soil Optimum value of these factors provide congenial environment for the break down or retention of any pesticide added in the soil Factors affecting biodegradation of pesticides or herbicides

Strategies for bioremediation:

Bioremediation: Process of detoxification of contaminants in the soil and other environment by using microorganisms Passive/intrinsic Bioremediation: natural bioremediation of contaminant by the indigenous microorganisms and the rate of degradation is slow Biostimulation : Practice of addition of N 2 & P 2 O 5 to stimulate indigenous microorganisms in soil Bioventing : Process of Biostimulation by which gases stimulants like O 2 and CH 4 are added or forced into soil to stimulate microbial activity Strategies for bioremediation

Strategies for bioremediation …continued:

Bioaugmentation : inoculation/introduction of microorganisms in the contaminated site/soil to facilitate biodegradation Composting: Piles of contaminated soils are constructed & treated with aerobic thermophilic microorganisms to degrade contaminants Phytoremediation : Can be achieved directly by planting plants which hyperaccumulate heavy metals or indirectly by plants stimulating microorganisms in the rhizosphere Mineralization: Complete conversion of an organic contaminant to its inorganic constituent by a species or group of microorganisms Strategies for bioremediation …continued

PowerPoint Presentation:

BACTERIA SP. PESTISIDE Enterobacter aerogenes Cypermetrine Bacillus sp. Mesotrione Stenotrophomonas sp. DDT Pseudomonas putida Prophenofos Ochrobactrum sp. Methyl parathion Arthrobacter sp. Endosulfan Sphingomonas sp. Chlorpyrifos Burkholderia sp. Fenitrothion Micrococcus sp. Diuron Acinetobacter radioresistens Methyl parathion FUNGI SP. PESTICIDE Aspergillus niger Endosulfan Ganoderma austral Lindane Trichosporon sp. Chlorpyrifos Verticillium sp. Chlorpyrifos T. versicolor Atrazine Trichoderma sp. DDT Some species of bacteria and fungi which degrade the pesticides:

Conclusion:

Conclusion Increase in use of pesticides has increased productivity of agricultural products Haphazard use of such pesticides have created a lots of problems, which being accumulated, are being exposed after these few decades For the management of those problems, the pesticide residues should be removed Use of microorganisms can fix this problem

PowerPoint Presentation:

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