PPT-Presidency College Webnair- June 2020

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Commercial Granite a subject for the students of Geology

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GEOLOGICAL AND COMMERCIAL ASPECTS OF GRANITES :

GEOLOGICAL AND COMMERCIAL ASPECTS OF GRANITES B.KANISHKAN , & Dr.R.SIVAKUMAR Director ( Rtd ) Principal, Geological Survey of India Govt.Arts College, 91-9444411203 Kadaladi , bkanishkan @gmail.com Ramnad District geologypresidency2020@gmail.com Presentation made in Webinar Lecture series organised by the Dept.Of Geology Presidency College, Chennai -600 005 on 24-06-2020

PART-1 EMPLOYMENT POTENTIAL FOR GEOLOGISTS IN COMMERCIAL GRANITE INDUSTRY:

PART-1 EMPLOYMENT POTENTIAL FOR GEOLOGISTS IN COMMERCIAL GRANITE INDUSTRY

EMPLOYMENT POTENTIAL FOR GEOLOGISTS IN COMMERCIAL GRANITE FIELD:

EMPLOYMENT POTENTIAL FOR GEOLOGISTS IN COMMERCIAL GRANITE FIELD Occurrence of Granites within the Southern Granulite Terrain(SGT) is well known. Its Commercial Value as Dimension Stone is known since late sixties by the Pioneers of the Industry. The State of the Art in commercial exploitation of granites on a large scale in Quarries has improved a lot in recent decades. The significance of this study is not included in the curriculum of Geological courses.

EMPLOYMENT POTENTIAL FOR GEOLOGISTS IN COMMERCIAL GRANITE INDUSTRY:

EMPLOYMENT POTENTIAL FOR GEOLOGISTS IN COMMERCIAL GRANITE INDUSTRY Job opportunities for the Geology students at the end of graduation level itself is good for employment in granite quarries spread across the S outhern States mainly as quality inspector to mark the defect free granite blocks for export, besides selection of areas for exploitation duly understanding the structural geometry of each deposit. To assist in planning day to day operation of the quarry to improve its recovery in production. Some of the Geologists have turned out to be big entrepreneurs in this field by operating quarries. Some turned acts as Agents for Overseas Buyers for marking blocks.

EMPLOYMENT POTENTIAL FOR GEOLOGISTS IN COMMERCIAL GRANITE INDUSTRY:

EMPLOYMENT POTENTIAL FOR GEOLOGISTS IN COMMERCIAL GRANITE INDUSTRY By working in quarries many Geologists have qualified as First and Second Class Mines Managers with experience and passing out in the Examinations conducted by the Director General of Mines Safety(DGMS) every year and the opportunities thereafter is much more bright. Geologists with M.Sc qualification and five years experience in the field are considered as Qualified Persons to prepare Mining Plans/Schemes for quarries and mines once in five years which is mandatory for grant of Mining Lease and for Environment Clearance. More than 1500 granite quarries are in operation in Tamil Nadu alone and therefore one can visualize the immense hidden job oppurtunities in this field.

PART-2 FOCAL THEME & BACKGROUND INFORMATION ABOUT COMMERCIAL GRANITES -A GLMPSE ABOUT QUARRIES, PROCESSING UNITS& FINISHED PRODUCTS :

PART-2 FOCAL THEME & BACKGROUND INFORMATION ABOUT COMMERCIAL GRANITES -A GLMPSE ABOUT QUARRIES, PROCESSING UNITS& FINISHED PRODUCTS

FOCAL THEME OF THE LECTURE:

FOCAL THEME OF THE LECTURE To explain the logical link between Geology and Commercial exploitation. To Emphasise the importance of Geo-Structural Mapping of individual granite deposits. Terrane wise deposit characterization of black granite dyke swarms in TamilNadu . To m inimise the Quarry failures with technical characteristics. To advice on increasing the recovery percentage in quarries. Environmental Management Plan. Granite quarry waste management.

BACKGROUND INFORMATION ABOUT COMMERCIAL GRANITES:

BACKGROUND INFORMATION ABOUT COMMERCIAL GRANITES All over the World, shield areas are the best geological entities where vast resources of granites and other rock types occur. Indian sub-continent also is a potential area for locating and exploiting such rock resources Though resource wise, the potential appears to be quite encouraging, it is always a buyers’ preference, which controls or even sometimes restricts the demand to certain types having special colour , texture, dimension, and amenability to take polish, mine ability etc. Commercial nomenclatures like “black granite” is widely used for basic and ultramafic rocks in general and “Multi coloured Granite is used for a variety of rocks of granite family, anorthosite , syenite , leptynite etc., Atleast more than 200 attractive commercial names have been assigned to various rock types in the world marked to-day, out of which atleast 80 types can be identified to occur in India alone.

BACKGROUND INFORMATION ABOUT COMMERCIAL GRANITES:

BACKGROUND INFORMATION ABOUT COMMERCIAL GRANITES Black granite is the commercial term widely used for basic rocks in geological terminology. A dominant common rock type of the basic rock is dolerite dyke It occurs generally in the form of dykes running from several kilometers in length with width range from less than a meter to even 80 meters and more. Muti-coloured granites depending on the flow pattern, features related to injection, mixing and assimilation of the surrounding country rocks, structural style etc. they assume sometimes typical but natural colour variation and attractive patterns and enjoy preferential demand in the world market to assume the status of premium varieties . Indian export of granites stands around Rs14,000 crores including its finished products like Slabs, Monuments etc.,

NATURE OF GRANITE QUARRIES:

NATURE OF GRANITE QUARRIES Above Ground Below Ground

DIMENSION STONE BLOCKS:

DIMENSION STONE BLOCKS Gang saw blocks for Slabs Small blocks for monuments

STATE OF THE ART IN QUARRYING- DIAMOND WIRE CUTTING OF GRANITE MASS:

STATE OF THE ART IN QUARRYING- DIAMOND WIRE CUTTING OF GRANITE MASS

A STATE OF THE ART IN QUARRYING:

A STATE OF THE ART IN QUARRYING USE OF AIR SACKS TO PULL THE MASS DOWN Mass planning to recover blocks after omitting the natural defects

PRE-SPLITTING TECHNIQUES:

PRE-SPLITTING TECHNIQUES Secondary drilling on the mass Pouring Expansive mortar in the holes for splitting without using Explosives

DISC SAW CUTTING OF GRANITE SHEET FORMATION:

DISC SAW CUTTING OF GRANITE SHEET FORMATION

LINE DRILLING TO SPLIT THE BLOCKS:

LINE DRILLING TO SPLIT THE BLOCKS

VIEW OF A GRANITE QUARRY:

VIEW OF A GRANITE QUARRY

GRANITE BLOCKS IN A PLANT:

GRANITE BLOCKS IN A PLANT

GRANITE PROCESSING PLANT STATIONERY WIRE SAW:

GRANITE PROCESSING PLANT STATIONERY WIRE SAW

GRANITE PROCESSING PLANT :

GRANITE PROCESSING PLANT MULTI BLADE CUTTER MACHINE FOR TILES GANG SAW MACHINE TO PROCESS SLABS

GRANITE FINISHED PRODUCTS-SLABS:

GRANITE FINISHED PRODUCTS-SLABS

GRANITE FINISHED PRODUCTS-MONUMENTS:

GRANITE FINISHED PRODUCTS-MONUMENTS

ENGINEERED STONE FACTORY -RAW MATERIAL-QUARTZ:

ENGINEERED STONE FACTORY -RAW MATERIAL-QUARTZ

PART-3:

PART-3 GEOLOGICAL ASPECTS ABOUT COMMERCIAL GRANITES

GEOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF COMMERCIAL GRANITES:

GEOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF COMMERCIAL GRANITES Though resource wise the potential for commercial granites including the black granites is unlimited, its exploitation is restricted by market preference besides geological factors and as a result the failure rate of quarry operations is also quite high. Recovery in the quarries are quite low say less than 10% in black granite quarries and around 15 to 20% in multi-coloured quarries and in this context the geological factors like petrological and structural style of the formation play a dominant role. Regional geology and its tectonic style have a bearing on the individual quarries and its recovery. Therefore, the role of a GEOLOGIST with good hard rock mapping experience can help the quarry owners in minimising its failures as well as in identifying the potential pockets within the deposit to increase its recovery in quarry operations.

OCCURRENCE OF COMMERCIAL GRANITE DEPOSITS WITHIN SOUTHERN PENINSULAR INDIA:

OCCURRENCE OF COMMERCIAL GRANITE DEPOSITS WITHIN SOUTHERN PENINSULAR INDIA

BLACK GRANITE DYKE SWARMS OF TAMILNADU:

BLACK GRANITE DYKE SWARMS OF TAMILNADU

SELECTION CRITERIA OF GRANITE DEPOSITS FOR QUARRYING:

SELECTION CRITERIA OF GRANITE DEPOSITS FOR QUARRYING No granite deposit should be selected for exploitation unless each one of them is duly examined, evaluated and assessed under C ommercial and G eological angles . If any one of the above factors fail to qualify for selection, the deposit may not merit consideration for exploitation. In practice, most of the granite quarry owners fail to understand the technical reasons for the failure of their operation. Therefore, the selection criteria of a granite deposit for exploitation focus on the following : Marketing Aspects Geological Aspects

MARKETING CRITERIA:

MARKETING CRITERIA Buyer’s preference for the material is based mainly on its uniformity in design, colour and texture and the demand vares from country to country. In Japan and China black granite is having a steady demand since seventies. In respect of black granite, the material is classified as brown, blue and green bases depending on the shade it gives after polishing. Japanese buyers used to pay fancy prize for black granites viz., 1,500 USD/CBM for brownish black material such as Kunnam black and they call it as ‘Noble Black ’ used mainly for making Monuments/Memorials. Buyer’s preference for muti-coloured granites is mainly for exotic colours and design and its export prize is less than 600 USD/ Cbm and exported mainly as cutter and Gang saw blocks for making slabs and for European Monuments. Unique variety of Black Granite occurring in Chimakurthy belt in Prakasam district, Andhra Pradesh is most wanted material in China and its export prize is around 1100USD/CBM.

GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURES RELATED TO GRANITE QUARRY OPERATIONS:

GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURES RELATED TO GRANITE QUARRY OPERATIONS FAVOURABLE STRUCTURE-SHEET JOINTS

Unfavourable Geological Structures:

Unfavourable Geological Structures

Close Spaced Joints:

Close Spaced Joints

FAULTS ALONG DYKE:

FAULTS ALONG DYKE

Disastrous Geological Structures:

Disastrous Geological Structures

Sheared Dyke:

Sheared Dyke

IMPACT OF STRUCTURAL ARCHITECTURE WITHIN GRANITE DEPOSITS:

IMPACT OF STRUCTURAL ARCHITECTURE WITHIN GRANITE DEPOSITS The structural architecture of these dykes play a significant role in determining the economic viability of any quarry/prospect. Normal geological structures encountered in dykes are mainly the joints, faults, shear, later intrusions etc. Critical geo-structural mapping of the dyke demarcating the influence of these structural disturbances on the main sheet rock will be the key indicator or a basic tool to bring out the geometry of the deposit. Regional geology combined with study of individual tectonic belt characteristics help to interpret the deposit more prudentially. Such detailed study helps to demarcate the defective and productive zones along its length besides on quality of the material and will be the basic document for the investors to plan for deployment of expensive capital mining equipment and on methods of working, keeping in mind the development and production components.

IMPORTANCE OF GEO-STRUCTURAL MAP:

IMPORTANCE OF GEO-STRUCTURAL MAP

BLACK GALAXY BELT CHIMAKURTHY, ANDHRA PRADESH The occurrence of black galaxy deposit(bronzite gabbro) within the Chimakurthy layered complex is unique in the world considering its limited area (5 sq.km) of its occurrence and massiveness of quarry operation within the belt. :

BLACK GALAXY BELT CHIMAKURTHY, ANDHRA PRADESH The occurrence of black galaxy deposit( bronzite gabbro) within the C himakurthy layered complex is unique in the world considering its limited area (5 sq.km) of its occurrence and massiveness of quarry operation within the belt.

BLACK GALAXY- BRONZITE GABBRO:

BLACK GALAXY- BRONZITE GABBRO Black Galaxy Block Black Galaxy Polished Slab

Impact of shear/ black band intrusions within the deposit in over all production in the quarry :

Impact of shear/ black band intrusions within the deposit in over all production in the quarry Adjoining zone to the intrusion of black bands/dykes within the deposit will show black lines/white lines or shear fractures and moles-. In some places the foliation planes exhibit tilting nature and as a result regular method of cutting of blocks will miss the galaxy plane. Better productive pockets within the quarry can be demarcated based on the displacement of black bands(Green boxes as shown in the above map) Inclination of the black bands at depth may give wrong prediction of production in the next level occurring just below the bench having better recovery.

Impact of shear/ black band intrusions within the deposit in over all production in the quarry :

Impact of shear/ black band intrusions within the deposit in over all production in the quarry Based on the disturbances in the quarry, the quality of the blocks do show background colour variation from dark to light besides the dissemination pattern of galaxy. All these factors decide on the price and marketing potential . Based on the behavior of these black bands within the quarry one can prognosticate the production every month while the quarry is advancing systematically duly considering the better and defective zones . Therefore, it is a thumb rule within this Galaxy belt the Mass excavation(ROM) in a month is the deciding factor on the production achievement.

Impact of shear/ black band intrusions within the deposit in over all production :

Impact of shear/ black band intrusions within the deposit in over all production DYKE EMPLACEMENT AS SEEN ON THE SURFACE OF THE QUARRY WIDTH OF A DYKE/BLACK BAND IN THE QUARRY

Impact of shear/ black band intrusions within the deposit in over all production:

Impact of shear/ black band intrusions within the deposit in over all production WHITE PATCHES/LINES AS SEEN ALONG SUCH DISTURBED ZONES BLACK LINES ALONG SHEAR ZONES

DYKE SWARMS OF TAMILNADU:

DYKE SWARMS OF TAMILNADU

PART-4:

PART-4 TERRANE WISE IMPACT OF MESO-PROTEROZOIC DYKE SWARMS OF TAMILNADU

GEOLOGICAL MAP OF TAMILNADU:

GEOLOGICAL MAP OF TAMILNADU

DYKE SWARMS OF TAMILNADU:

DYKE SWARMS OF TAMILNADU

ORIENTATION OF DYKES AND ITS AGE DATA:

ORIENTATION OF DYKES AND ITS AGE DATA The dyke swarms in TamilNadu are confined to the northern part of C auvery river and have definite relationship to the post tectonic history of the terrane. Mafic dykes are the key geodynamic indicators and represent proxies to study the mantle evolution, large igneous provinces, extensional tectonics and supercontinent cycles. The magmatic liquids of intermediate composition are emplaced, along the major lineaments, fault planes, shear planes etc., which explains for the long and liner nature of the dykes . Atleast two major sets of dykes dominate in TamilNadu and are WNW-ESE AND NE-SW/NW-SE directions. WNW-ESE dykes are older and NE-SW/N-S dykes are younger. We have data age data for WNW-ESE dykes in the range of 1700-1600 million years . The N-S dykes occur in Andhra Pradesh in Chittoor district do show 1100-1000 million years. In Sankari dome, some minor dykes of olivine basaltic composition are younger to 500 million years probably representing the Cretaceous system.

TECTONIC BLOCKS OF TAMILNADU:

TECTONIC BLOCKS OF TAMILNADU

Commercial signatures of these dykes in each of the Terranes. :

Commercial signatures of these dykes in each of the Terranes. Commercial Value of Black Granites enhances or lowers in each of the Terranes it Transacts. West to East or Near Cauvery Lineament. Variation includes on background colour either brown, blue, greenish base. Doleritic to Gabbroic and basaltic variations. Recovery factor varies from 3-10% Variation in Success and Failure rate in each of the Terranes.

MAFIC DYKES IN CHITTOOR TERRANE:

MAFIC DYKES IN CHITTOOR TERRANE Consists of parts of Kanchipuram and Tiruvallur Districts. Adjoining Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh also fall within this terrane. Dykes trend mainly along WNW-ESE direction and is gabbroic in nature. Predominant rock type is Sholingur granite/ migmatites .

Commercial Signatures-Chittoor Terrane:

Commercial Signatures-Chittoor Terrane Failure rate is high due to shear fractures and colour variations. Recovery ranges between 3-5% Mostly Gabbroic in nature(Regal Black) Selling price is low.

ARCOT TERRANE:

ARCOT TERRANE Consists of Villupuram , Tiruvannamalai and Vellore districts. Predominantly dykes trend along WNW-ESE direction and are doleritic in composition with brown base. Quarries are mostly below ground Country rock predominantly the C harnockite group of rocks besides Gingee Migmatites .

Commercial Signatures-ARCOT Terrane:

Commercial Signatures-ARCOT Terrane This is the main belt having premium variety Dolerite dykes with brown base. Recovery ranges between 3-5% Failure rate is high due to shears and faults. Demand is quite high and price is attractive. The world famous Kunnam dykes fall in this belt.

GEO-STRUCTURAL MAP OF A BLACK GRANITE QUARRY IN KUNNAM BELT, VILLUPURAM DISTRICT, TAMILNADU.:

GEO-STRUCTURAL MAP OF A BLACK GRANITE QUARRY IN KUNNAM BELT, VILLUPURAM DISTRICT, TAMILNADU.

ARCOT TERRANE- DOLERITE DYKES:

ARCOT TERRANE- DOLERITE DYKES

ARCOT TERRANE:

ARCOT TERRANE

DHRMAPURI SUTURE RIFT ZONE(DSRZ):

DHRMAPURI SUTURE RIFT ZONE(DSRZ) Covers mostly the Composite Dharmapuri district. Rock types mainly include Charnockite / migmatite intruded by syenite carbonotite plutons. Dykes trend along WNW-ESE direction and Green and grey lines permeate along shear zones of the dyke. Quarries are mostly above ground deposits.

A SIMPLIFIED GEOLOGICAL MAP OF COMPOSITE DHARMAPURI DISTRICT:

A SIMPLIFIED GEOLOGICAL MAP OF COMPOSITE DHARMAPURI DISTRICT

Impact of alkaline MAGMATIC activity within THE black granite dyke swarms THAT transect through the DSRZ and adjoining Tectonic Terranes: :

Impact of alkaline MAGMATIC activity within THE black granite dyke swarms THAT transect through the DSRZ and adjoining Tectonic Terranes: The spatial disposition of NE-SW oriented three major syenite plutons of 757 Ma age viz. Elagiri , Koratti and Samalpatti and the cluster of black granite quarries(1750Ma) located to the south within the DRSZ and in the adjoining tectonic terranes namely KKT and AT have been highlighted in the Geological Sketch Map down below to study the influence of the alkaline activity within the black granite quarry clusters.

Impact of alkaline MAGMATIC activity within THE black granite dyke swarms THAT transect through the DSRZ and adjoining Tectonic Terranes: :

Impact of alkaline MAGMATIC activity within THE black granite dyke swarms THAT transect through the DSRZ and adjoining Tectonic Terranes: This factor has a strong bearing on the ultimate recovery of granite blocks besides deciding the future of quarry operations . Normally , the black granite dykes are subjected to lateral deformations in all the tectonic belts but the degree of deformations vary from to one to another. Shearing is mainly related to the regional structural phenomena and faulting both sinistral and dextral shifts are widely seen when we carry out strike mapping of the deposit. As a result, crushing of the material associated with impregnations of quartz or feldspar veins along such fault zones besides development of silicansides , mylonites and psedo-tachylites mark the intensity of regional tectonic disturbance . In some places, development of epidote veins mainly along the fault and shear zones can be seen.

IMPACT OF ALKALINE MAGMATISM WITHIN THE BG QUARRIES IN DSRZ:

IMPACT OF ALKALINE MAGMATISM WITHIN THE BG QUARRIES IN DSRZ

Commercial Signatures- Dharmapuri Suture Rift Zone:

Commercial Signatures- Dharmapuri Suture Rift Zone Green/grey lines restrict the size of the blocks. Shear fractures dominate . Recovery ranges between 3-5% Failure rate is moderate. Selling price moderate .

KRISHNAGIRI TERRANE:

KRISHNAGIRI TERRANE Covers mainly Krishnagiri-Hosur belt. Rock types mainly include Peninsular gneiss/ Paradiso. Dykes trend mainly along WNW-ESE direction and at places NNW-SSE dykes intersect the former. Coarse grained/ Gabbroic in nature.

KRISHNAGIRI TERRANE:

KRISHNAGIRI TERRANE

MOYAR- BHAVANI-ATTUR/NOYIL- CAUVERY LINEAMENTS:

MOYAR- BHAVANI-ATTUR/NOYIL- CAUVERY LINEAMENTS Covers the districts north of Cauvery Lineament ( Tiruchirapalli - Perambalur - Namakkal - Salem). Rock types maily include Charnockite - gneisses. Dykes of NE-SW outnumber NW-SE/WNW-ESE trending dykes mainly in Attur Valley. NNW-SSE trending dykes especially in Perambalur district are fine grained and reactivated along E-W direction parallel to Cauvery lineament.

MOYAR- BHAVANI-ATTUR/NOYIL- CAUVERY LINEAMENTS:

MOYAR- BHAVANI-ATTUR/NOYIL- CAUVERY LINEAMENTS

PART-5:

PART-5 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF GRANITE QUARRIES

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF GRANITE QUARRY CLUSTERS:

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF GRANITE QUARRY CLUSTERS With increase in export and local demand for granite varieties like black, black galaxy and other unique multi-coloured granite varieties, quarries are spread across widely. Environmental impact within these clusters are quite severe due to low recovery followed by dumping of huge quantity of granite wastes, high quarry failure rate result in abandonment of quarries causing permanent Land Degradation. In view of the fact, it is mandatory to obtain the Environmental Clearance before operation of quarries. .

ACCUMULATION OF GRANITE WASTE IN QUARRY FRONTS:

ACCUMULATION OF GRANITE WASTE IN QUARRY FRONTS

PART-6:

PART-6 GRANITE QUARRY WASTE MANAGEMENT PLAN

WASTE GENERATION IN GRANITE QUARRIES:

WASTE GENERATION IN GRANITE QUARRIES Geological and Tectonic factors mainly determine the poor recovery in each of the quarries . Physiographic factors like above and below ground granite deposits . Failure of quarries due to non- recovery of blocks within major shear, fault, intrusive zones . Variations of grain, texture and colour within the granite deposits . Method of working.  

PREVENTION OF UNNECESSARY GENERATION OF WASTES :

PREVENTION OF UNNECESSARY GENERATION OF WASTES The problem of unnecessary generation of wastes in individual Dimension stone quarries commence right from unscientific selection of granite deposits for operation. Duly understanding the basic parameters of Regional Geology/tectonics and by carrying out a detailed geo-structural of mapping of the site to differentiate the defective and promising pockets within the area under consideration. This task can be achieved only by an experienced Geologist with background knowledge of structural mapping combined with in depth exposure to the quarrying aspects.

WASTE MANAGEMENT:

WASTE MANAGEMENT Grant of granite quarry leases are governed by Minor Mineral Concession Rules of individual States besides by Granite Conservation and Development Rules 1999(GCDR ). Each State has its own rules in respect of waste disposal and it is a major constraint in handling/clearing the huge waste accumulated over the decades. Rules must be liberalized for its effective management duly considering its environmental hazards and its effective utilization mainly in construction industry.

VALUE ADDED PRODUCTS OUT OF GRANITE WASTES:

VALUE ADDED PRODUCTS OUT OF GRANITE WASTES Black granite dumps quarried in nineties are considered now as a major wealth, considering the demand in Monument Industry especially for making small monuments of UK etc., For making Cobble and Kerb stones both for local and export market. Granite wastes can be effectively and more prudentialy used for producing Aggregates and Manufactured Sand (M Sand) as a replacement to River sand which is in great demand in construction industry. In this context, it is relevant to mention that in China, the quarries are operated on a much more larger scale and hardly we find any such huge granite waste dumps in those belts since because, they utilize these wastes till its end product of crushing and grinding for use in construction industry. Unless such liberalization is allowed in India, the we cannot really reap the major benefits derived out of it.

GRANITE WASTE MANAGEMENT-AGGREGATES & M SAND:

GRANITE WASTE MANAGEMENT-AGGREGATES & M SAND

GRANITE WASTE MANAGEMENT- :

GRANITE WASTE MANAGEMENT-

WASTE MANAGEMENT- SOCIETAL RELEVANCE – USE AS RIP RAPS/GROYNES TO PREVENT COASTAL EROSION.:

WASTE MANAGEMENT- SOCIETAL RELEVANCE – USE AS RIP RAPS/GROYNES TO PREVENT COASTAL EROSION .

SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL IN ABANDONED STONE QUARRIES:

SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL IN ABANDONED STONE QUARRIES Abandoned stone quarries within and outskirts of urban agglomerations are ideal landfill sites to dump municipal solid wastes. The quarries approved for dumping should be hard rock and dry and not reached depth below water table in the area. The natural joints present both on the floor and side walls of the quarries to be thoroughly examined and sealed with cement by grouting so that the leachates of the waste do not pollute the ground water and to be periodically monitored in the adjoining bore wells.

PART-7:

PART-7 CONCLUSION

CONCLUSION:

CONCLUSION The value of Dimension stone granite deposits occurring within the Southern India hitherto unknown to many was made known to the World by the Mentors of the Granite Industry during late sixties itself. Today its value has been well understood in the global market and considered that India is one of the potential sources for decorative stones to meet their ever increasing demand. Granite Industry is not only generates foreign exchange to the tune of around Rs14,000 crores but also generates huge employment in the rural sector.

CONCLUSION:

CONCLUSION Highlight of the presentation is to understand the importance of the geological formations, terrane wise and severity of its structural damage in an area considered for exploitation to minimise quarry failures due to poor recovery etc., The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and its corresponding Environmental Management Plan(EMP) are integral part in sustaining the operations without any hurdle in future.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT:

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The speaker acknowledges the O rganisers of this Webinar in particular Dr.Gowtham , HOD and Mr.Charles Dhana , GL, Department of Geology, Presidency College, Chennai, for sharing our experience in this platform with the student community during this lockdown COVID-19 period. This is a Great effort for wide dissemination of knowledge in the respective fields of Geology by the eminent speakers. The Great efforts of the Granite Industrialists in promoting at every stage is gratefully acknowledged. But for them the granite can be considered only as a building material losing its merits as a value added Ornamental Stone in the Global Market.

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