PPT- EIA for Granite Quarries - BK

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Environment Impact and Management plan for Granite Quarries

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THE HOLISTIC ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR COMMERCIAL GRANITE BELTS OF SOUTHERN GRANULITE TERRANE, INDIA:

THE HOLISTIC ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR COMMERCIAL GRANITE BELTS OF SOUTHERN GRANULITE TERRANE, INDIA B,KANISHKAN Research Scholar & Dr.R.SIVAKUMAR Associate Professor, Presidency College Chennai.

BACKGROUND INFORMATION :

BACKGROUND INFORMATION Granite is the major crustal rock occurring in the Pre- cambrian terrains and is the major source for locating sulphide mineral etc. During late sixties the importance of these granites has been identified as a source for ornamental stone in the Construction industry. Now that the industry has grown leaps and bounds to cater to the needs of the modern buildings /monuments world over. Southern Granulite terrain of India is considered as the treasure trove for occurrence of these granite varieties with exotic colours the world looking for.

GEOLOGICAL MAP OF SOUTHERN GRANULITE TERRANE(SGT):

GEOLOGICAL MAP OF SOUTHERN GRANULITE TERRANE(SGT)

SOUTHREN GRANULITE TERRANE(SGT):

SOUTHREN GRANULITE TERRANE(SGT) Southern Granulite Terrane(SGT), which hosts varied lithology of high grade rocks like Charnockite , Khondalites and other granulite facies metamorphic rocks with granitic intrusions . The SGT is believed to be of lower crustal origin through complex evolutionary history with multiple deformations, anataxis, intrusions and polyphase metamorphic events . More than 80% of the terrane is covered by Archaean and Proterozoic age groups which include younger granulites , granites, alkali syenites , carbonatites, mafic and ultramafic intrusives .

SOUTHREN GRANULITE TERRANE(SGT):

SOUTHREN GRANULITE TERRANE(SGT) Commercial Granite Varieties of SGT covering parts of Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, TamilNadu and Kerala States are known world over for more than four decades and is considered as a major Treasure trove for Indian Granites. Southern Granulite belt is endowed with a spectrum of commercial granite varieties mainly the black (Dolerite) and multi-coloured ones.

BACK GROUND INFORMATION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION:

BACK GROUND INFORMATION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION With increasing export and local demand for granite varieties like black, black galaxy and other unique multi-coloured granite occurrences spread across south India. Several commercial granite quarry hubs have come in to prominence like the Chimakurthy black galaxy belt of Andhra Pradesh, Mafic dyke belt of northern part of TamilNadu , Paradiso belt of Krishnagiri , Kashmir White belt of Madurai etc., As a result, clusters of quarries are in operation in such identified belts .

AN ABOVE GROUND GRANITE QUARRY:

AN ABOVE GROUND GRANITE QUARRY

A BELOW GROUND GRANITE QUARRY-CHIMAKURTHY BLACK GALAXY QUARRY:

A BELOW GROUND GRANITE QUARRY-CHIMAKURTHY BLACK GALAXY QUARRY

DIMENSION GRANITE BLOCKS:

DIMENSION GRANITE BLOCKS GANG SAW BLOCKS FOR SLABS BLOCKS FOR MAKING MONUMENTS

GRANITE PRODUCTS:

GRANITE PRODUCTS SLABS MONUMENTS

REASONS FOR POOR RECOVERY IN GRANITE QUARRIES AND HUGE WASTE GENERATION AND FAILURE OF QUARRY OPERATIONS:

REASONS FOR POOR RECOVERY IN GRANITE QUARRIES AND HUGE WASTE GENERATION AND FAILURE OF QUARRY OPERATIONS Recovery of blocks in Granite Quarries whether black or multi-coloured is a major problem in operation besides sustaining its future. Basic reasons for high failure rate in granite quarry operation is due UNSCIENTIFIC METHOD of selection of areas/deposit for quarrying with out considering the regional tectonic /geological factors of each Terrane where they operate. In general, the average recovery in black granite(dolerite); black galaxy; other muti-coloured quarries in SGT ranges between 3 and 20% only. Rest of the mass is considered as Waste rock and is the main problem in dumping in quarry fronts and causing major environment impact within the clusters of operation.

Geological structures are the causative factors for huge waste generation in granite quarries:

Geological structures are the causative factors for huge waste generation in granite quarries Geological structures like faults, folds, shears etc which are intercepted in quarries are the major contributors for poor recovery as well as failures of operation. Ultimately the quarries are abandoned and result in major environmental land degradation within the belt. Such geological structures can be inferred well before by Geo-structural mapping of the deposit and facilitation of production prognostication in the quarry.

Unfavourable Geological Structures:

Unfavourable Geological Structures

Geological structures are the causative factors for waste generation in granite quarries:

Geological structures are the causative factors for waste generation in granite quarries Shear Fractures Fragmentation due to shear effects

Geological structures are the causative factors for waste generation in granite quarries:

Geological structures are the causative factors for waste generation in granite quarries Criss – Cross Fractures Sheared outcrops

Geological structures are the causative factors for waste generation in granite quarries:

Geological structures are the causative factors for waste generation in granite quarries

ACCUMULATION OF GRANITE WASTE IN QUARRY FRONTS:

ACCUMULATION OF GRANITE WASTE IN QUARRY FRONTS

METHODS TO MINIMISE GENERATION OF GRANITE WASTES IN GRANITE BELTS.:

METHODS TO MINIMISE GENERATION OF GRANITE WASTES IN GRANITE BELTS . Quarry failures and environmental land degradations can be minimized by understanding the geometry of each deposits falling in respective Terranes of SGT which are unique. In this context preparation of Geo-Structural map of each deposit becomes mandatory. Adoption of State of the Art Mining Techniques to increase recovery percentage as well to minimize generation of waste. Prudent use of huge quantity of wastes to prevent coastal erosion, Use as to make Manufactured Sand as a replacement for River sand in Construction industry and value added products like artefacts etc.,

Dyke Swarms of TamilNadu:

Dyke Swarms of TamilNadu

Geo-Structural Map of a black granite deposit :

Geo-Structural Map of a black granite deposit

State of the Art Quarrying in China:

State of the Art Quarrying in China

Manufactured Sand out of Granite quarry waste:

Manufactured Sand out of Granite quarry waste

QUARRY WATER AS AN ALTERNATE TO SUPPLY DRINKING WATER:

QUARRY WATER AS AN ALTERNATE TO SUPPLY DRINKING WATER Due to deficit rainfall the water reservoirs in Chennai city are nearly empty. Anticipating this situation, Metro water explored the possibility of using the stored rain water in the abandoned quarries around the city . Initially the twenty two quarries at Sikkarayapuram near Mangadu in Kanchipuram district were taken up for feasibility studies . The various tests were conducted to ascertain the quality of the stagnant rain water stored in these deep stone quarries. The tests were conducted by experts from King Institute, Centre for Environmental studies and Geological department Anna University.

WATER PUMPING FROM ABANDONED QUARRY NEAR CHENNAI:

WATER PUMPING FROM ABANDONED QUARRY NEAR CHENNAI

SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL IN ABANDONED STONE QUARRIES:

SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL IN ABANDONED STONE QUARRIES Abandoned stone quarries within and outskirts of urban agglomerations are ideal landfill sites to dump municipal solid wastes. The quarries approved for dumping should be hard rock and dry and not reached depth below water table in the area. The natural joints present both on the floor and side walls of the quarries to be thoroughly examined and sealed with cement by grouting so that the leachates of the waste do not pollute the ground water and to be periodically monitored in the adjoining bore wells.

CONCLUSION:

CONCLUSION Commercial granite quarries spread over major SGT belts cause major Environmental Impact by way of Land degradation, piling of wastes near quarry fronts, damage to agricultural lands etc., Preparation of Environmental Management Plan(EMP) for each of these quarries now become mandatory for obtaining Environmental Clearance and for periodical monitoring. EMP recommends for scientific selection of quarries to minimise failures, maximise recovery and minimise generation of wastes besides suggesting the methods for best use for constructive purposes.

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